CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id cf2005_2_32_203
id cf2005_2_32_203
authors CHASE Scott and AHMAD Sumbul
year 2005
title Grammar Transformations: Using Composite Grammars to Understand Hybridity in Design
source Learning from the Past a Foundation for the Future [Special publication of papers presented at the CAAD futures 2005 conference held at the Vienna University of Technology / ISBN 3-85437-276-0], Vienna (Austria) 20-22 June 2005, pp. 89-98
summary Hybrid designs are those that develop from multiple sources. This paper presents the methodology of composite grammars, developed by merging multiple grammars, for the analysis of hybrid designs. The methodology is discussed with an example from Islamic architecture, which is known to have developed by borrowing from various sources. The methodology is seen to be useful for the analysis of the evolution of historic architecture, as well as for the development of new languages of designs.
keywords shape grammars, generative design, historical analysis, Islamic architecture, hybridity
series CAAD Futures
email s.c.chase@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2005/05/05 05:06

_id caadria2006_565
id caadria2006_565
authors CHEN CHIEN TUNG
year 2006
title DESIGN ON SITE: Portable, Measurable, Adjustable Design Media
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 565-567
summary Space designers usually look for information on site before proceeding design. They image any possibilities of design, while they are on site. Restricted to traditional design media, if they want to develop their ideas further, they have to go back to desks. This kind of design process can capture only part of information of the site. Why not do some developments directly when designers are on the site? That is the starting point of this paper. The whole situation of site is very complicated, so it is very difficult discussing all the possibilities. In order to understand how to design on site, reducing the variations is needed. Tsai and Chang (2005) proposed a prototype about design on site, which focuses on land forming. So I chose interior as the site to reduce the variation and have more controllable factors. Still there are many factors effecting design on site, scale is very unique and very important factor of them. Beginners are difficult to really feel how long it is on the plan drawing, and even most advanced VR equipment still can’t fully present the rich information on the site. To experience the site though body, the main idea is how to propose a portable device that can support space designer to do design on site directly, with intuitional body movement and precise scale, and get feedback immediately.
series CAADRIA
email Ton0216@hotmail.com
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

_id cf2011_p135
id cf2011_p135
authors Chen Rui, Irene; Schnabel Marc Aurel
year 2011
title Multi-touch - the future of design interaction
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 557-572.
summary The next major revolution for design is to bring the natural user interaction into design activities. Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) brought a new approach that was more effective compared to their conventional predecessors. In recent years, Natural User Interfaces (NUI) have advanced user experiences and multi-touch and gesture technologies provide new opportunities for a variety of potential uses in design. Much attention has been paid to leverage in the design of interactive interfaces. The mouse input and desktop screen metaphors limit the information sharing for multiple users and also delayed the direct interaction for communication between each other. This paper proposes the innovative method by integrating game engine ‘Unity3D’ with multi-touch tangible interfaces. Unity3D provides a game development tool as part of its application package that has been designed to let users to focus on creating new games. However, it does not limit the usage of area to design additional game scenarios since the benefits of Unity3D is allowing users to build 3D environments with its customizable and easy to use editor, graphical pipelines to openGL (http://unity3d.com/, 2010 ). It creates Virtual Reality (VR) environments which can simulates places in the real world, as well as the virtual environments helping architects and designers to vividly represent their design concepts through 3D visualizations, and interactive media installations in a detailed multi-sensory experience. Stereoscopic displays advanced their spatial ability while solving issues to design e.g. urban spaces. The paper presents how a multi-touch tabletop can be used for these design collaboration and communication tasks. By using natural gestures, designers can now communicate and share their ideas by manipulating the same reference simultaneously using their own input simultaneously. Further studies showed that 3Dl forms are perceived and understood more readily through haptic and proprioceptive perception of tangible representations than through visual representation alone (Gillet et al, 2005). Based on the authors’ framework presented at the last CAADFutures, the benefits of integrating 3D visualization and tactile sensory can be illustrated in this platform (Chen and Wang, 2009), For instance, more than one designer can manipulate the 3D geometry objects on tabletop directly and can communicate successfully their ideas freely without having to waiting for the next person response. It made the work more effective which increases the overall efficiency. Designers can also collect the real-time data by any change they make instantly. The possibilities of Uniy3D make designing very flexible and fun, it is deeply engaging and expressive. Furthermore, the unity3D is revolutionizing the game development industry, its breakthrough development platform for creating highly interactive 3D content on the web (http://unity3d.com/ , 2010) or similar to the interface of modern multimedia devices such as the iPhone, therefore it allows the designers to work remotely in a collaborative way to integrate the design process by using the individual mobile devices while interacting design in a common platform. In design activities, people create an external representation of a domain, often of their own ideas and understanding. This platform helps learners to make their ideas concrete and explicit, and once externalized, subsequently they reflect upon their work how well it sits the real situation. The paper demonstrates how this tabletop innovatively replaces the typical desktop metaphor. In summary, the paper addresses two major issues through samples of collaborative design: firstly presenting aspects of learners’ interactions with physical objects, whereby tangible interfaces enables them constructing expressive representations passively (Marshall, 2007), while focussing on other tasks; and secondly showing how this novel design tool allows designers to actively create constructions that might not be possible with conventional media.
keywords Multi-touch tabletop, Tangible User Interface
series CAAD Futures
email rui.chen@sydney.edu.au
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id 2005_077
id 2005_077
authors Chen, Hong-Sheng, Tseng, Lan-Ting and Li, Chi-Hua
year 2005
title CaseBox: a Tool for Case-based Learning
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 77-82
summary This study reports on the development and experiment of CaseBox for case-based learning. Due to many advantages of the case-based reasoning, the authors create a learning environment for both teachers and students. In the digital era, multimedia and web-based education methodologies emerge auspiciously in schools. Teachers and students no longer satisfy paper-based documents, they research with case-based reasoning on the internet. CaseBox is proposed as a learning environment, which supports: 1) Teachers introduce cases. 2) Students study and reuse cases. 3) Members discuss design on the web. CaseBox is still under development and this study reports on the efforts and discoveries at the recent stage, and shares the debates of ideas and problems of case-based e-Learning.
keywords Case-based Learning, Design Studio, Education
series eCAADe
email chsh@ntu.edu.tw
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id cf2005_1_62_226
id cf2005_1_62_226
authors CHENG, Nancy Yen-wen and MCKELVEY Andrew
year 2005
title LEARNING DESIGN PROCESS WITH DIGITAL SKETCHING: COPYING GRAPHIC PROCESSES FROM ANIMATIONS AND STORYBOARDS
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2005 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 1-4020-3460-1] Vienna (Austria) 20–22 June 2005, pp. 291-300
summary This paper examines the effectiveness of animated versus non-animated drawings as teaching tools. Data was collected by comparing how architectural design students given an animation versus those given a static, six-panel storyboard are able to learn processes in a space-planning design problem. All subjects were given an example of an expert design drawing, asked to put the design steps in order, and then to follow those steps in performing a similar design problem. Their responses were recorded with a digital pen-on-paper system that automatically generates vector animations. The animations can then be immediately viewed on a computer for stroke-by-stroke review. Finally, each student’s animation was analysed in terms of design process steps and compared with the expert example. While those given animations performed only marginally better on the survey of steps, they were better able to imitate the order of expert steps. Furthermore, reviewing the examples by computer revealed common errors that students could modify for more successful design strategies. The following discussion examines methods for researching design process with the digital pen, along with shortcomings, advantages and directions for further study.
keywords teaching, with technology, sketching, design teaching, digital pPen-based computing
series CAAD Futures
type normal paper
email nywc@darkwing.uoregon.edu
last changed 2007/10/22 04:58

_id sigradi2005_778
id sigradi2005_778
authors Chiarella, Mauro
year 2005
title DATABASE 3D. Of the new form to the data processing
source SIGraDi 2005 - [Proceedings of the 9th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Lima - Peru 21-24 november 2005, vol. 2, pp. 778-782
summary The search by new architectural forms with digital media loses interest when its results become foreseeable and repetitive in the growth of the large cities. At present, the interest is greater by the processing and manipulation of digital databases as alternatives of the architectural project. The resultant architectures possess forms that contrast less but with greater diversity in their spatial relations. DATABASE 3D is presented like a formal proposal risked of investigation. The experiences of project explore the concepts of Collective Autor, digital database and Hipertexto. It accepts the construction of a diverse and complex reality conformed by fragmentary spatial systems from the adoption of the mosaic, collage, remix and the digital sampling. [Full paper in Spanish]
series SIGRADI
email chiarell@fadu.unl.edu.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:48

_id caadria2005_a_7a_d
id caadria2005_a_7a_d
authors Chieh-Jen Lin, Mao-Lin Chiu
year 2005
title Ontology Based Design Knowledge Detective Agent
source CAADRIA 2005 [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] New Delhi (India) 28-30 April 2005, vol. 1, pp. 239-250
summary Design knowledge abstracted from cases is important for designers. This paper is aimed to build an agent to detect those correlations between explicit features of design cases and relevant design problems. Using the data mining algorithm, we have accumulated a list of keywords about design problems and their relevant concept from textual information of a case library, and established their semantic ontology by clustering their semantic and sentence structural relations from previous studies. Meanwhile, we also established another hierarchical ontology of explicit design case features by applying design domain knowledge. Then, through mapping semantic relations of relevant keywords between two ontologies, the system will become more sensitive to the correlations of design case features and relevant design problems. Finally, a graphical interface is built to visualize these correlations and help user to recognize useful design knowledge cached in design cases.
series CAADRIA
email t60011@ms.twcat.eu.tw, mc2p@mail.ncku.edu.tw
last changed 2005/04/30 01:30

_id caadria2005_a_2a_b
id caadria2005_a_2a_b
authors Chieh-Jen Lin
year 2005
title Space layout game: An Interactive Game of Space Layout for Teaching and Representing Design Knowledge
source CAADRIA 2005 [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] New Delhi (India) 28-30 April 2005, vol. 1, pp. 130-141
summary This paper described a prototype of interactive space layout, a tool for primary stage of architectural space layout called Space Layout Game (SLG). Rather than focused on the automation of space layout, we are interested in interactive responding in manipulative process and assisting teaching and representation of design skills and knowledge. Through composing a prototype of space layouts, reusing and modifying this prototype or other form teachers or other students to adapt to new conditions, students can present their design intensions, and learn layout skills and design knowledge through the manipulative processes
series CAADRIA
email t60011@ms.twcat.eu.tw
last changed 2005/04/30 01:30

_id caadria2005_a_1b_b
id caadria2005_a_1b_b
authors Chien-Hung Shih
year 2005
title Project: Illustrate Your Huashan
source CAADRIA 2005 [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] New Delhi (India) 28-30 April 2005, vol. 1, pp. 75-82
summary This Project: Illustrate your Huashan attempts to utilize the texture-mapping of characters from the video game industry, as well as real-time graphic in the internet and tablet device of wireless network environment, for the construction of a 3D cyberspace environment that local artists in Huashan could use to freely give expression to their creativity, and for the establishment of a personalized visual space where 3D users can engage in online discussions with collaboration design.
series CAADRIA
email jerry@arch.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/04/30 01:30

_id caadria2005_b_5c_c
id caadria2005_b_5c_c
authors Ching-Hui Huang
year 2005
title Interactions between space and digital design media: A case study of physical space
source CAADRIA 2005 [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] New Delhi (India) 28-30 April 2005, vol. 2, pp. 375-381
summary The rapid developments of digital design media have impacted many aspects of architecture design, such as design process, presentation and communication. This paper focuses on the study of interactions between physical space and digital design media, and proposes a preliminary interactive framework between them. This research proposes a preliminary sense-of-space oriented framework, which indicates the crucial interactive elements and properties of physical space and digital design media.
series CAADRIA
email chuang@arch.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/04/30 01:30

_id 2005_715
id 2005_715
authors Chitchian, Davood and Bekkering, Henco
year 2005
title A Decision Support Tool for Decision Makers
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 715-721
summary Many decisions in a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary process, as an intelligent activity, are too complex for decision makers to make choices based solely on instinct. The complexity stems from this fact that such activities cannot be defined precisely. Also satisfying goals depend on achievement of several interrelated tasks which cannot be solved simultaneously. Our decision support tool uses a mathematical application so called Analytical Hierarchy Process as a decision making aid. The developed tool provides a powerful and flexible mean for tackling the complex decision process into a simple concept of hierarchy, which incorporates factors influencing the decision alternatives in a systematic way.
keywords Decision Support System; AHP; Eigenvalue; Construction Industry
series eCAADe
email d.chitchian@planet.nl
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id caadria2005_a_2b_c
id caadria2005_a_2b_c
authors Chiu-Shui Chan, Chien-Hui Weng
year 2005
title How Real Is the Sense of Presence in A Virtual Environment? : Applying Protocol Analysis for Data Collection
source CAADRIA 2005 [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] New Delhi (India) 28-30 April 2005, vol. 1, pp. 188-197
summary This study attempts to investigate the sense of presence in a fully immersive virtual environment. The methodology applied in this study used protocol analysis for data collection. A preliminary experiment was conducted to explore noticeable phenomena to develop a hypothesis for the final experiments. Four different virtual reality models, representing four different kinds of virtual space, were navigated in C6 (CAVE facilities) by two human subjects. Results of the research in this direction have provided valuable understanding regarding the sense of presence in the virtual environment.
series CAADRIA
email cschan@iastate.edu, chien@arch.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/04/30 01:30

_id caadria2006_597
id caadria2006_597
authors CHOR-KHENG LIM, CHING-SHUN TANG, WEI-YEN HSAO, JUNE-HAO HOU, YU-TUNG LIU
year 2006
title NEW MEDIA IN DIGITAL DESIGN PROCESS: Towards a standardize procedure of CAD/CAM fabrication
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 597-599
summary In 1990, due to the traditional architecture design and construction method difficult to build the complicated and non-geometry free-form Fish Structure in Barcelona, architect Frank Gehry started learn from the field of aerospace to utilize CAD/CAM technology in design and manufacture process. He created the free-form fish model in CAD system and exported the digital CAD model data to CAM machine (RP and CNC) to fabricate the design components, and finally assembled on the site. Gehry pioneered in the new digital design process in using CAD/CAM technology or so-called digital fabrication. It becomes an important issue recently as the CAD/CAM technology progressively act as the new digital design media in architectural design and construction process (Ryder et al., 2002; Kolarevic, 2003). Furthermore, in the field of architecture professional, some commercial computer systems had been developed on purpose of standardizes the digital design process in using CAD/CAM fabrication such as Gehry Technologies formed by Gehry Partners; SmartGeometry Group in Europe and Objectile proposed by Bernard Cache. Researchers in the research field like Mark Burry, Larry Sass, Branko Kolarevic, Schodek and others are enthusiastic about the exploration of the role of CAD/CAM fabrication as new design media in design process (Burry, 2002; Schodek et al., 2005; Lee, 2005).
series CAADRIA
email kheng@arch.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

_id caadria2005_a_1a_e
id caadria2005_a_1a_e
authors Chor-Kheng Lim, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2005
title New tectonics: New factors in digital spaces
source CAADRIA 2005 [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] New Delhi (India) 28-30 April 2005, vol. 1, pp. 45-59
summary The issue of tectonics begins discussed in the architectural field since Nineteenth Century. Recently, it becomes a new issue again as the new digital space and the new form appears as a result of the impact by the computer-aid design process. The objective of this research is to explore the preliminary framework of new tectonics in the digital space by analyzing the design cases. We aim to analyze and conclude the digital & non-digital factors in the new tectonics. Subsequently, this research concludes seven non-digital factors: joint, detail, material, object, structure, construction, interaction; and four new digital factors: motion, information, generation and fabrication.
series CAADRIA
email kheng@arch.nctu.edu.tw, aleppo@arch.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/04/30 01:30

_id caadria2005_b_3c_a
id caadria2005_b_3c_a
authors Christopher Lowry
year 2005
title Making Understanding: Research in the application of virtual environments in the teaching of architectural design and technology
source CAADRIA 2005 [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] New Delhi (India) 28-30 April 2005, vol. 2, pp. 93-101
summary This paper describes how the application of interactive three dimensional computer modelling enables students of architecture to gain a comprehensive insight into how buildings are made. An intimate exploration of what can be, in the student’s perception, a lacklustre subject area is revitalized through the use of virtual building models and introduces the student to the potentials of this medium in communicating their own design work. In addition the published case studies are navigated as one would a web site which is a familiar and comfortable format for the student. Original working drawings and specification provided by architects are utilised in generating detailed three dimensional virtual models of the complete building along with larger scale detail studies of particular building components. The models are then animated or transferred to VRML format for publication within interactive case studies. The case studies may be accessed via the department server for use by staff during lectures and seminars or informally by the individual student.
series CAADRIA
email c.lowry@dundee.ac.uk
last changed 2005/04/30 01:30

_id ecaade2011_122
id ecaade2011_122
authors Chronis, Angelos; Jagannath, Prarthana; Siskou, Vasiliki Aikaterini; Jones, Jonathan
year 2011
title Sensing digital co-presence and digital identity: Visualizing the Bluetooth landscape of the City of Bath
source RESPECTING FRAGILE PLACES [29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-9-4912070-1-3], University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture (Slovenia) 21-24 September 2011, pp.87-92
summary The impact of ubiquitous digital technologies on the analysis and synthesis of our urban environment is undoubtedly great. The urban topography is overlaid by an invisible, yet very tangible digital topography that is increasingly affecting our urban life. As W. J. Mitchell (Mitchell 2005) pointed out, the digital revolution has filled our world with “electronic instruments of displacement” that “embed the virtual in the physical, and weave it seamlessly into daily urban life”. The mobile phone, the most integrated mobile device is closely related to the notion of a digital identity, our personal identity on this digital space. The Bluetooth is the mainly used direct communication protocol between mobile phones today and in this scope, each device has its own unique ID, its “MAC address”. This paper investigates the potential use of recording and analysing Bluetooth enabled devices in the urban scale in understanding the interrelation between the physical and the digital topographies.
wos WOS:000335665500009
keywords Pervasive systems; digital presence; urban encounter; digital identity
series eCAADe
email angelos.chronis.09@ucl.ac.uk
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id 2005_303
id 2005_303
authors Clark, Steve and Maher, Mary Lou
year 2005
title Learning and Designing in a Virtual Place
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 303-309
summary This paper reports on a study of the role of place in a virtual learning environment for digital media design. Using an immersive 3D Virtual World based on Active Worlds, we have created a virtual learning place for students in a Website Design course. The virtual learning place has two distinct parts: a classroom-like place surrounded by student galleries. Students can navigate and communicate (synchronous chat) within the environment in the form of an avatar (virtual person). We recorded the conversations and activities of the students in discussions held in the virtual learning place and applied a communication coding scheme to analyze their discussions. In this paper we present our approach to developing an understanding of the role of place and evidence of its effect on the conversations of design students in a virtual learning environment. We show how we identified the characteristics of place and specifically how it provides a context for identity and presence for supporting collaborative and constructivist student centred learning.
keywords Virtual Learning Environments, Place, Virtual Design Studios
series eCAADe
email scla7247@mail.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id sigradi2005_103
id sigradi2005_103
authors Clayton, Mark J.
year 2005
title Computational design and AutoCAD: reading software as oral history
source SIGraDi 2005 - [Proceedings of the 9th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Lima - Peru 21-24 november 2005, vol. 1, pp. 103-107
summary Although the user interface and operation of AutoCAD may seem counter to architectural predilections, the software can be better understood in a historical context of themes of computational design, automated production drawings, and design graphics. Current interest in Building Information Modeling draws upon themes in architectural computing established 40 years ago and expressed in AutoCAD throughout its 25 year history.
series SIGRADI
email mark-clayton@tamu.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:49

_id acadia05_094
id acadia05_094
authors Clayton, Mark J.
year 2005
title How I Stopped Worrying and Learned to Love AutoCAD
source Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies [Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 0-9772832-0-8] Savannah (Georgia) 13-16 October 2005, pp. 94-103
summary The history of computing is expressed through AutoCAD as an accretion of ideas and inventions, each of which was a breakthrough in its time. Learning to use AutoCAD, or any CAD system, is augmented by an understanding of the historical context of its development. In contrast to a “deconstructivist” criticism of AutoCAD that avoids all historical context, this paper discusses the user interface of AutoCAD placed in its historical context by combining facts of history with personal reminiscences. The paper answers mysteries about AutoCAD such as “Why a black screen?”, “Why LISP?”, “Why a command line?”, “Why layers, pens and line types?”, and “Why 2D?” An understanding of context and history is a starting point for understanding, mastering, and improving software.
series ACADIA
email mark-clayton@tamu.edu
last changed 2005/10/25 16:52

_id acadia18_404
id acadia18_404
authors Clifford, Brandon; McGee, Wes
year 2018
title Cyclopean Cannibalism. A method for recycling rubble
source ACADIA // 2018: Recalibration. On imprecisionand infidelity. [Proceedings of the 38th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-17729-7] Mexico City, Mexico 18-20 October, 2018, pp. 404-413
summary Each year, the United States discards 375 million tons of concrete construction debris to landfills (U.S. EPA 2016), but this is a new paradigm. Past civilizations cannibalized their constructions to produce new architectures (Hopkins 2005). This paper interrogates one cannibalistic methodology from the past known as cyclopean masonry in order to translate this valuable method into a contemporary digital procedure. The work contextualizes the techniques of this method and situates them into procedural recipes which can be applied in contemporary construction. A full-scale prototype is produced utilizing the described method; demolition debris is gathered, scanned, and processed through an algorithmic workflow. Each rubble unit is then minimally carved by a robotic arm and set to compose a new architecture from discarded rubble debris. The prototype merges ancient construction thinking with digital design and fabrication methodologies. It poses material cannibalism as a means of combating excessive construction waste generation.
keywords full paper, cyclopean, algorithmic, robotic fabrication, stone, shape grammars, computation
series ACADIA
type paper
email bcliffor@mit.edu
last changed 2019/01/07 11:22

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