CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 608

_id ijac20064104
id ijac20064104
authors Sass, Larry
year 2006
title A wood frame grammar: A generative system for digital fabrication
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 4 - no. 1, 51-67
summary A novel design system is presented that generates information for house construction exclusively from 3/4" plywood sheets. A shape grammar routine is employed to subdivide an initial solid shape into constructible components for desktop digital fabrication and design evaluation as a physical model. Once approved final construction can happen with components cut on a CNC wood router after the design has been validated by a laser cut model. Shape grammar rule format is used to design functions that build geometry later converted to a scripting language in CAD. Future goals for the grammar are to develop a complete CAD program that translates 3D designs to 2D drawings for flat digital fabrication. The ultimate goal of the program is to automate the translation of solid models to information for digital fabrication. Currently a manual process the translation allows the designer to focus on the visual aspects of evaluation at any scale with little concern for constructability.
keywords CNC; Shape Grammars; Scripting
series journal
email lsass@mit.edu
more http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/mscp/ijac/2006/00000004/00000001/art00005
last changed 2007/03/04 06:08

_id ddss2006-pb-415
id DDSS2006-PB-415
authors Ching-Shun Tang
year 2006
title Smart Structure: Designs with Rapid Prototyping
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) 2006, Progress in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Eindhoven: Eindhoven University of Technology, ISBN-10: 90-386-1756-9, ISBN-13: 978-90-386-1756-5, p. 415-429
summary This research presents the new orientation of the combination of digital modelling with generative programming and joint method of traditional wood structure for manipulating Rapid Prototyping to explore the assembling of free form objects. The presenting of the example indicates that the edition of Maya scripts defines the purpose of design. Through the discussion on scripts developing the assembly of the free-form objects of frames and surfaces and through the achievement that RP produces and examines objects, we bring out the possibilities of the new form developed from the old structure and illustrate how to develop our hypothesis. The developed result could provide the possible new way for free-form assembly. We expatiate our research process and final achievement and provide a new thinking direction in the education field.
keywords CAD/CAM, Digital fabrication, Rapid prototyping, Traditional wood structure
series DDSS
last changed 2006/08/29 10:55

_id 2006_342
id 2006_342
authors Lyon, Eduardo
year 2006
title Component Based Design and Digital Manufacturing - A DfM Model for Curved Surfaces Fabrication using Three Axis CNC Router
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 342-350
summary Through the use of design for manufacturing (DfM) method and looking at the relations between its potential application in architectural production and its implementation using digital manufacturing technologies, we analyze building construction processes and explore, in more detail curved surface fabrication using two dimensional cutting and three dimensional milling processes. Afterwards a DfM model for curved surfaces fabrication using three-axis computer numerical control (CNC) router is proposed. The proposed DfM model relies fundamentally in two supporting factors; the implementation of design heuristics that integrates production knowledge and the availability of some design related to production evaluation metrics. Subsequently, we test and refine the model using structured design experiences. This was accomplished by capturing new design heuristics and detecting useful evaluation metrics for production. In the final part of the research, a refined DfM model was tested in a component design case study. The case study is based on producing a curved surface module on wood for an existing proprietary component based wall system. As a summary, we conceptualize from this top-down development approach to create a design for manufacturing model that integrates design and construction in architecture, based on three possible applications fields: Design processes improvement, building production process improvement, CAD-CAM tools development. Our purpose is to provide better foundational constructs and approaches for integrating design with manufacturing in architecture.
keywords Design for Manufacturing; Design Cognition; Digital Fabrication
series eCAADe
email eduardo.lyon@coa.gatech.edu
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id ijac20064407
id ijac20064407
authors Sass, Lawrence; Botha, Marcel
year 2006
title The Instant House:A Model of Design Production with Digital Fabrication
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 4 - no. 4, pp. 109-123
summary Through a novel design production system, we have developed the ability to produce highly customized wood framed buildings for rural communities in need of designed environments. A definitive need exists for a system that rapidly deploys small buildings such as schools, small hospitals and houses while tailored for a specific design within a community. This paper describes the relationship of digital fabrication to materials and rules for design and fabrication. By example, this paper presents a process of construction of a small house on-site from an initial computer model in sequential stages. Our case study in this paper will express possibilities with digital fabrication for building with designed variation.
series journal
more http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/mscp/ijac/2006/00000004/00000004/art00008
last changed 2007/03/04 06:08

_id ecaade2007_143
id ecaade2007_143
authors Ulmer, Andreas; Halatsch, Jan; Kunze, Antje; Müller, Pascal; Gool, Luc Van
year 2007
title Procedural Design of Urban Open Spaces
source Predicting the Future [25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-6-5] Frankfurt am Main (Germany) 26-29 September 2007, pp. 351-358
summary This paper presents a novel approach for the automatic creation of vegetation scenarios in real or virtual 3D cities in order to simplify the complex design process and time consuming modeling tasks in urban landscape planning. We introduce shape grammars as a practical tool for the rule-based generation of urban open spaces. The automatically generated designs can be used for pre-visualization, master planning, guided design variation and digital content creation in general (e.g. for the entertainment industry). In a first step, we extend the CGA shape grammar by Müller et al. (2006) with urban planning operations. In a second step, we employ the possibilities of shape grammars to encode design patterns (Alexander et al., 1977). Therefore, we propose several examples of design patterns allowing for an intuitive high-level placement of objects common in urban open spaces (e.g. plants). Furthermore, arbitrary interactions between distinct instances of the vegetation and the urban environment can be encoded. With the resulting system, the designer can efficiently vegetate landscape and city parks, alleys, gardens, patios and even single buildings by applying the corresponding shape grammar rules. Our results demonstrate the procedural design process on two practical example scenarios, each one covering a different scale and different contexts of planning. The first example illustrates a derivation of the Garden of Versailles and the second example describes the usage of high-level rule sets to generate a suburbia model.
keywords City modeling, design methodology, generative design, simulation, virtual environments
series eCAADe
email halatsch@arch.ethz.ch, kunze@arch.ethz.ch
last changed 2007/09/16 15:55

_id acadia06_440
id acadia06_440
authors Bell, Brad
year 2006
title The Aggregate of Continuum
source Synthetic Landscapes [Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture] pp. 440-454
summary The Traversable Matrix (Fig. 1.) illustrates the iterative fragments that comprise the continuum of exploration for a digital aesthetic and digital tectonic. These non-hierarchical fragments operate as footholds across a larger tessellated landscape of current digital design explorations. In seeking an organizational strategy, we attempt to move laterally across a variety of examples, texts, and illustrations. Each short excerpt is a partial architecture illustrating deeper issues in the current discussion of digital fabrication. Though counter to conventional academic inquiry, the associative approach can help frame the matrix; the synthetic landscape traversed becomes less linear, less framed but no less interconnected and cohesive. The patterning of complex geometries, the production of ornament, the leveraging of digital fabrication against standard forms of material and construction practices, and the acute emphasis on surface all serve as the aggregate to a broader spectrum of architectural thinking and architectural making.Introduction: The Traversable Matrix
series ACADIA
email bbell@uta.edu
last changed 2006/09/22 06:22

_id sigradi2006_c017c
id sigradi2006_c017c
authors de la Barrera Poblete, Carlos Ignacio
year 2006
title Algoritmos Evolutivos como Modelo Propositivo de Diseño [Evolutionary Algorithms for Supple Design Systems]
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 273-277
summary The study uses a repetitive rule of geometric and arithmetical expression, cradle in the movement of the horse in the chess, as displacement continued within a well-known field. Each jump is an iteration of the algorithm, and does that a gene initiator mute, varying its genetic information in its chromosome. This Evolutionary Algorithm is used like an explorer of the space, which tends to move according to a pre-established atmosphere in the programming. The Evolutionary Algorithm imitates the biological evolution as strategy to solve design problems. Its unexpected answers and without direct intervention of a designer, is a family of forms with small variations among them, where each member is a possible solution to the problem. The Generative Calculation depends on its rules, and in this sense he is as genuine as the behaviour of any natural biological system.
series SIGRADI
email delab77@hotmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:50

_id ijac20064307
id ijac20064307
authors Goldberg, Sergio Araya
year 2006
title Computational Design of Parametric Scripts for Digital Fabrication of Curved Structures
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 4 - no. 3, 99-117
summary This paper explores strategies for building toolchains to design, develop and fabricate architectural designs. It explains how complex curved structures can be constructed from flat standard panels. The hypothesis of this research is that by embedding ruled based procedures addressing generative, variational, iterative, and fabricational logics into early phases of design, both design techniques and digital fabrication methods can merge to solve a recurrent problem in contemporary architectural design, building double curved structures. Furthermore it achieves this using common fabrication methods and standard construction materials. It describes the processes of programming computational tools creating and developing designs to fabricate continuous complex curved structures. I describe this through a series of experiments, using parametric design environments and scripted functions, implementing certain techniques to fabricate these designs using rapid prototyping machines. Comparing different design and fabrication approaches I offer a discussion about universal application of programmed procedures into architectural design.
series journal
last changed 2007/03/04 06:08

_id sigradi2006_e171c
id sigradi2006_e171c
authors González Böhme, Luis Felipe and Vargas Cárdenas, Bernardo
year 2006
title Foundations for a Constraint-Based Floor Plan Layout Support in Participatory Planning of Low-Income Housing
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 283-287
summary We introduce the foundations of a novel approach that deals with constraint-based design methods to supporting participatory planning processes of low-income dwellings. We examine the space allocation problem inside the architectural domain on the basis of graph theory and combinatorics, providing a concise mathematical background for an implementation strategy called FLS (Floor plan Layout Support), which is analyzed here for the first time regarding this particular context of application. The philosophy underlying a design method that is mainly driven by the formulation of distinct constraints suggests to avoid the traditional procedure of first to create a yet not necessarily valid instance of the eventual design solution by directly choosing specific parameter values of its shape, and later on to evaluate its validity by confronting the designed model to a set of applicable constraints. Instead, constraint-based design poses a search procedure that operates in a space of planning-relevant constraint sets. The FLS methodology integrates some few principles of constraint-based automated reasoning with high user interactivity, into a design environment where as much dwellers as planners can collaboratively work in solving spatial organization problems of housing projects. The FLS model of application makes use of a combination of dweller-specified constraints, planning and zoning regulations, and a small library of modular space units. Constraint-based design ! methods are particularly capable of supplying efficient support for the collaborative involvement of dwellers into the architectural programming process of her/his own home. Mainly, because dwellers themselves tend to describe their space need and design intentions as a set of constraints on room quantity, space utilization, circulation system, allocation of available furniture, available budget, construction time, and so forth. The goal is to achieve an integrated tool for finding and modelling topologically valid solutions for floor plan layout alternatives, by combining user-driven interactive procedures with automatic search and generative processes. Thus, several design alternatives can be explored in less time and with less effort than using mainstream procedures of architectural practice. A FLS implementation will constitute one system module of a larger integrated system model called Esther. A FLS tool shall interact with other functional modules, like e.g. the BDS (Building Bulk Design Support), which also uses constraint-based design methods. A preliminary procedural model for the FLS was tested on Chile’s official social housing standards (Chilean Building Code – OGUC. Art. 6.4.1) which are very similar to most Latin American housing programs currently in operation.
keywords constraint-based design; floor plan layout; participatory planning; low-income housing; design theory; design proces
series SIGRADI
email bernardo.vargas@bauing.uni-weimar.de
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id sigradi2006_e028c
id sigradi2006_e028c
authors Griffith, Kenfield; Sass, Larry and Michaud, Dennis
year 2006
title A strategy for complex-curved building design:Design structure with Bi-lateral contouring as integrally connected ribs
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 465-469
summary Shapes in designs created by architects such as Gehry Partners (Shelden, 2002), Foster and Partners, and Kohn Peterson and Fox rely on computational processes for rationalizing complex geometry for building construction. Rationalization is the reduction of a complete geometric shape into discrete components. Unfortunately, for many architects the rationalization is limited reducing solid models to surfaces or data on spread sheets for contractors to follow. Rationalized models produced by the firms listed above do not offer strategies for construction or digital fabrication. For the physical production of CAD description an alternative to the rationalized description is needed. This paper examines the coupling of digital rationalization and digital fabrication with physical mockups (Rich, 1989). Our aim is to explore complex relationships found in early and mid stage design phases when digital fabrication is used to produce design outcomes. Results of our investigation will aid architects and engineers in addressing the complications found in the translation of design models embedded with precision to constructible geometries. We present an algorithmically based approach to design rationalization that supports physical production as well as surface production of desktop models. Our approach is an alternative to conventional rapid prototyping that builds objects by assembly of laterally sliced contours from a solid model. We explored an improved product description for rapid manufacture as bilateral contouring for structure and panelling for strength (Kolarevic, 2003). Infrastructure typically found within aerospace, automotive, and shipbuilding industries, bilateral contouring is an organized matrix of horizontal and vertical interlocking ribs evenly distributed along a surface. These structures are monocoque and semi-monocoque assemblies composed of structural ribs and skinning attached by rivets and adhesives. Alternative, bi-lateral contouring discussed is an interlocking matrix of plywood strips having integral joinery for assembly. Unlike traditional methods of building representations through malleable materials for creating tangible objects (Friedman, 2002), this approach constructs with the implication for building life-size solutions. Three algorithms are presented as examples of rationalized design production with physical results. The first algorithm [Figure 1] deconstructs an initial 2D curved form into ribbed slices to be assembled through integral connections constructed as part of the rib solution. The second algorithm [Figure 2] deconstructs curved forms of greater complexity. The algorithm walks along the surface extracting surface information along horizontal and vertical axes saving surface information resulting in a ribbed structure of slight double curvature. The final algorithm [Figure 3] is expressed as plug-in software for Rhino that deconstructs a design to components for assembly as rib structures. The plug-in also translates geometries to a flatten position for 2D fabrication. The software demonstrates the full scope of the research exploration. Studies published by Dodgson argued that innovation technology (IvT) (Dodgson, Gann, Salter, 2004) helped in solving projects like the Guggenheim in Bilbao, the leaning Tower of Pisa in Italy, and the Millennium Bridge in London. Similarly, the method discussed in this paper will aid in solving physical production problems with complex building forms. References Bentley, P.J. (Ed.). Evolutionary Design by Computers. Morgan Kaufman Publishers Inc. San Francisco, CA, 1-73 Celani, G, (2004) “From simple to complex: using AutoCAD to build generative design systems” in: L. Caldas and J. Duarte (org.) Implementations issues in generative design systems. First Intl. Conference on Design Computing and Cognition, July 2004 Dodgson M, Gann D.M., Salter A, (2004), “Impact of Innovation Technology on Engineering Problem Solving: Lessons from High Profile Public Projects,” Industrial Dynamics, Innovation and Development, 2004 Dristas, (2004) “Design Operators.” Thesis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2004 Friedman, M, (2002), Gehry Talks: Architecture + Practice, Universe Publishing, New York, NY, 2002 Kolarevic, B, (2003), Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, Spon Press, London, UK, 2003 Opas J, Bochnick H, Tuomi J, (1994), “Manufacturability Analysis as a Part of CAD/CAM Integration”, Intelligent Systems in Design and Manufacturing, 261-292 Rudolph S, Alber R, (2002), “An Evolutionary Approach to the Inverse Problem in Rule-Based Design Representations”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 329-350 Rich M, (1989), Digital Mockup, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, VA, 1989 Schön, D., The Reflective Practitioner: How Professional Think in Action. Basic Books. 1983 Shelden, D, (2003), “Digital Surface Representation and the Constructability of Gehry’s Architecture.” Diss. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2003 Smithers T, Conkie A, Doheny J, Logan B, Millington K, (1989), “Design as Intelligent Behaviour: An AI in Design Thesis Programme”, Artificial Intelligence in Design, 293-334 Smithers T, (2002), “Synthesis in Designing”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 3-24 Stiny, G, (1977), “Ice-ray: a note on the generation of Chinese lattice designs” Environmental and Planning B, volume 4, pp. 89-98
keywords Digital fabrication; bilateral contouring; integral connection; complex-curve
series SIGRADI
email kenfield@mit.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id sigradi2006_e090b
id sigradi2006_e090b
authors Hanna, Sean and Turner, Alasdair
year 2006
title Teaching parametric design in code and construction
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 158-161
summary Automated manufacturing processes with the ability to translate digital models into physical form promise both an increase in the complexity of what can be built, and through rapid prototyping, a possibility to experiment easily with tangible examples of the evolving design. The increasing literacy of designers in computer languages, on the other hand, offers a new range of techniques through which the models themselves might be generated. This paper reviews the results of an integrated parametric modelling and digital manufacturing workshop combining participants with a background in computer programming with those with a background in fabrication. Its aim was both to encourage collaboration in a domain that overlaps both backgrounds, as well as to explore the ways in which the two working methods naturally extend the boundaries of traditional parametric design. The types of projects chosen by the students, the working methods adopted and progress made will be discussed in light of future educational possibilities, and of the future direction of parametric tools themselves. Where standard CAD constructs isolated geometric primitives, parametric models allow the user to set up a hierarchy of relationships, deferring such details as specific dimension and sometimes quantity to a later point. Usually these are captured by a geometric schema. Many such relationships in real design however, can not be defined in terms of geometry alone. Logical operations, environmental effects such as lighting and air flow, the behaviour of people and the dynamic behaviour of materials are all essential design parameters that require other methods of definition, including the algorithm. It has been our position that the skills of the programmer are necessary in the future of design. Bentley’s Generative Components software was used as the primary vehicle for the workshop design projects. Built within the familiar Microstation framework, it enables the construction of a parametric model at a range of different interfaces, from purely graphic through to entirely code based, thus allowing the manipulation of such non-geometric, algorithmic relationships as described above. Two-dimensional laser cutting was the primary fabrication method, allowing for rapid manufacturing, and in some cases iterative physical testing. The two technologies have led in the workshop to working methods that extend the geometric schema: the first, by forcing an explicit understanding of design as procedural, and the second by encouraging physical experimentation and optimisation. The resulting projects have tended to focus on responsiveness to conditions either coded or incorporated into experimental loop. Examples will be discussed. While programming languages and geometry are universal in intent, their constraints on the design process were still notable. The default data structures of computer languages (in particular the rectangular array) replace one schema limitation with another. The indexing of data in this way is conceptually hard-wired into much of our thinking both in CAD and in code. Thankfully this can be overcome with a bit of programming, but the number of projects which have required this suggests that more intuitive, or spatial methods of data access might be developed in the future.
keywords generative design; parametric model; teaching
series SIGRADI
email s.hanna@cs.ucl.ac.uk
last changed 2016/03/10 08:53

_id sigradi2006_e081d
id sigradi2006_e081d
authors Hecker, Douglas
year 2006
title Dry-In House: A Mass Customized Affordable House for New Orleans
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 359-362
summary Dry-in house is a mass customized affordable housing system proposed for the reconstruction of New Orleans. The dry-in House gets the owner back to their home site quickly while providing the infrastructure an occupant needs (shelter, water, electricity). The owner is supplied with an inhabitable shell that is customizable before it is fabricated as well as onsite as the project is “fitted out” over time. The key concept is to allow families to participate in the design of their customized homes and to get people back to their home sites as quickly as possible and to give them the opportunity to finish and further customize their home over time. The project addresses inefficiencies and redundancies in emergency housing currently provided by FEMA. Primarily the dry-in House as its name implies provides a timely dried-in space which doubles as a customized infrastructure for the reconstruction of homes and neighborhoods. The project is designed to meet the $59,000 life cycle cost of the presently provided temporary housing, the notorious “FEMA Trailer”. However, the Dry-in House provides a solution that: a) Is permanent rather than temporary. The house will be finished and further customized over time rather than disposed of. b) Reoccupies the owner’s home site rather than a “FEMA ghetto” keeping the community together and functioning. c) Is mass customized rather than mass-standardized allowing the owner to have input on the design of their home. The design is a “starter home” rather than an inflexible and over-determined solution. This also has the benefit of giving variation to the reconstruction of New Orleans as opposed to the monotony of mass-production. d) Allows the owners to further customize their home over time with additional exterior finishes and the subdivision and fit out of the interior. By utilizing plate truss technology and associated parametric modeling software, highly customized trusses can be engineered and fabricated at no additional cost as compared to off-the-shelf trusses. This mass customization technology is employed to create the building section of each individual’s house. The truss is not used in its typical manner, spanning over the house; rather, it is extruded in section to form the house itself (roof, wall, and floor). Dry-in House exploits this building technology to quickly rebuild communities in a sensible manner. It allows for an increased speed of design and construction and most importantly it involves the owner in this process. The process has other benefits like reducing waste not only because it replaces the FEMA trailer which is expensive and disposable but also since the components are prefabricated there is more precision and also quality. The Dry-in House allows the owner-designer to “draw” the section of their new home providing them with a unique design and a sense of belonging and security. The design of the section of the house also provides them with spatial configurations customized relative to site conditions, program etc... Because of the narrow lot configuration of New Orleans, the design maximizes the roof as a source for natural ventilation and light for the interior of the house. In addition, the house is one room deep providing cross ventilation in all rooms minimizing reliance on artificial mechanical systems. The timely and efficient off site fabrication of building sections facilitate larger concentrations of volunteers on site at one time, thereby promoting a greater collective spirit among the community and volunteer workforce, a therapeutic event for the community as they participate in the rebuilding of their homes and city. With individualized building sections arriving on site, the construction process is imagined to be more akin to a barn raising, making possible the drying in of multiple houses in less than one day.
keywords mass customization; digital manufacturing; affordable housing
series SIGRADI
email dhecker@clemson.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:53

_id acadia07_040
id acadia07_040
authors Hyde, Rory
year 2007
title Punching Above Your Weight: Digital Design Methods and Organisational Change in Small Practice
source Expanding Bodies: Art • Cities• Environment [Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 978-0-9780978-6-8] Halifax (Nova Scotia) 1-7 October 2007, 40-47
summary Expanding bodies of knowledge imply expanding teams to manage this knowledge. Paradoxically, it can be shown that in situations of complexity—which increasingly characterise the production of architecture generally—the small practice or small team could be at an advantage. This is due to the increasingly digital nature of the work undertaken and artefacts produced by practices, enabling production processes to be augmented with digital toolsets and for tight project delivery networks to be forged with other collaborators and consultants (Frazer 2006). Furthermore, as Christensen argues, being small may also be desirable, as innovations are less likely to be developed by large, established companies (Christensen 1997). By working smarter, and managing the complexity of design and construction, not only can the small practice “punch above its weight” and compete with larger practices, this research suggests it is a more appropriate model for practice in the digital age. This paper demonstrates this through the implementation of emerging technologies and strategies including generative and parametric design, digital fabrication, and digital construction. These strategies have been employed on a number of built and un-built case-study projects in a unique collaboration between RMIT University’s SIAL lab and the award-winning design practice BKK Architects.
series ACADIA
email rory@b-k-k.com.au
last changed 2007/10/02 06:11

_id sigradi2006_e149b
id sigradi2006_e149b
authors Kendir, Elif
year 2006
title Prêt-à-Construire – An Educational Inquiry into Computer Aided Fabrication
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 162-165
summary This paper aims to show and discuss the relevance of developing necessary strategies for reintegrating the concept of fabrication into the architectural design process. The discussion will be partly based on the outcome of a graduate architectural design studio conducted in Spring semester 2002-2003. The graduate studio was part of a series of exploratory studies conducted on the nature of architectural design process transformed by information technologies. Preceded by studios investigating cognition and representation, this last studio focused on the concept of fabrication. The overarching aim of the studio series was to put CAD and CAM in context both within the actual architectural design process and within architectural education. The last of this series, which will be discussed within the frame of this paper, has specifically focused on CAM and the concept of fabrication in architecture. In accordance with the nature of a design studio, the research was more methodological than technical. The studio derived its main inspiration from the constructional templates used in dressmaking, which can be considered as an initial model for mass customization. In this context, the recladding of Le Corbusier’s Maison Domino was given as the main design problem, along with several methodological constraints. The main constraint was to develop the design idea through constructional drawings instead of representational ones. The students were asked to develop their volumetric ideas through digital 3D CAD models while working out structural solutions on a physical 1/50 model of Maison Domino. There was also a material constraint for the model, where only specified types of non-structural paper could be used. At this stage, origami provided the working model for adding structural strength to sheet materials. The final outcome included the explanation of different surface generation strategies and preliminary design proposals for their subcomponents. The paper will discuss both the utilized methodology and the final outcome along the lines of the issues raised during the studio sessions, some of which could be decisive in the putting into context of CAD – CAM in architectural design process. One such issue is mass customization, that is, the mass production of different specific elements with the help of CAM technologies. Another issue is “open source” design, indicating the possibility of a do-it-yourself architecture, where architecture is coded as information, and its code can be subject to change by different designers. The final key issue is the direct utilization of constructional drawings in the preliminary design phase as opposed to representational ones, which aimed at reminding the designer the final phase of fabrication right from the beginning. Finally, the paper will also point at the problems faced during the conduct of the studio and discuss those in the context of promoting CAM for architectural design and production in countries where there is no actual utilization of these technologies for these purposes yet.
keywords Education; Fabrication; CAM
series SIGRADI
email s3131573@student.rmit.edu.au
last changed 2016/03/10 08:53

_id caadria2006_227
id caadria2006_227
authors KENFIELD GRIFFITH, LARRY SASS
year 2006
title COMPUTING & MATERIALIZING NON-UNIFORM SHAPES: An evolutionary approach to generate and digital fabricate non-uniform masonry walls
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 227-235
summary A novel evolutionary system used for the production of design information for digital fabrication is presented. This program generates information for physical construction as architectural models of double-curved walls built from unique masonry units. We present a series of computer programs and physical models as examples of straight and curved walls generated from an evolutionary system built for design. The wall examples here are built of non-uniform, interlocking units. This project is an exploration of evolutionary design tools that construct double-curved structures in CAD for fabrication with a 3D printer.
series CAADRIA
email kenfield@mit.edu, lsass@mit.edu
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

_id acadia06_064
id acadia06_064
authors Luhan, Gregory A.
year 2006
title Synthetic Making
source Synthetic Landscapes [Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture] pp. 64-67
summary Various approaches of virtual and physical modeling have led to a synthetic form of making that is plastic and scalable in nature. This shift from traditional forms of representing and generating architecture now offers a better possibility of full-scale construction and fabrication processes and links transparently to industry. Architects are beginning to dynamically inform the visioning processes of assemblies and design through a range of precise subassemblies. Further to this end, the synthetic techniques and materials are opening up avenues for designers to investigate a range of fibers and fabrics that radically transform light and color renditions, and texture. Investigations in the realm of traditional materials such as stone, wood, and concrete continue to evolve, as do their associated methods of making. As a result of synthetic technologies, architects today have the possibility to work along side industry engineers and professionals to design castings, moldings, patterns, and tools that challenge not only the architectural work of art, but industrial and product design as well. This cultural shift from physical space to virtual space back to physical space and the combination of hand-, digital-, and robotic-making offers a unique juxtaposition of the built artifact to its manufacturing that challenges both spatial conventions and also the levels of precision and tolerance by which buildings are assembled. Traditional forms of documentation for example result typically in discrepancies between the drawn and the actualized which are now challenged by the level of precision and tolerance at the virtual level. It is within this context that leading-edge architects and designers operate today. Yet, how the profession and the academy respond to these opportunities remains an open line of inquiry and addressing these concerns opens up the rich potential enabled through synthetic making.
series ACADIA
email gregory.luhan@uky.edu
last changed 2006/09/22 06:22

_id caadria2006_209
id caadria2006_209
authors MARCEL BOTHA, LAWRENCE D. SASS
year 2006
title THE INSTANT HOUSE: Design and digital fabrication of housing for developing environments
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 209-216
summary Through a novel method, it is possible to provide mass customized, designed housing to emergency and poverty stricken locations. A definitive need exists for a system that is rapidly deployable and scalable while fostering individuality within the larger rebuilt community. This paper describes the relationship of digital fabrication to materials and design rules by example. The paper ends with different iterations of the Instant house and an explanation of its construction method and execution.
series CAADRIA
email mbotha@mit.edu, lsass@mit.edu
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

_id sigradi2006_e151c
id sigradi2006_e151c
authors Neumann, Oliver and Schmidt, Daniel
year 2006
title CNC Timber Framing – Innovative Applications of Digital Wood Fabrication Technology
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 304-307
summary The discourse on depleting natural resources and compromised environments have led to extended research on sustainable designs methods, building practices and materials. Beyond the actual performance of building products and components, research on sustainable building increasingly focuses on the long-term effects of the production, application and life cycle of building materials on the natural environment, human inhabitation and quality of life. Computer aided manufacturing technologies play a significant role not only in the transformation of design and building methods, but also in an extended discourse on cultural development. Globally available technologies connect the design and building process to a broad range of long-term ecological factors by creating a correlation between "the emergent political, economical and social processes and … architectural techniques, geometries and organization." Through this interrelationship to economy and culture, technology and its applications are also directly related to notions of place and territory as well as to fundamental ideas of ecology. The collaborative research and design study for an outdoor theater roof structure at the University of British Columbia Malcolm Knapp Research Forest at Maple Ridge, B.C., Canada, focuses on the use of digital media in prefabrication and material optimization. By utilizing small square section timber and minimizing the use of alienating connectors the research on the wood roof structure illustrates the potential of a design culture that seeks innovation in a broader understanding of ecology routed in regional culture, environmental conditions, economy and tradition. Labor intensive manufacturing techniques are redefined aided by computer controlled machines and virtual modeling of complex geometries is translated into simple operations. The result is a more sensible and accurate response to the place’s demands. In order to generate innovative design interventions that make a constructive long-term contribution to the preservation, maintenance and evolution of the environment, design needs to be based on a comprehensive understanding of its context and the distinctive qualities of the materials used. Following the example of the outdoor roof structure, this paper aims to define innovative design as work that resonates at the intersection of the fields of technology, material science, manufacturing processes, techniques of assembly and context that constitute the expanded context or complex ecology that projects need to engage. It is in design research studies like for the outdoor theater roof structure with focus on CNC wood fabrication technologies that the common design and building discourse is put to question, boundaries are explored and expanded and the collective understanding is improved towards ecological design.
keywords CNC Wood Fabrication; Design Innovation; Ecology
series SIGRADI
email neumann@oliverneumann.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:56

_id 2006_798
id 2006_798
authors Potamianos, Iakovos and Wassim Jabi
year 2006
title Interactive Parametric Design and the Role of Light in Byzantine Churches
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 798-803
summary Byzantine church design depended heavily on natural light which was used for evocative purposes. The orientation of the main axis of the church, the form of the apse and the location and size of its windows are affected by the need for sunlight to shine at the altar on a desired time and for a certain duration. Until now the process of accurately taking account of all the above parameters has been rather difficult and tedious. This paper illustrates the use of digital tools both for the analysis of the geometry of existing apse designs and the parametric generation of new ones. A sophisticated computer program was used to calculate sun angles during the Byzantine period incorporating calendar changes. In addition, Bentley System’s Generative Components software was used to construct a parametric model that allows the user to define the geometric conditions and parameters of the apse. The software would then iterate through multiple solutions to satisfy the desired conditions as well as allow the user to change the conditions at will. The tools were used to discover the geometry of the apse of the Byzantine church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople and to analyze the apse of the Post-Byzantine church of the Xeropotamou monastery on Mount Athos in Greece. The paper concludes with a discussion of the role of parametric tools for architectural analysis and the generation of possible design solutions.
keywords Parametric Design; Generative Components; Light; Byzantine Churches
series eCAADe
email ipota@tee.gr
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id sigradi2006_p019a
id sigradi2006_p019a
authors Ribeiro, Clarissa and Pratschke, Anja
year 2006
title Arquitetura Irreversível_ Tempo e Complexidade [Irreversible Architecture_ Time and Complexity]
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 90-94
summary This paper aims at discussing how computational environments could give support to complex approaches of architectural design process. Focusing on generative design, the main goal is to allow the perception of architecture more as system than as object: form, structure and organization as emergences in non-linear, autoorganizational processes. It involves the interaction of a vast universe of factors and flows that performs as attractors or repellers for the architecture-systems evolution in time. The ideas presented here are results of the Master Research in Architecture and Complex Thought of Clarissa Ribeiro, and are part of a larger questioning about the relation of architectural design process and digital culture, discussed in our research group Nomads.USP [Center for Interactive Living Studies, http://www.eesc. usp. br/nomads].
series SIGRADI
email clarissa@complexus.com.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

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