CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 548

_id caadria2005_a_2b_c
id caadria2005_a_2b_c
authors Chiu-Shui Chan, Chien-Hui Weng
year 2005
title How Real Is the Sense of Presence in A Virtual Environment? : Applying Protocol Analysis for Data Collection
source CAADRIA 2005 [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] New Delhi (India) 28-30 April 2005, vol. 1, pp. 188-197
summary This study attempts to investigate the sense of presence in a fully immersive virtual environment. The methodology applied in this study used protocol analysis for data collection. A preliminary experiment was conducted to explore noticeable phenomena to develop a hypothesis for the final experiments. Four different virtual reality models, representing four different kinds of virtual space, were navigated in C6 (CAVE facilities) by two human subjects. Results of the research in this direction have provided valuable understanding regarding the sense of presence in the virtual environment.
series CAADRIA
email cschan@iastate.edu, chien@arch.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/04/30 01:30

_id d2a9
id d2a9
authors PAPADIMITRIOU Kimon, KOUZELEAS Stelios
year 2005
title A METHOD FOR REAL TIME SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF SOUND VIA MODELING IN A CAD ENVIRONMENT, BASED ON ACOUSTICAL MEASUREMENTS
source 14th European Colloquium on Theoretical and Quantitative Geography,September 9-13, 2005, Tomar, Portugal
summary Typical modeling systems for spatial analysis employ data that represent the visual part of a landscape (e.g. relief and morphology), combined with other data about specific attributes (depending on the aims of an application). Thus, in a modeling environment, each place is described by a variety of properties that are not always visible. More of those “hidden” properties require special sensors and/or instruments to be captured and sometimes make their presence evident through human senses, such is sound. The present study takes advantage of wide spread technologies (such as GPS, VHF telecommunications and field sensors) and methodologies that are commonly used in telegeoprocessing – telegeomonitoring in order to simulate an existing acoustic environment. The aim is to acquire real time data about the sound (referenced to a particular area) and manipulate them in a CAD environment with purpose to visualize the sound influence in a specific landscape. Specifically it is proposed a method that transfers spatial data (collected from the field), directly into a modeling system (in the office, or in situ). In sequence the data is processed adequately to feed the modeling system that describes the current sound intensity of a place.
keywords Environmental Simulation, Soundscape, Real-time data acquisition, Real-time 3D modeling
series other
type normal paper
email stelios_kouzeleas@yahoo.fr
more http://e-geo.fcsh.unl.pt/ectqg2005/
last changed 2005/10/25 09:10

_id cf2011_p135
id cf2011_p135
authors Chen Rui, Irene; Schnabel Marc Aurel
year 2011
title Multi-touch - the future of design interaction
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 557-572.
summary The next major revolution for design is to bring the natural user interaction into design activities. Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) brought a new approach that was more effective compared to their conventional predecessors. In recent years, Natural User Interfaces (NUI) have advanced user experiences and multi-touch and gesture technologies provide new opportunities for a variety of potential uses in design. Much attention has been paid to leverage in the design of interactive interfaces. The mouse input and desktop screen metaphors limit the information sharing for multiple users and also delayed the direct interaction for communication between each other. This paper proposes the innovative method by integrating game engine ‘Unity3D’ with multi-touch tangible interfaces. Unity3D provides a game development tool as part of its application package that has been designed to let users to focus on creating new games. However, it does not limit the usage of area to design additional game scenarios since the benefits of Unity3D is allowing users to build 3D environments with its customizable and easy to use editor, graphical pipelines to openGL (http://unity3d.com/, 2010 ). It creates Virtual Reality (VR) environments which can simulates places in the real world, as well as the virtual environments helping architects and designers to vividly represent their design concepts through 3D visualizations, and interactive media installations in a detailed multi-sensory experience. Stereoscopic displays advanced their spatial ability while solving issues to design e.g. urban spaces. The paper presents how a multi-touch tabletop can be used for these design collaboration and communication tasks. By using natural gestures, designers can now communicate and share their ideas by manipulating the same reference simultaneously using their own input simultaneously. Further studies showed that 3Dl forms are perceived and understood more readily through haptic and proprioceptive perception of tangible representations than through visual representation alone (Gillet et al, 2005). Based on the authors’ framework presented at the last CAADFutures, the benefits of integrating 3D visualization and tactile sensory can be illustrated in this platform (Chen and Wang, 2009), For instance, more than one designer can manipulate the 3D geometry objects on tabletop directly and can communicate successfully their ideas freely without having to waiting for the next person response. It made the work more effective which increases the overall efficiency. Designers can also collect the real-time data by any change they make instantly. The possibilities of Uniy3D make designing very flexible and fun, it is deeply engaging and expressive. Furthermore, the unity3D is revolutionizing the game development industry, its breakthrough development platform for creating highly interactive 3D content on the web (http://unity3d.com/ , 2010) or similar to the interface of modern multimedia devices such as the iPhone, therefore it allows the designers to work remotely in a collaborative way to integrate the design process by using the individual mobile devices while interacting design in a common platform. In design activities, people create an external representation of a domain, often of their own ideas and understanding. This platform helps learners to make their ideas concrete and explicit, and once externalized, subsequently they reflect upon their work how well it sits the real situation. The paper demonstrates how this tabletop innovatively replaces the typical desktop metaphor. In summary, the paper addresses two major issues through samples of collaborative design: firstly presenting aspects of learners’ interactions with physical objects, whereby tangible interfaces enables them constructing expressive representations passively (Marshall, 2007), while focussing on other tasks; and secondly showing how this novel design tool allows designers to actively create constructions that might not be possible with conventional media.
keywords Multi-touch tabletop, Tangible User Interface
series CAAD Futures
email rui.chen@sydney.edu.au
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id caadria2005_b_3c_f
id caadria2005_b_3c_f
authors Kai-Ming Yang
year 2005
title A bodily user interface for VR-CAVE
source CAADRIA 2005 [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] New Delhi (India) 28-30 April 2005, vol. 2, pp. 129-135
summary The main purpose of this research is to explore how body movement can increase user’s sense of presence in the virtual reality cave (VR-CAVE). Traditionally, in architectural applications, there is no interaction between users and VR-CAVE. Visual perception is the major way of presentation. The users feel certain level of sense of presence. Therefore, in order to increase user’s sense of presence, we designed a bodily user interface as our controller which utilized user’s body movement to interact with VR. The contribution is that not only a user can easily or effortlessly control and navigate VR space but also VR navigation will directly link to the experience of walking in a physical space, which provides strong sense of presence to user.
series CAADRIA
email zyca@arch.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/04/30 01:30

_id 2006_566
id 2006_566
authors Rafi, Ahmad; Mohamad Izani Zainal Abidin; Avijit Paul and Aishah Abdul Razak
year 2006
title Simulation of architectural lighting in a virtual environment - A case study on real and fake High Dynamic Range Images (HDRI)
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 566-572
summary The early findings of this research were presented in eCAADe 2005 International Conference, Lisbon primarily to highlight the concept of High Dynamic Range Images (HDRI) when representing architectural spaces in the form of still images. An experiment had been carried out to compare the results between HDRI rendering and ‘conventional’ lighting simulation algorithms namely ray tracing and radiosity. The results were based on static and using the same exposure factors, when capturing HDRI. This project, funded by Intensification Research Priority Area (IRPA) grant continues to present and report HDRI results in a simulation environment. In this paper, we first briefly explain on the concept of real and fake HDRI. Then a comparison experiment is conducted to compare these two methods and discuss the impact and effectiveness of the illumination computation in architectural simulation environment. In order to carry out the experiment, a few models of the architectural scenes were developed. These models were then textured with real photos and manipulated with ‘shaders’, and further rendered using fake and real HDRI techniques. As for the fake HDRI, two methods were developed. The first was using an image as the ambient map and different exposures were created by increasing the value of Hue, V of HSV and saturation. The second involved a series of digital photos with the selection of the brightest and darkest area using Adobe Photoshop to establish the scale of luminosity. A few camera movements were triggered and position for ‘real-time’ rendering simulation. The result of the experiment has shown a significant improvement on the rendering time and quality of the rendering. Finally this paper suggests the selection criteria for choosing real and fake HDRI, and how each technique can be best utilized for architectural representations in a simulation environment.
keywords HDRI; simulation; Real HDRI;Fake HDRI; illumination computation
series eCAADe
email ahmadrafi.eshaq@mmu.edu.my
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id cf2005_1_63_131
id cf2005_1_63_131
authors YAN Wei and KALAY Yehuda
year 2005
title Simulating Human Behaviour in Built Environments
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2005 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 1-4020-3460-1] Vienna (Austria) 20–22 June 2005, pp. 301-310
summary This paper addresses the problem of predicting and evaluating the impacts of the built environment on its human inhabitants. It presents a simulation system comprising a usability-based building model and an agent-based virtual user model. The building model represents both geometric information and usability properties of design elements, and is generated automatically from a standard CAD model. Virtual users are modelled as autonomous agents that emulate the appearance, perception, social traits and physical behaviour of real users (walking, sitting, meeting other virtual users, etc.). Their behaviour model is based upon theoretical and practical environment-behaviour studies, real world data from a field study, and Artificial Life research. By inserting the virtual users in the usability-enabled building model, and letting them “explore” it on their own volition, the system reveals the interrelationship between the environment and its users. The environment can then be modified, to see how different arrangements affect user behaviours.
keywords behaviour simulation, behaviour study, human modelling, building modelling
series CAAD Futures
email weiyan@berkeley.edu, kalay@socrates.Berkeley.EDU
last changed 2006/11/07 06:27

_id 55c9
id 55c9
authors Yehuda Kalay, Gokce Kinayoglu, Seung Wook Kim
year 2005
title Spatio-Temporally Navigable Representation and Communication of Urban Cultural Heritage
source Proceedings: VSMM 2005 International Conference on Virtual Systems and Multimedia
summary Virtual environments are effective tools for the representation and communication of cultural heritage. We suggest that an interactive, immersive and dynamic navigation of the virtual representation of the urban environment will not only convey the essence of the culture and the changes it underwent in a more comprehensible manner, but will engender a 'sense of place'—genius loci— in the visitors. This cognitive mode will help them learn about much more than the geometry and materiality of the city: it will make them 'feel' part of the event itself. By presenting a socially shareable experience, we aim to introduce the medium the character of a genuine place, and make it a social venue for active exploration, discussion and interaction.

Virtual reality surpasses both traditional media and 3D-models and offers what they cannot. The affordances of the medium, however, also have the potential to destroy the sense of place it strives to engender. It can do so by allowing a kind of ‘time travel,’ to different periods in the history of the site. This ability locates visitors not only spatially, but also temporally. Everyday experience helps us understand the meaning of spatial boundedness, but does not prepare us to deal with temporal boundedness: sensing the presence of fellow visitors at different times. In this paper we describe our experiences in producing spatio-temporally navigable virtual reconstructions of two distinct culturally significant historic sites: the neolithic village of Çatalhöyük, and the medieval city of Cairo. We demonstrate the use of spatio-temporal navigation through a dynamic, chronologically layered model that can be browsed by multiple users at the same time. Such a dynamic system for representing chronological architectural events requires the extension of our conception of place into the temporal domain. We introduce a new concept, temporal field of view (t-FOV) and discuss how it can aid us in resolving an intrinsic challenge introduced by the representation of the temporal dimension in virtual environments.

keywords Multi-User Virtual Environments (MUVE), Cairo, cultural heritage, temporal representation, timeline
series other
type normal paper
email gokce@berkeley.edu
last changed 2008/10/03 19:34

_id 2005_383
id 2005_383
authors Ebert, Oliver, Schoenemann, Patrick and Lenhart, Michael
year 2005
title Cityscape Computing System
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 383-389
summary The central feature of the project is the development of a computer and its interfaces to simulate urban space and, in the context of an intermedia city tour, to allow citizens to creatively influence their urban space by manipulating media structures at chosen points throughout the city. A master plan is set up to re-cultivate public spaces and points of architectural focus. The city reacts interactively to the commands. A dialog is created between user and public space. The tour route is an open structure which can be expanded at any time. Via interfaces the user activates a reaction in the real city by making changes to the virtual model. This results in a dynamic space, a communication based on the results of this transformation. The user interface allows an information transfer between real people and virtual space. Virtual reality then reacts to the input by transferring that information back to reality. The direct influence on the architecture is effected by a media-transformer. It projects an additional perception level on to reality while monitoring the data via various analysis interfaces.
keywords Interactive Urbanism; Media Installation; Human-Computer-Interaction
series eCAADe
email lenhart@architektur.uni-siegen.de
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id caadria2005_a_7c_f
id caadria2005_a_7c_f
authors M.N.H. Siddique, Qazi A. Mowla, Mohammad A. Al Masum
year 2005
title VIRTUALITY IN ARCHITECTURE: A DESIGN METAPHOR
source CAADRIA 2005 [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] New Delhi (India) 28-30 April 2005, vol. 1, pp. 342-350
summary Traditionally, architecture in its design process employs physical matter, requires physical presence and relies on real world environment using conventional methods of 2D depictions such as paper and pen or 3D representations such as physical models and communicates design ideas in verbal or text-based form. The conventional design process, for example an interior design, a residential house, a commercial complex or even urban design projects, follows the same hierarchy of activities. Efforts are made to the satisfaction of both parties to give the ideas of a physical shape through sketches, drafts and models which may take weeks even months. Finally the project gets its final shape in a working drawing, 3D visualisation or model making. This process is time consuming and somewhat redundant. In recent years technology has offered architects a new tool - the virtual environment. Architects use virtual environment increasingly as device of communication and presentation of design intensions. Virtual environment enables users to interact in real-time with design but unfortunately have not been used widely in the process of design development. The aim of this paper is to investigates the relationship between present design process and the emerging technology of virtual reality, establish a relationship between the two and its influence on architecture to form a new translated design process and communication, an interface between architect and client.
series CAADRIA
type normal paper
email NH.Siddique@ulster.ac.uk, qamawla@arch.buet.ac.bd, aalmasum@ntlworld.com
last changed 2005/04/30 01:46

_id cf2005_1_32_69
id cf2005_1_32_69
authors TAHRANI Souha, JALLOULI Jihen, MOREAU Guillaume and WOLOSZYN Philippe
year 2005
title Towards a Virtual Reality Tool for Lighting Communication and Analysis in Urban Environments
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2005 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 1-4020-3460-1] Vienna (Austria) 20–22 June 2005, pp. 115-124
summary The objective of this paper is to evaluate the use of virtual reality as a potential decision-making tool to cognitively evaluate urban daylighting ambiences. This paper evaluates the solar effects visual perception in a real urban path in comparison to a virtual urban path in order to extract the characteristics of these effects and use them to figure out the necessary conditions for generating a physical and sensitive phenomena simulation. The comparison is based on questionnaires and interviews with participants on their judgements on sunlight during their walk through the chosen path. Our results highlight the relation between perception and the context of the urban environment, and prove that -in spite of its limits- virtual reality is able to simulate a large part of real solar effects.
keywords virtual reality, 3D city modelling, environmental simulation, visual perception
series CAAD Futures
email souha.tahrani@cerma.archi.fr
last changed 2006/11/07 06:27

_id ecaade2011_122
id ecaade2011_122
authors Chronis, Angelos; Jagannath, Prarthana; Siskou, Vasiliki Aikaterini; Jones, Jonathan
year 2011
title Sensing digital co-presence and digital identity: Visualizing the Bluetooth landscape of the City of Bath
source RESPECTING FRAGILE PLACES [29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-9-4912070-1-3], University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture (Slovenia) 21-24 September 2011, pp.87-92
summary The impact of ubiquitous digital technologies on the analysis and synthesis of our urban environment is undoubtedly great. The urban topography is overlaid by an invisible, yet very tangible digital topography that is increasingly affecting our urban life. As W. J. Mitchell (Mitchell 2005) pointed out, the digital revolution has filled our world with “electronic instruments of displacement” that “embed the virtual in the physical, and weave it seamlessly into daily urban life”. The mobile phone, the most integrated mobile device is closely related to the notion of a digital identity, our personal identity on this digital space. The Bluetooth is the mainly used direct communication protocol between mobile phones today and in this scope, each device has its own unique ID, its “MAC address”. This paper investigates the potential use of recording and analysing Bluetooth enabled devices in the urban scale in understanding the interrelation between the physical and the digital topographies.
wos WOS:000335665500009
keywords Pervasive systems; digital presence; urban encounter; digital identity
series eCAADe
email angelos.chronis.09@ucl.ac.uk
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id 791f
id 791f
authors Stellingwerff, M. C.
year 2005
title VIRTUAL CONTEXT - INVESTIGATING THE CHARACTERISTICS AND OPPORTUNITIES OF DIGITAL VISUALISATION MEDIA FOR SITUATED APPROACHES TO ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN IN AN URBAN ENVIRONMENT
source Delft University Press
summary This research initiative addresses the issue of Design in relation to Virtual Context.

Central to this study are the innovative potentials and instrumental opportunities of computer based media techniques, capable of generating interactive models and changing perspectives for the benefit of urban and architectural design.

The ambition was to not only make a contribution to the existing body of knowledge concerning digital technologies and their applications, but explore theoretical conditions which might help define and stimulate further study.

From the outset, the focus was on furthering the opportunities for computer based representation media in creative design. On the basis of a series of explorative studies the subject of this research was targeted: the issue of Design in Context, or more specifically: Design(ing) in a Virtual Context.

During the process there was a marked shift in the conception of the subject from – more or less immersive – VR technologies in the direction of approaches which might be expected to become readily available in practice and education and could be effective in actual design processes. This insight also brought about a shift in emphasis from realism per-se towards creating a sense of situatedness.

The design representation system which was developed was intended to not just allow for one type of model view, but to afford an array of different views, from which the designer would be able to choose freely, depending on the phase and focus of design as well as personal preferences. A series of interface prototypes and support tools were developed especially and successively tested experimentally. 

For the intended final design driven experimental study, different virtual context models were considered. Eventually, an integral –  purely fictitious – design ‘environment’ was constructed in the computer, so that the workings of the proposed system and its components would be tested systematically.

A conscious choice was made for an in depth study, on a relatively modest scale, which would a certain amount of mutual involvement between designer and researcher, to confront the participants with the finer aspects of the proposed system in a relatively short time and to gather detailed data. A half dozen design professionals were invited to participate in a closely monitored experimental exercise.

The results of this study therefore do not offer straightforward, indisputable facts, to be considered representative for the design community as a whole, but indicate that the working methods of the individual designers – when discovering aspects of the site, developing and presenting proposals and reflecting on the qualities of represented designs – tend to vary considerably. For this reason the interactive representation system proved to be of value. Participants could express different view preferences, with more or less realistic image modes being used in different phases of their design developments, with varying experiences of situatedness. Some of the design professionals participants were very appreciative of the system’s opportunities, others tended to be more ‘set in their ways’.

The results of this experimental study indicate that there may particularly be opportunities for interface applications which are able to function interactively, offering individual designers –  as well as others involved in evaluating design proposals – a variety of tools with which to approach specific design artefacts in their changing contexts. Virtual models can play not only an important role as a ‘reminder’ for the designer but also to other parties playing an active role in the design and implementation processes. Interactive environment models are not only promising as exploration tools for existing sites, but could be valuable to test the impact of a design on its location. This could be especially interesting if the site is difficult or impossible to visit or as yet a virtual construction. In addition such an approach might be beneficial for objective comparison and evaluation of design proposals in competitions and in education as well as in on-line collaborative design projects where the context is still in the process of being developed.  

series thesis:PhD
type normal paper
email m.c.stellingwerff@bk.tudelft.nl
more http://www.bk.tudelft.nl/users/stelling/internet/
last changed 2005/03/02 21:40

_id acadia05_170
id acadia05_170
authors Barker, Daniel and Dong, Andy
year 2005
title A Representation Language for a Prototype CAD Tool for Intelligent Rooms
source Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies [Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 0-9772832-0-8] Savannah (Georgia) 13-16 October 2005, pp. 170-183
summary Intelligent rooms are a type of intelligent environment which enhance ordinary activities within the confines of a room by responding to human interaction using pervasive and ubiquitous computing. In the design of intelligent rooms, the specification of how the intelligent room enacts intelligent behavior through computational means is as integral as the geometric description. The self-aware and context-aware capabilities of intelligent rooms extend the requirements for computer-aided design tools beyond 3D modeling of objects. This article presents a Hardware as Agents Description Language for Intelligent Rooms (HADLIR) to model hardware in an intelligent room as “hardware agents” having sensor and/or effector modalities with rules and goals. End-users describe intelligent room hardware as agents based on the HADLIR representation and write agent rules and goals in Jess for each hardware component. This HADLIR agent description and the requisite software sensors/effectors constitute “hardware agents” which are instantiated into a multi-agent society software environment. The society is then bridged to either a virtual environment to prototype the intelligent room or to microelectronic controllers to implement a physical intelligent room. The integration illustrates how the HADLIR representation assists in the design, simulation and implementation of an intelligent room and provides a foundation technology for CAD tools for the creation of intelligent rooms.
series ACADIA
email adon3656@mail.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2005/10/25 16:52

_id 2005_303
id 2005_303
authors Clark, Steve and Maher, Mary Lou
year 2005
title Learning and Designing in a Virtual Place
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 303-309
summary This paper reports on a study of the role of place in a virtual learning environment for digital media design. Using an immersive 3D Virtual World based on Active Worlds, we have created a virtual learning place for students in a Website Design course. The virtual learning place has two distinct parts: a classroom-like place surrounded by student galleries. Students can navigate and communicate (synchronous chat) within the environment in the form of an avatar (virtual person). We recorded the conversations and activities of the students in discussions held in the virtual learning place and applied a communication coding scheme to analyze their discussions. In this paper we present our approach to developing an understanding of the role of place and evidence of its effect on the conversations of design students in a virtual learning environment. We show how we identified the characteristics of place and specifically how it provides a context for identity and presence for supporting collaborative and constructivist student centred learning.
keywords Virtual Learning Environments, Place, Virtual Design Studios
series eCAADe
email scla7247@mail.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id cf2011_p051
id cf2011_p051
authors Cote, Pierre; Mohamed-Ahmed Ashraf, Tremblay Sebastien
year 2011
title A Quantitative Method to Compare the Impact of Design Mediums on the Architectural Ideation Process.
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 539-556.
summary If we compare the architectural design process to a black box system, we can assume that we now know quite well both inputs and outputs of the system. Indeed, everything about the early project either feasibility studies, programming, context integration, site analysis (urban, rural or natural), as well as the integration of participants in a collaborative process can all be considered to initiate and sustain the architectural design and ideation process. Similarly, outputs from that process are also, and to some extent, well known and identifiable. We are referring here, among others, to the project representations or even to the concrete building construction and its post-evaluation. But what about the black box itself that produces the ideation. This is the question that attempts to answer the research. Currently, very few research works linger to identify how the human brain accomplishes those tasks; how to identify the cognitive functions that are playing this role; to what extent they operate and complement each other, and among other things, whether there possibly a chain of causality between these functions. Therefore, this study proposes to define a model that reflects the activity of the black box based on the cognitive activity of the human brain. From an extensive literature review, two cognitive functions have been identified and are investigated to account for some of the complex cognitive activity that occurs during a design process, namely the mental workload and mental imagery. These two variables are measured quantitatively in the context of real design task. Essentially, the mental load is measured using a Bakan's test and the mental imagery with eyes tracking. The statistical software G-Power was used to identify the necessary subject number to obtain for significant variance and correlation result analysis. Thus, in the context of an exploratory research, to ensure effective sample of 0.25 and a statistical power of 0.80, 32 participants are needed. All these participants are students from 3rd, 4th or 5th grade in architecture. They are also very familiar with the architectural design process and the design mediums used, i.e., analog model, freehand drawing and CAD software, SketchUp. In three experimental sessions, participants were asked to design three different projects, namely, a bus shelter, a recycling station and a public toilet. These projects were selected and defined for their complexity similarity, taking into account the available time of 22 minutes, using all three mediums of design, and this in a randomly manner to avoid the order effect. To analyze the two cognitive functions (mental load and mental imagery), two instruments are used. Mental imagery is measured using eye movement tracking with monitoring and quantitative analysis of scan paths and the resulting number and duration of participant eye fixations (Johansson et al, 2005). The mental workload is measured using the performance of a modality hearing secondary task inspired by Bakan'sworks (Bakan et al.; 1963). Each of these three experimental sessions, lasting 90 minutes, was composed of two phases: 1. After calibrating the glasses for eye movement, the subject had to exercise freely for 3 minutes while wearing the glasses and headphones (Bakan task) to get use to the wearing hardware. Then, after reading the guidelines and criteria for the design project (± 5 minutes), he had 22 minutes to execute the design task on a drawing table allowing an upright posture. Once the task is completed, the subject had to take the NASA TLX Test, on the assessment of mental load (± 5 minutes) and a written post-experimental questionnaire on his impressions of the experiment (± 10 minutes). 2. After a break of 5-10 minutes, the participant answered a psychometric test, which is different for each session. These tests (± 20 minutes) are administered in the same order to each participant. Thus, in the first experimental session, the subject had to take the psychometric test from Ekstrom et al. (1978), on spatial performance (Factor-Referenced Cognitive Tests Kit). During the second session, the cognitive style is evaluated using Oltman's test (1971). Finally, in the third and final session, participant creativity is evaluated using Delis-Kaplan test (D-KEFS), Delis et al. (2001). Thus, this study will present the first results of quantitative measures to establish and validate the proposed model. Furthermore, the paper will also discuss the relevance of the proposed approach, considering that currently teaching of ideation in ours schools of architecture in North America is essentially done in a holistic manner through the architectural project.
keywords design, ideation process, mental workload, mental imagery, quantitative mesure
series CAAD Futures
email pierre.cote@arc.ulaval.ca
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p027
id cf2011_p027
authors Herssens, Jasmien; Heylighen Ann
year 2011
title A Framework of Haptic Design Parameters for Architects: Sensory Paradox Between Content and Representation
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 685-700.
summary Architects—like other designers—tend to think, know and work in a visual way. In design research, this way of knowing and working is highly valued as paramount to design expertise (Cross 1982, 2006). In case of architecture, however, it is not only a particular strength, but may as well be regarded as a serious weakness. The absence of non-visual features in traditional architectural spatial representations indicates how these are disregarded as important elements in conceiving space (Dischinger 2006). This bias towards vision, and the suppression of other senses—in the way architecture is conceived, taught and critiqued—results in a disappearance of sensory qualities (Pallasmaa 2005). Nevertheless, if architects design with more attention to non visual senses, they are able to contribute to more inclusive environments. Indeed if an environment offers a range of sensory triggers, people with different sensory capacities are able to navigate and enjoy it. Rather than implementing as many sensory triggers as possible, the intention is to make buildings and spaces accessible and enjoyable for more people, in line with the objective of inclusive design (Clarkson et al. 2007), also called Design for All or Universal Design (Ostroff 2001). Within this overall objective, the aim of our study is to develop haptic design parameters that support architects during design in paying more attention to the role of haptics, i.e. the sense of touch, in the built environment by informing them about the haptic implications of their design decisions. In the context of our study, haptic design parameters are defined as variables that can be decided upon by designers throughout the design process, and the value of which determines the haptic characteristics of the resulting design. These characteristics are based on the expertise of people who are congenitally blind, as they are more attentive to non visual information, and of professional caregivers working with them. The parameters do not intend to be prescriptive, nor to impose a particular method. Instead they seek to facilitate a more inclusive design attitude by informing designers and helping them to think differently. As the insights from the empirical studies with people born blind and caregivers have been reported elsewhere (Authors 2010), this paper starts by outlining the haptic design parameters resulting from them. Following the classification of haptics into active, dynamic and passive touch, the built environment unfolds into surfaces that can act as “movement”, “guiding” and/or “rest” plane. Furthermore design techniques are suggested to check the haptic qualities during the design process. Subsequently, the paper reports on a focus group interview/workshop with professional architects to assess the usability of the haptic design parameters for design practice. The architects were then asked to try out the parameters in the context of a concrete design project. The reactions suggest that the participating architects immediately picked up the underlying idea of the parameters, and recognized their relevance in relation to the design project at stake, but that their representation confronts us with a sensory paradox: although the parameters question the impact of the visual in architectural design, they are meant to be used by designers, who are used to think, know and work in a visual way.
keywords blindness, design parameters, haptics, inclusive design, vision
series CAAD Futures
email jherssens@gmail.com
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id fbae
id fbae
authors Horne, Margaret
year 2005
title Virtual Beirut
source CUPUM05 9th International Conference on Computers in Urban Planning and Urban Management, London, 29-30 June 2005
summary This paper describes how urban planners in Beirut are applying three-dimensional computer modelling to aid design decision making in the regeneration programme for the city. The study reports on the recent developments of a computer model of Beirut and its effectiveness in communicating the spatial characteristics of Martyr’s Square, a place of historic significance in the city. An international urban design competition for Martyr’s Square, and its new axis to the sea, is underway to identify new ideas for the development of this area. This paper reports on the process of creating the computer model and feedback from users. It considers future plans for further 3D modelling of the city centre to meet the needs of urban designers.
keywords Beirut, 3D Modelling, Urban Planning, Virtual Reality
series other
type normal paper
email m.horne@unn.ac.uk
more http://128.40.111.250/cupum/searchPapers/index.asp
last changed 2006/06/07 22:05

_id 2005_433
id 2005_433
authors Lang, Silke Berit
year 2005
title Designing Tele Reality Using Media and Communication Technologies
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 433-440
summary In this paper we describe the use of media and communication technologies with a special notification on video systems for the design of a technological enhanced environment. We make suggestions how architects can design environments that are more flexible and dynamic. These environments are adapted to our changing social and cultural trends. Developments in media and communication technologies allow extending the real world to a so called Tele Reality. These environments will have a certain degree of intelligence provided via computer performance. Humans will be able to receive information form anywhere and at anytime. The focus is on expanding the availability of human resources.
keywords Media and Communication Technologies; Tele Reality; Video Systems, Design Principles
series eCAADe
email lang@arch.ethz.ch
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id cf2005_1_31_28
id cf2005_1_31_28
authors PENG Chengzhi
year 2005
title Townscaping: Development of Dynamic Virtual City Augmented 3D Sketch Design Tools
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2005 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 1-4020-3460-1] Vienna (Austria) 20–22 June 2005, pp. 105-114
summary The paper presents the development of an experimental Web-based design environment called Townscaping to be used at the conceptual stage of architectural and urban design. Inspired by Gordon Cullen's seminal work on Townscape (1960's-1970's), the idea of Townscaping is to explore how 3D digital sketch design tools could be developed to operate in connection with a dynamic virtual city system under a user's direct control. A prototype of Townscaping has been designed and implemented on the basis of an existing dynamic virtual city system. In Townscaping, a set of tools is provided for users to create and edit 3D graphic elements to be positioned directly onto the user-specified virtual city models. One of the key features of Townscaping is to enable sketching while navigation: designers can perform sketch design and gain immediate visual feedback while navigating the 3D virtual city models to any viewpoint at any moment. The current study suggests that it is feasible for virtual city models to serve as interactive urban contexts for 3D sketch design. Townscaping is considered primarily a research platform with which we are interested in investigating if designers' engaging in 3D space conceptions may be enhanced through interacting and sketching with virtual townscapes.
keywords virtual city, 3D sketch design, interactive urban visualisation, web-based design
series CAAD Futures
email c.peng@shef.ac.uk
last changed 2006/11/07 06:27

_id sigradi2006_e034d
id sigradi2006_e034d
authors Ryan, Rachel and Donn, Michael
year 2006
title A 3D, interactive, multilayered, web-enabled model as a tool for multiple sets of end user groups: A case study and end user analysis
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 392-396
summary This research undertakes a case study involving focus groups of potential end users, to identify how a successful digital tool could be created using new and emerging technologies, to accommodate the multiple needs of these end users. 2005 saw the completion of a research paper, which proposed that a single, 3 dimensional digital model of a city forming a core for many different information systems, is a better approach to the needs of the city than many individual models optimised for each information system. The case for the single 3D model was evaluated through the research, development, delivery and analysis of a prototype 3 Dimensional model of Wellington City, New Zealand, presenting different ‘views’ of information in Wellington: a rendered visualisation in an animated “walkthrough”; the impact of planning constraints on daylight; interactive “plots” of property values. The development and delivery of the prototype model was analysed in regards to how complex, costly and time consuming it may be to exploit one base model for several purposes; and also therefore how beneficial, affordable and potentially successful a single model may be. The prototype model was created to test the idea, and therefore provided conclusions based on a limited feasibility analysis - with four potential information layers modelled and two potential delivery methods tested. The prototype model and user analysis results were presented in a research report that suggested further research and development of a single model could be very beneficial: Positive feedback from potential end users and data providers, and examples of potential data mining opportunities forming the basis of the need for continued research. 2006 sees the research continue as an 18 month research project in conjunction with an industry partner, Terralink International, (http://www.terralink.co.nz/). Terralink International Limited provides GIS and mapping solutions which according to their web site: “enable better business management.” The company maintains a national resource of “imagery, cartography, and spatial databases” and provides consultancy services linking these to company databases through GIS systems. The research investigates the potential for 3 dimensional, interactive, multilayered models to enhance delivery of information to multiple end user groups. The research method uses functional prototypes in end-user focus group workshops. These workshops, consisting of a combination of presentations, hands on interactive examples, group discussions, and individual feedback surveys, aim to establish how a tool might best be developed to communicate to a wide range of end users. The means of delivery whether a stand alone tool or web-based is a key element of the user group workshop assessment process. Note: The submission of the prototype tool (via video or interactive media) would greatly increase the effectiveness of the research presentation. Ability to include such media would be greatly appreciated.
keywords multilayered; 3D; end users; interactive; web-enabled
series SIGRADI
email Rachel.A.Ryan@gmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:59

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