CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 547

_id cf2005_1_63_131
id cf2005_1_63_131
authors YAN Wei and KALAY Yehuda
year 2005
title Simulating Human Behaviour in Built Environments
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2005 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 1-4020-3460-1] Vienna (Austria) 20–22 June 2005, pp. 301-310
summary This paper addresses the problem of predicting and evaluating the impacts of the built environment on its human inhabitants. It presents a simulation system comprising a usability-based building model and an agent-based virtual user model. The building model represents both geometric information and usability properties of design elements, and is generated automatically from a standard CAD model. Virtual users are modelled as autonomous agents that emulate the appearance, perception, social traits and physical behaviour of real users (walking, sitting, meeting other virtual users, etc.). Their behaviour model is based upon theoretical and practical environment-behaviour studies, real world data from a field study, and Artificial Life research. By inserting the virtual users in the usability-enabled building model, and letting them “explore” it on their own volition, the system reveals the interrelationship between the environment and its users. The environment can then be modified, to see how different arrangements affect user behaviours.
keywords behaviour simulation, behaviour study, human modelling, building modelling
series CAAD Futures
email weiyan@berkeley.edu, kalay@socrates.Berkeley.EDU
last changed 2006/11/07 06:27

_id 2005_491
id 2005_491
authors Beirão, José and Duarte, José
year 2005
title Urban Grammars: Towards Flexible Urban Design
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 491-500
summary Traditional urban plans have definitive design systems, without the flexibility required to deal with the complexity and change that characterise contemporary urban societies. To provide urban plans with increased flexibility, it is proposed a design methodology capable of producing various design solutions instead of a specific definitive design. The methodology uses shape grammars as a process for generating urban design. In this approach, design becomes a system of solutions rather than a specific one. Through the analyses of a group of urban plans, a design methodology was sketched in which rules are used to enable more flexibility. These plans where chosen for their perceived qualities in terms of language, planning efficiency, and latent flexibility. As a result, a four-phased methodology was identified and thus, proposed for designing urban plans. This methodology was then combined with shape grammars and tested in a design studio setting. Students were asked to use the methodology and shape grammars as auxiliary instruments in the design of a flexible plan for a new town. In the following year, to simulate real-world conditions and oblige students to consider urban ordering and scale, work was structured differently. First, students were asked to develop a rule-based urban plan as in the previous year. Second, they were asked to conceive a detail plan for a sector of an urban plan defined by another group of students following its rules. The plans were then analysed with the goal of refining the methodology. Results show that shape grammars produce urban plans with non-definitive formal solutions, while keeping a consistent spatial language. They also provide plans with explicit and implicit flexibility, thereby giving future designers a wider degree of freedom. Finally, they provide students with a concrete methodology for approaching urban design and foster the development of additional designing skills.
keywords Shape Grammars, Flexible Urban Design
series eCAADe
email josebeirao@netc.pt
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id acadia05_156
id acadia05_156
authors Cabrinha, Mark
year 2005
title From Bézier to NURBS: Integrating Material and Digital Techniques through a Plywood Shell
source Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies [Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 0-9772832-0-8] Savannah (Georgia) 13-16 October 2005, pp. 156-169
summary The development of digital fabrication has reintroduced material processes with digital processes. There has been much discussion about the tool and the objects of the tool, but little discussion of the implication of the material process on the digital process. A brief historical review on the development of computer numerical control and the origins of the Bézier curve reveals an instrumental fact: computer numerical controlled tools necessitated advancements in computational surfaces which eventually led to NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines) surfaces. In other words, the origins of NURBS surfaces resides in its relation to material processes, rather than many current approaches that develop free form surfaces and then force the tool onto the material without regard to the material properties. From this historical and mathematical review, this project develops toward more intelligent construction methods based on the integration of NURBS differential geometry paired with material qualities and processes. Specifically, a digital technique of developing conceptual NURBS geometry into piecewise surface patches are then flattened based on the material thickness and density. From these flattened patches, a material technique is developed to intelligently remove material to allow the rigid flat material to re-develop into physical surface patches. The goal of this research is to develop digital and material techniques toward intelligent construction based on the correspondence between digitally driven surface and digitally driven material processes. The application of this technique as a rational and flexible system is to support the dynamic response of form and material toward such performative aspects as structure, daylight, ventilation, and thermal properties.
series ACADIA
email cabrinharch@yahoo.com
last changed 2005/10/25 16:52

_id cf2011_p027
id cf2011_p027
authors Herssens, Jasmien; Heylighen Ann
year 2011
title A Framework of Haptic Design Parameters for Architects: Sensory Paradox Between Content and Representation
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 685-700.
summary Architects—like other designers—tend to think, know and work in a visual way. In design research, this way of knowing and working is highly valued as paramount to design expertise (Cross 1982, 2006). In case of architecture, however, it is not only a particular strength, but may as well be regarded as a serious weakness. The absence of non-visual features in traditional architectural spatial representations indicates how these are disregarded as important elements in conceiving space (Dischinger 2006). This bias towards vision, and the suppression of other senses—in the way architecture is conceived, taught and critiqued—results in a disappearance of sensory qualities (Pallasmaa 2005). Nevertheless, if architects design with more attention to non visual senses, they are able to contribute to more inclusive environments. Indeed if an environment offers a range of sensory triggers, people with different sensory capacities are able to navigate and enjoy it. Rather than implementing as many sensory triggers as possible, the intention is to make buildings and spaces accessible and enjoyable for more people, in line with the objective of inclusive design (Clarkson et al. 2007), also called Design for All or Universal Design (Ostroff 2001). Within this overall objective, the aim of our study is to develop haptic design parameters that support architects during design in paying more attention to the role of haptics, i.e. the sense of touch, in the built environment by informing them about the haptic implications of their design decisions. In the context of our study, haptic design parameters are defined as variables that can be decided upon by designers throughout the design process, and the value of which determines the haptic characteristics of the resulting design. These characteristics are based on the expertise of people who are congenitally blind, as they are more attentive to non visual information, and of professional caregivers working with them. The parameters do not intend to be prescriptive, nor to impose a particular method. Instead they seek to facilitate a more inclusive design attitude by informing designers and helping them to think differently. As the insights from the empirical studies with people born blind and caregivers have been reported elsewhere (Authors 2010), this paper starts by outlining the haptic design parameters resulting from them. Following the classification of haptics into active, dynamic and passive touch, the built environment unfolds into surfaces that can act as “movement”, “guiding” and/or “rest” plane. Furthermore design techniques are suggested to check the haptic qualities during the design process. Subsequently, the paper reports on a focus group interview/workshop with professional architects to assess the usability of the haptic design parameters for design practice. The architects were then asked to try out the parameters in the context of a concrete design project. The reactions suggest that the participating architects immediately picked up the underlying idea of the parameters, and recognized their relevance in relation to the design project at stake, but that their representation confronts us with a sensory paradox: although the parameters question the impact of the visual in architectural design, they are meant to be used by designers, who are used to think, know and work in a visual way.
keywords blindness, design parameters, haptics, inclusive design, vision
series CAAD Futures
email jherssens@gmail.com
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id acadia05_192
id acadia05_192
authors Modeen, Th,, Pasquire, C. and Soar, R.
year 2005
title Design Ground - An Iconic Tactile Surface
source Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies [Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 0-9772832-0-8] Savannah (Georgia) 13-16 October 2005, pp. 192-199
summary This paper forms an intermediary summary of a project which aim is to suggest an alternate methodology for utilizing additive Rapid Manufacturing (an evolved rendition of Rapid Prototyping), for the conceptualization and fabrication of design and architecture. It plans to do so by establishing a methodology that is innate and a direct reflection of the additive RM production process. The project also aims to address the seemingly divisive discrepancy between the process of digitally conceiving a design and the intrinsically somatic way we perceive it. Such aims are explored through a surface design that is not predominantly guided by visually derived nodes but instead relies on a form of ‘tactile iconography’ as a means for expressing and amplifying various qualities and elements found in its vernacular. The resulting design would be very difficult, if not impossible, to make by any other means.
series ACADIA
email thomas@small-architecture.com
last changed 2005/10/25 16:52

_id cf2011_p115
id cf2011_p115
authors Pohl, Ingrid; Hirschberg Urs
year 2011
title Sensitive Voxel - A reactive tangible surface
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 525-538.
summary Haptic and tactile sensations, the active or passive exploration of our built surroundings through our sense of touch, give us a direct feeling and detailed information of space, a sense of architecture (Pallasmaa 2005). This paper presents the prototype of a reactive surface system, which focuses its output on the sense of touch. It explains how touch sensations influence the perception of architecture and discusses potential applications that might arise from such systems in the future. A growing number of projects demonstrate the strong impact of interaction design on the human senses and perception. They offer new ways of sensing and experiencing architectural space. But the majority of these interaction concepts focus on visual and auditory output-effects. The sense of touch is typically used as an input generator, but neglected as as a potential receiver of stimuli. With all the possibilities of sensors and micro-devices available nowadays, there is no longer a technical reason for this. It is possible to explore a much wider range of sense responding projects, to broaden the horizon of sensitive interaction concepts (Bullivant 2006). What if the surfaces of our surroundings can actively change the way it feels to touch them? What if things like walls and furniture get the ability to interactively respond to our touch? What new dimensions of communication and esthetic experience will open up when we conceive of tangibility in this bi-directional way? This paper presents a prototype system aimed at exploring these very questions. The prototype consists of a grid of tangible embedded cells, each one combining three kinds of actuators to produce divergent touch stimuli. All cells can be individually controlled from an interactive computer program. By providing a layering of different combinations and impulse intensities, the grid structure enables altering patterns of actuation. Thus it can be employed to explore a sort of individual touch aesthetic, for which - in order to differentiate it from established types of aesthetic experiences - we have created the term 'Euhaptics' (from the Greek ευ = good and άπτω = touch, finger). The possibility to mix a wide range of actuators leads to blending options of touch stimuli. The sense of touch has an expanded perception- spectrum, which can be exploited by this technically embedded superposition. The juxtaposed arrangement of identical multilayered cell-units offers blending and pattern effects of different touch-stimuli. It reveals an augmented form of interaction with surfaces and interactive material structures. The combination of impulses does not need to be fixed a priori; it can be adjusted during the process of use. Thus the sensation of touch can be made personally unique in its qualities. The application on architectural shapes and surfaces allows the user to feel the sensations in a holistic manner – potentially on the entire body. Hence the various dimensions of touch phenomena on the skin can be explored through empirical investigations by the prototype construction. The prototype system presented in the paper is limited in size and resolution, but its functionality suggests various directions of further development. In architectural applications, this new form of overlay may lead to create augmented environments that let inhabitants experience multimodal touch sensations. By interactively controlling the sensual patterns, such environments could get a unique “touch” for every person that inhabit them. But there may be further applications that go beyond the interactive configuration of comfort, possibly opening up new forms of communication for handicapped people or applications in medical and therapeutic fields (Grunwald 2001). The well-known influence of touch- sensations on human psychological processes and moreover their bodily implications suggest that there is a wide scope of beneficial utilisations yet to be investigated.
keywords Sensitive Voxel- A reactive tangible surface
series CAAD Futures
email inge@sbox.tugraz.at
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p051
id cf2011_p051
authors Cote, Pierre; Mohamed-Ahmed Ashraf, Tremblay Sebastien
year 2011
title A Quantitative Method to Compare the Impact of Design Mediums on the Architectural Ideation Process.
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 539-556.
summary If we compare the architectural design process to a black box system, we can assume that we now know quite well both inputs and outputs of the system. Indeed, everything about the early project either feasibility studies, programming, context integration, site analysis (urban, rural or natural), as well as the integration of participants in a collaborative process can all be considered to initiate and sustain the architectural design and ideation process. Similarly, outputs from that process are also, and to some extent, well known and identifiable. We are referring here, among others, to the project representations or even to the concrete building construction and its post-evaluation. But what about the black box itself that produces the ideation. This is the question that attempts to answer the research. Currently, very few research works linger to identify how the human brain accomplishes those tasks; how to identify the cognitive functions that are playing this role; to what extent they operate and complement each other, and among other things, whether there possibly a chain of causality between these functions. Therefore, this study proposes to define a model that reflects the activity of the black box based on the cognitive activity of the human brain. From an extensive literature review, two cognitive functions have been identified and are investigated to account for some of the complex cognitive activity that occurs during a design process, namely the mental workload and mental imagery. These two variables are measured quantitatively in the context of real design task. Essentially, the mental load is measured using a Bakan's test and the mental imagery with eyes tracking. The statistical software G-Power was used to identify the necessary subject number to obtain for significant variance and correlation result analysis. Thus, in the context of an exploratory research, to ensure effective sample of 0.25 and a statistical power of 0.80, 32 participants are needed. All these participants are students from 3rd, 4th or 5th grade in architecture. They are also very familiar with the architectural design process and the design mediums used, i.e., analog model, freehand drawing and CAD software, SketchUp. In three experimental sessions, participants were asked to design three different projects, namely, a bus shelter, a recycling station and a public toilet. These projects were selected and defined for their complexity similarity, taking into account the available time of 22 minutes, using all three mediums of design, and this in a randomly manner to avoid the order effect. To analyze the two cognitive functions (mental load and mental imagery), two instruments are used. Mental imagery is measured using eye movement tracking with monitoring and quantitative analysis of scan paths and the resulting number and duration of participant eye fixations (Johansson et al, 2005). The mental workload is measured using the performance of a modality hearing secondary task inspired by Bakan'sworks (Bakan et al.; 1963). Each of these three experimental sessions, lasting 90 minutes, was composed of two phases: 1. After calibrating the glasses for eye movement, the subject had to exercise freely for 3 minutes while wearing the glasses and headphones (Bakan task) to get use to the wearing hardware. Then, after reading the guidelines and criteria for the design project (± 5 minutes), he had 22 minutes to execute the design task on a drawing table allowing an upright posture. Once the task is completed, the subject had to take the NASA TLX Test, on the assessment of mental load (± 5 minutes) and a written post-experimental questionnaire on his impressions of the experiment (± 10 minutes). 2. After a break of 5-10 minutes, the participant answered a psychometric test, which is different for each session. These tests (± 20 minutes) are administered in the same order to each participant. Thus, in the first experimental session, the subject had to take the psychometric test from Ekstrom et al. (1978), on spatial performance (Factor-Referenced Cognitive Tests Kit). During the second session, the cognitive style is evaluated using Oltman's test (1971). Finally, in the third and final session, participant creativity is evaluated using Delis-Kaplan test (D-KEFS), Delis et al. (2001). Thus, this study will present the first results of quantitative measures to establish and validate the proposed model. Furthermore, the paper will also discuss the relevance of the proposed approach, considering that currently teaching of ideation in ours schools of architecture in North America is essentially done in a holistic manner through the architectural project.
keywords design, ideation process, mental workload, mental imagery, quantitative mesure
series CAAD Futures
email pierre.cote@arc.ulaval.ca
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ddss2006-hb-187
id DDSS2006-HB-187
authors Lidia Diappi and Paola Bolchi
year 2006
title Gentrification Waves in the Inner-City of Milan - A multi agent / cellular automata model based on Smith's Rent Gap theory
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) 2006, Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Dordrecht: Springer, ISBN-10: 1-4020-5059-3, ISBN-13: 978-1-4020-5059-6, p. 187-201
summary The aim of this paper is to investigate the gentrification process by applying an urban spatial model of gentrification, based on Smith's (1979; 1987; 1996) Rent Gap theory. The rich sociological literature on the topic mainly assumes gentrification to be a cultural phenomenon, namely the result of a demand pressure of the suburban middle and upper class, willing to return to the city (Ley, 1980; Lipton, 1977, May, 1996). Little attempt has been made to investigate and build a sound economic explanation on the causes of the process. The Rent Gap theory (RGT) of Neil Smith still represents an important contribution in this direction. At the heart of Smith's argument there is the assumption that gentrification takes place because capitals return to the inner city, creating opportunities for residential relocation and profit. This paper illustrates a dynamic model of Smith's theory through a multi-agent/ cellular automata system approach (Batty, 2005) developed on a Netlogo platform. A set of behavioural rules for each agent involved (homeowner, landlord, tenant and developer, and the passive 'dwelling' agent with their rent and level of decay) are formalised. The simulations show the surge of neighbouring degradation or renovation and population turn over, starting with different initial states of decay and estate rent values. Consistent with a Self Organized Criticality approach, the model shows that non linear interactions at local level may produce different configurations of the system at macro level. This paper represents a further development of a previous version of the model (Diappi, Bolchi, 2005). The model proposed here includes some more realistic factors inspired by the features of housing market dynamics in the city of Milan. It includes the shape of the potential rent according to city form and functions, the subdivision in areal submarkets according to the current rents, and their maintenance levels. The model has a more realistic visualisation of the city and its form, and is able to show the different dynamics of the emergent neighbourhoods in the last ten years in Milan.
keywords Multi agent systems, Housing market, Gentrification, Emergent systems
series DDSS
last changed 2006/08/29 10:55

_id sigradi2005_459
id sigradi2005_459
authors Monrás Charles, María José; Sebastián Graf Seballos
year 2005
title Architecture now! = contemporary imagination + new information technologies
source SIGraDi 2005 - [Proceedings of the 9th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Lima - Peru 21-24 november 2005, vol. 1, pp. 459-462
summary The development of the architectural project is conditioned and determined by the design process, in which the operative modalities have big influence. That is why we can dare say, that the use of digital media and new information technologies in the architectural design process open the way to a “new architecture”, an architecture that represents the Contemporary Imagination. A change has taken place in the traditional patterns of Architecture, from the way of thinking and conceiving a project to its representation and later materialization. This “Contemporary Architecture”, founded in the circumstances of contemporary society, is represented by three main architectural consequences: 1. The expansion of the Spatial Imagination; 2. The break regarding a lineal or hierarchical design process; 3. The introduction of different disciplines to the design process, relating the design immediately with its realization. [Full paper in Spanish]
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id caadria2005_a_8b_c
id caadria2005_a_8b_c
authors N. Biloria, K. Oosterhuis
year 2005
title Envisioning the RESPONSIVE milieu: An investigation into aspects of ambient intelligence, human machine symbiosis and ubiquitous computing for developing a generic real-time interactive spatial prototype
source CAADRIA 2005 [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] New Delhi (India) 28-30 April 2005, vol. 1, pp. 421-432
summary The research paper exemplifies upon a design-research experiment conducted by the Hyperbody research group (HRG), TU Delft, Faculty of Architecture under the supervision of the Author and Prof. Kas Oosterhuis (director HRG and ONL). The research work, specifically aimed at developing a real-time interactive spatial prototype, fostering multiple usability of space: ‘The Muscle Re-configured’. The ensuing Muscle Re-configured project is essentially an architectural design research undertaking maneuvering on the precincts of augmented and virtual reality, exemplifying a fusion between the material and the digital counterpart of the architectural domain. This fusion is attained through harnessing a synergistic merger between the fields of ambient intelligence, control systems, ubiquitous computing, architectural design, pneumatic systems and computation (real-time game design techniques). The prototype is visualized as a complex adaptive system, continually engaged in activities of data-exchange and optimal augmentation of its (system’s) components in accordance with contextual variations.
series CAADRIA
email N.Biloria@bk.tudelft.nl, oosterhuis@oosterhuis.nl
last changed 2005/04/30 01:30

_id caadria2005_a_1a_d
id caadria2005_a_1a_d
authors Seung Yeon Choo, Stefan Hoff, Rye-Hwa Jung
year 2005
title A Design Checking Tool Based on Aesthetic Properties from Design Theories of Architecture: Focused on Musical Harmony in Architecture
source CAADRIA 2005 [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] New Delhi (India) 28-30 April 2005, vol. 1, pp. 33-44
summary This paper proposes a way how a semantic aesthetic property from architectural theories in the Western world can be integrated into a computer-aided architectural design (CAAD) system. It starts from the premise that computer-aided design tools are mostly aimed at serving as drawing tools which are used only after a design formal solution has already been established by the architect. To support an early design solution in a computer-based environment, a design checking tool was developed and tested in a real building project. This tool gives various design alternatives from the early design phase to the final stage of design details, according to musical harmony. Finally, this paper shows that an aesthetic property from architectural theories can be calculated with the aid of a computerbased design tool, and the used tool played its role as a design assistant in supporting the architectural design.
series CAADRIA
email skkaa2000@yahoo.de
last changed 2005/04/30 01:30

_id cf2011_p018
id cf2011_p018
authors Sokmenoglu, Ahu; Cagdas Gulen, Sariyildiz Sevil
year 2011
title A Multi-dimensional Exploration of Urban Attributes by Data Mining
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 333-350.
summary The paper which is proposed here will introduce an ongoing research project aiming to research data mining as a methodology of knowledge discovery in urban feature analysis. To address the increasing multi-dimensional and relational complexity of urban environments requires a multidisciplinary approach to urban analysis. This research is an attempt to establish a link between knowledge discovery methodologies and automated urban feature analysis. Therefore, in the scope of this research we apply data mining methodologies for urban analysis. Data mining is defined as to extract important patterns and trends from raw data (Witten and Frank, 2005). When applied to discover relationships between urban attributes, data mining can constitute a methodology for the analysis of multi-dimensional relational complexity of urban environments (Gil, Montenegro, Beirao and Duarte, 2009) The theoretical motivation of the research is derived by the lack of explanatory urban knowledge which is an issue since 1970’s in the area of urban research. This situation is mostly associated with deductive methods of analysis. The analysis of urban system from the perspective of few interrelated factors, without considering the multi-dimensionality of the system in a deductive fashion was not been explanatory enough. (Jacobs, 1961, Lefebvre, 1970 Harvey, 1973) To address the multi-dimensional and relational complexity of urban environments requires the consideration of diverse spatial, social, economic, cultural, morphological, environmental, political etc. features of urban entities. The main claim is that, in urban analysis, there is a need to advance from traditional one dimensional (Marshall, 2004) description and classification of urban forms (e.g. Land-use maps, Density maps) to the consideration of the simultaneous multi-dimensionality of urban systems. For this purpose, this research proposes a methodology consisting of the application of data mining as a knowledge discovery method into a GIS based conceptual urban database built out of official real data of Beyoglu. Generally, the proposed methodology is a framework for representing and analyzing urban entities represented as objects with properties (attributes). It concerns the formulation of an urban entity’s database based on both available and non-available (constructed from available data) data, and then data mining of spatial and non-spatial attributes of the urban entities. Location or position is the primary reference basis for the data that is describing urban entities. Urban entities are; building floors, buildings, building blocks, streets, geographically defined districts and neighborhoods etc. Urban attributes are district properties of locations (such as land-use, land value, slope, view and so forth) that change from one location to another. Every basic urban entity is unique in terms of its attributes. All the available qualitative and quantitative attributes that is relavant (in the mind of the analyst) and appropriate for encoding, can be coded inside the computer representation of the basic urban entity. Our methodology is applied by using the real and official, the most complex, complete and up-to-dataset of Beyoglu (a historical neighborhood of Istanbul) that is provided by the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (IBB). Basically, in our research, data mining in the context of urban data is introduced as a computer based, data-driven, context-specific approach for supporting analysis of urban systems without relying on any existing theories. Data mining in the context of urban data; • Can help in the design process by providing site-specific insight through deeper understanding of urban data. • Can produce results that can assist architects and urban planners at design, policy and strategy levels. • Can constitute a robust scientific base for rule definition in urban simulation applications such as urban growth prediction systems, land-use simulation models etc. In the paper, firstly we will present the framework of our research with an emphasis on its theoretical background. Afterwards we will introduce our methodology in detail and finally we will present some of important results of data mining analysis processed in Rapid Miner open-source software. Specifically, our research define a general framework for knowledge discovery in urban feature analysis and enable the usage of GIS and data mining as complementary applications in urban feature analysis. Acknowledgments I would like to thank to Nuffic, the Netherlands Organization for International Cooperation in Higher Education, for funding of this research. I would like to thank Ceyhun Burak Akgul for his support in Data Mining and to H. Serdar Kaya for his support in GIS.
keywords urban feature analysis, data mining, urban database, urban complexity, GIS
series CAAD Futures
email ahusokmenoglu@yahoo.com
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id 2005_221
id 2005_221
authors Sousa, José Pedro and Duarte, José Pinto
year 2005
title Digital Desires, Material Realities
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 221-228
summary Digital design and manufacturing technologies are progressively employed in building construction and architects interest in this field has grown widely, as many recent works, publications and scientific meetings demonstrate. By identifying some of the main reasons and expectations that were at the basis of the integration of CAD/CAM processes in the discipline, this paper examines the real success of these technological developments in contemporary architecture. By analyzing current work and literature the authors argue that there is often a discrepancy between the discourse on emerging new conditions for the practice, and the practical reality itself. To investigate this technological gap, the paper discusses in depth one of the most advocated promises of these new technologies: the feasible mass production of differentiation. Considering design intent, available CNC fabrication processes and material properties, it describes and critically analyses different strategies for building architectural surfaces, presenting specific examples from contemporary architecture. Realizing that there are technological limitations in the fulfillment of conceptual aspirations, this paper identifies possible innovative directions in building construction, based on the idea of structural performative surfaces. Finally, the authors reflect on the specific nature of architecture, distinguishing it from other areas that also employ digital technologies, to frame, from within the discipline, the technological expectations and its potential further developments.
keywords CAD/CAM, Digital Fabrication, CNC Technologies, Rationalization, Mass-Customization
series eCAADe
email jps-x@mail.telepac.pt
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id 2005_341
id 2005_341
authors Uddin, M. Saleh
year 2005
title Animation Techniques to Represent Graphic Analysis of Architecture: A Case Study of Richard Meier’s Atheneum
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 341-348
summary It is debatable whether design can be taught. Frank Lloyd Wright himself mentioned that architecture should be taught by its principles, discerning the principles underlying in works by various architects. In the absence of thoroughly satisfactory methods of combining various means of digital representation for analysis, this paper investigates the features of 3D computer models; in particular, its animation environment to aid graphic analysis of built forms. Computer 3D animations, which are generated from 3D models, have an unparalleled capability to demonstrate spatial experience. Animations can also manipulate the constitute components of the spatial structure, thus illustrating analytically the composition of a building or object. The most significant aspect of 3D animation is in its flexibility of manipulation of various physical and rendering attributes of a 3D model. For the purpose of case study analysis, Richard Meier’s Atheneum in New Harmony, Indiana is chosen for its clarity in design elements and demonstration of applicable principles. Through various animation clips, the basic techniques are illustrated as an effective method of communicating concepts of graphic analysis.
keywords 3D Animation, Analytic Diagram, Form Analysis, Design Principles, 3D Model
series eCAADe
email UddinSaleh@aol.com
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id 2005_639
id 2005_639
authors Zupancic Strojan, Tadeja and Mullins, Michael
year 2005
title Excellence Criteria of Science in Architecture
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 639-646
summary The relation of the architectural community to the generally established scientific rules always seems to be problematic. The same refers to the general trend of increasing quantity by neglecting quality at the same time. Nevertheless, the present situation of the rising quantification in comparison to the wider context calls for special attention. The extent of socio-spatial consequences requires the identification of the wider system references, useful to introduce the lacking cultural criteria into the general evaluation system. Combined with the identification of the ‘scientific’ level in architecture, this could change the perception that architectural design lacks its scientific tradition. Both may stimulate architects to take their own scientific traditions more seriously, enhancing the tradition itself. The paper contributes to the discussion about the excellence criteria of science in architecture with the explanation of the ‘formal’ proofs of relevance and vitality of architectural research to replace the favoritised ‘impact factor’ differentiation, where it is still (or even more intensively) taken as the key criterion of research excellence.
keywords Database Systems, Communication, Collaborative Design, Prediction and Evaluation
series eCAADe
type normal paper
email tadeja.zupancic@arh.uni-lj.si
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id cf2005_1_22_147
id cf2005_1_22_147
authors CHAN Chiu-Shui, DANG Anrong and TONG Ziyu
year 2005
title A 3D Model of the Inner City of Beijing
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2005 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 1-4020-3460-1] Vienna (Austria) 20–22 June 2005, pp. 63-72
summary This study has two major concentrations: 1) exploring methods of creating a digital city model, and 2) applying the model to study urban spatial structure, an issue of particular interest and importance to urban planners. Based on existing studies that primarily address two-dimensional (2D) urban structure, this paper focuses on the three-dimensional (3D) structure relating to the 3D urban form. Given their greater clarity and possibilities for quantitative analysis, both 3D digital urban models and GIS spatial overlay analysis methods hold tremendous potential for analysing and predicting future urban form. In this project, the Xidan Business District in Beijing's Inner City was the area selected to implement the digital-city application. Under the hypothesis that the existing urban spatial structure is determined by the city's urban planning scheme and current urban marketing forces, it is found that actual urban development does not follow the planning restrictions on zoning and building height regulations. Some contradictions and conflicts, such as building location and height, appeared in the studied district. The specific reasons for the discrepancies need to be further studied.
keywords 3D city modeling, GIS, remote sensing, virtual environments
series CAAD Futures
email cschan@iastate.edu
last changed 2006/11/07 06:27

_id acadia05_128
id acadia05_128
authors Sanchez-Del-Valle, Carmina
year 2005
title Adaptive Kinetic Architecture: A Portal To Digital Prototyping
source Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies [Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 0-9772832-0-8] Savannah (Georgia) 13-16 October 2005, pp. 128-140
summary This paper presents a definition for adaptive kinetic structures in architecture, generated from an examination of research in engineering and architecture. This characterization introduces the challenges presented both by modeling form and environment, and simulating their interaction. Adaptive kinetic structures react to a changing environment, as well as generate their own. These conditions make them appropriate subjects through which the design and implementation of tools for ‘digital prototyping’ may be explored. Digital prototyping serves performance and simulation-based design. In general terms, it is an interdisciplinary integrated approach for modeling, predicting, and analyzing the behavior of a system. It is at the core of virtual engineering. In the aerospace, automobile, and manufacturing industries, it is practiced extensively through discrete-event and continuous simulations, as well as simulation environments. This paper provides an overview of digital prototyping commercial software for engineering applications that can be transferred to architecture, and identifies some of the unresolved issues. It thereby extends the vision of the comprehensive building information modeling initiative.
series ACADIA
email carmina.sanchez@hamptonu.edu
last changed 2005/10/25 16:52

_id 2005_155
id 2005_155
authors Mullins, Michael, Kirkegaard, Poul Henning, Jessen, Rasmus Zederkof and Klitgaard Jens
year 2005
title A Topology Optimization Approach to Learning in Architectural Design
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 155-162
summary Topology optimization methods offer an interesting tool for architects and engineers as a rational basis for the choice of a structure’s initial form, particularly as developments in computer software are compatible with this approach. This can be argued from ecology, resource savings, static load design, financial and a number of other pragmatic reasons. But in an artistic/architectural perspective these are not decisive. Analogical design qualities include a tectonic appreciation of the properties of materials, metaphoric interpretation of intention and considerations of context. The paper describes an attempt to unify analytic and analogical approaches in an architectural education setting, using topology optimization software. It uses as examples recent student projects where the architectural design process based on a topology optimization approach has been investigated. The paper describes and presents results obtained by the students during the project. Further, a discussion is delivered concerning the improved understanding of tectonic design obtained by the student during the projects.
keywords Architectural Education, Topology Optimization, Tectonic Design
series eCAADe
email i5phk@civil.auc.dk
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id sigradi2005_755
id sigradi2005_755
authors Mántaras, Guillermo J.
year 2005
title Virtual unreality
source SIGraDi 2005 - [Proceedings of the 9th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Lima - Peru 21-24 november 2005, vol. 2, pp. 755-759
summary What will be waiting for the man of a virtual, parallel world, conceived by another man? Inasmuch as a virtual atmosphere does not possess weather, there is no day or nights, simply there is no sky, and if there is neither sky nor ground it does not have an above or below and of course there is no gravity. In such case why would we need walls and windows? Would we need streets to circulate? Why would we walk or fly? Today, digital media bring the necessary tools to shape, to represent and to live impossible experiences within a world where all imaginable phenomena is possible. Our experience aims to explore an approach of the student towards the new processes of design in order to contrive new spaces, taking care of not falling in an exclusively aesthetic objective but reflecting on the characteristics and qualities that a virtual space and its matter must have. In order to be able to conceive them we must use and teach digital media stimulating the students to harness its “non-reality”. [Full paper in Spanish]
series SIGRADI
email gcarbo@fadu.unl.edu.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id ecaade2017_184
id ecaade2017_184
authors Almeida, Daniel and Sousa, José Pedro
year 2017
title Tradition and Innovation in Digital Architecture - Reviewing the Serpentine Gallery Pavilion 2005
source Fioravanti, A, Cursi, S, Elahmar, S, Gargaro, S, Loffreda, G, Novembri, G, Trento, A (eds.), ShoCK! - Sharing Computational Knowledge! - Proceedings of the 35th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy, 20-22 September 2017, pp. 267-276
summary Please write your aToday, in a moment when digital technologies are taking command of many architectural design and construction processes, it is important to examine the place and role of traditional ones. Designed by Álvaro Siza and Eduardo Souto de Moura in collaboration with Cecil Balmond, the Serpentine Gallery Pavilion 2005 reflects the potential of combining those two different approaches in the production of innovative buildings. For inquiring this argument, this paper investigates the development of this project from its conception to construction with a double goal: to uncover the relationship between analogical and digital processes, and to understand the architects' role in a geographically distributed workflow, which involved the use of computational design and robotic fabrication technologies. To support this examination, the authors designed and fabricated a 1:3 scale prototype of part of the Pavilion, which also served to check and reflect on the technological evolution since then, which is setting different conditions for design development and collaboration.bstract here by clicking this paragraph.
keywords Serpentine Gallery Pavilion; Computational Design; Digital Fabrication; Wooden Construction; Architectural Representation;
series eCAADe
email jsousa@arq.up.pt
last changed 2017/09/13 13:13

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