CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id sigradi2006_e082d
id sigradi2006_e082d
authors Beros Contreras, Christian
year 2006
title Space, Events and Urban Performance
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 333-336
summary This report investigates different kinds of Urban Performance in Thames Path, South Bank of Thames River. Urban Performance is defined here as the expression or manifestation of different social groups in the city space regarding the appropriation of a specific place for its spatial practices. The Urban Performances are intrinsic to the cultural expression of the city and revealed through the spatial experience of both performer and spectator. The aim of this paper is to shed light on different kind of urban performances and how are they linked to spatial and syntactic properties of space. This topic is intrinsic in the space syntax theory due its fundamental relation between spatiality and human activity. The research method used were, direct observations by static snapshots and traces (related with human movement) and a survey of potential attractors, active facades and path widths. The results were overlaid with spatial analysis in terms of performers isovists and syntactic analysis through visibility graph. The findings show a strong relation between performers’ use of space and visibility in the urban area, and a high influence of the cultural attractions and public services that works as movement attractors. The discussion is developed through the research findings and theories of spatial experience putting forward varied interpretations related with the research topic and the selected site. The report concludes that the urban performances in Thames path is determined by the human co presence in the space, due to this strategic points chosen along the path by the performers are strongly related with the visual connections in the system. Furthermore, the attractors play an important role shaping the spatial experience and urban character of the studied area.
keywords Urban Performance; Space Syntax; Isovists
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id sigradi2006_e033b
id sigradi2006_e033b
authors Castillo, Tim
year 2006
title Hybrid[s] : new pedagogical applications for designing our evolving spatial environment
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 131-136
summary The continual emergence of new informational and technological systems has impacted our cultural landscape. As society continues to evolve, we are becoming more connected to virtual systems that impact our spatial environment. The awareness and understanding of these invisible forces requires new curricular pedagogies in architectural education. This paper will document an ongoing course that was developed to research new methodologies for working with haptic environments and informational systems. Utilizing a high performance-computing center, students in the class are developing new adaptive intelligent spatial systems that engage a multiplicity of scales. They researched environments for PDA’s (Personal Data Assistance), I-Pods, cellular phones, GPS (Guidance Positioning Systems) and a new immersive virtual dome environment. The goal of the class was to reevaluate how architectural practice in the future will encompass a more holistic approach to both physical and virtual spatial development.
keywords Design tools and methods
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:48

_id acadia06_232
id acadia06_232
authors Chaisuparasmikul, Pongsak
year 2006
title Bidirectional Interoperability Between CAD and Energy Performance Simulation Through Virtual Model System Framework
source Synthetic Landscapes [Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture] pp. 232-250
summary The paper describes a novel approach involving interoperability, data modeling technology, and application of the building information model (BIM) focused on sustainable architecture. They share relationships and multiple experiences that have existed for years but have never have been proven. This interoperability of building performance simulation maps building information and parametric models with energy simulation models, establishing a seamless link between Computer Aided Design (CAD) and energy performance simulation software. During the last four decades, building designers have utilized information and communication technologies to create environmental representations to communicate spatial concepts or designs and to enhance spaces. Most architectural firms still rely on hand labor, drafted drawings, construction documents, specifications, schedules and work plans in traditional means. 3D modeling has been used primarily as a rendering tool, not as the actual representation of the project.With this innovative digitally exchange technology, architects and building designers can visually analyze dynamic building energy performance in response to changes of climate and building parameters. This software interoperability provides full data exchange bidirectional capabilities, which significantly reduces time and effort in energy simulation and data regeneration. Data mapping and exchange are key requirements for building more powerful energy simulations. An effective data model is the bidirectional nucleus of a well-designed relational database, critical in making good choices in selecting design parameters and in gaining and expanding a comprehensive understanding of existing data flows throughout the simulation process, making data systems for simulation more powerful, which has never been done before. Despite the variety of energy simulation applications in the lifecycle of building design and construction projects, there is a need for a system of data integration to allow seamless sharing and bidirectional reuse of data.
series ACADIA
last changed 2006/09/22 06:22

_id 2006_770
id 2006_770
authors Charbonneau, Nathalie; Dominic Boulerice; David W. Booth and Temy Tidafi
year 2006
title Understanding Gothic Rose Windows with Computer-Aided Technologies
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 770-777
summary This paper explains the parameters and methodology at the heart of an ongoing research project that seeks to verify whether one can trace back the genesis of any given artefact or work of art by means of computer-aided modeling. In its endeavour our research team Computer Assisted Design Research Group (GRCAO) aims to initiate and propose novel methods of modeling design processes. This approach is exemplified by a case study dealing with rose tracery designs adorning Gothic cathedrals of 12th and 13th Century Île-de-France. A computerized model reenacting their design process was developed along with an interface enabling the translation of the designer’s intentions into a virtual design space. The stated goal of this research project is to evaluate empirically to what extent our modeling strategies can grasp a given artefact as a logical and articulate ensemble. Furthermore, we seek eventually to determine whether this kind of software programme would prove an adequate tool in the development of the architectural designer’s cognitive abilities.
keywords Architectural modeling; architectural know-how; Gothic rose windows; functional programming
series eCAADe
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id 2006_002
id 2006_002
authors Chris Yessios
year 2006
title The Singularity of Design Creativity
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. x-xvi
summary Singularity is the moment when an arithmetic progression converts into a geometric and acceleration takes off. Artificially creative design, as is manifested through the use of contemporary digital tools, is at such a moment in time and its impact on our cultural evolution is undeniable. A few decades ago, in the earlier days of computer aided design, we were asking whether CAD really had any effect on the quality of design and on our physical environment. We now know it does and the examples of a new architecture are plentiful. We shall look at some examples as more appear daily.
keywords Singularity; artificial creativity; design
series eCAADe
type normal paper
last changed 2006/08/29 11:20

_id ascaad2006_paper16
id ascaad2006_paper16
authors Davey, Jon Daniel
year 2006
title Musing Heideggerian Cyberspace
source Computing in Architecture / Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2006), 25-27 April 2006, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
summary Where we do we make our “being?” Since our existence [being-there = Dasein] is the original place of intelligibility, fundamental ontology must clarify the conditions of having any understanding which itself belongs to the entity called Dasein. Today Dasein in increasing becoming more and more digital, in fact all activity is digital or becoming digital in one mode or another, it’s ubiquitous! On the pragmatic side corporate architecture as well as its daily interaction and transaction are all digital. With the advent of games as well as webmasters using VRML or some equivalent of it posses the questions and concerns as who will design the digital domains, graphic artists, IT personnel, game developers and where will we make our being? As architects and designers where will our “digital gesamtkunstwerk” be? Making places for human inhabitation in a nonphysical space raises interesting questions concerning presence, authenticity, adaptability, orientation, and suspension of disbelief. What kind of activities can be supported by nonphysical spaces? What will it take to support them in a socially and psychologically appropriate manner? And WHO will design them? On the applied side this ontological view is demonstrated in an Interior Design Corporate Office Design Studio that has been taught for a decade wherein students are required to develop an ECommerce, a business deemed to succeed including the Corporate Office, facility program, space planning, corporate image, interiors, graphics, webpage, and logo. The semester project has one unique design stipulation: The one major design requirement is that the “feel” of the reception has the same “feel” as the website. A phenomenological sameness…all work is accomplished with a plethora of digital media. This design process is still in its infancy.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id caadria2006_111
id caadria2006_111
year 2006
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 111-117
summary This paper describes ongoing research into how emerging Internet concepts used in conjunction with existing Information Technologies (IT) can improve inter-project communication and understanding. The emphasis of the research is to use technology as an enabler to share personal thoughts and enhance the conversation that takes place within a development team. It stems from the observation that the emphasis of many new Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) technologies is to minimise and diffuse project conversation with highly complex, machine interpretable building information models.Project teams are usually brought together for a relatively short but intense period of time. Following project completion these unique teams are dissolved just as quickly and often are never formed again. As a consequence it is difficult to justify the investment in time and resources required to implement complex IT-based collaboration solutions. A further barrier to adoption is the differential application of IT skills across the AEC industry. Therefore in order for a new technology to gain broad acceptance and be most beneficial it must be applicable to the broadest audience with the minimum investment required from all parties. The primary objective of this research is to preserve the rich design history of a project from conception to completion. Submitted information can be intelligently searched using the meta-data sourced from syndicated data feeds about team members, project timelines, work diaries and email communication. Once indexed users can tag documents and messages in order to provide a further, far richer layer of meta-data to assist in searching, identification of issues and semantic clarification. This strategy of defining AEC semantics through social interaction differs greatly from that of more complex, computer interpretable solutions such as Industry Foundation Classes. Rather than abstracting information to suit a generic yet highly intelligent building model, the emphasis is on preserving the participant’s own thoughts and conversation about decisions and issues in order to create a forum for intelligent conversation as the design evolves.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

_id ijac20064202
id ijac20064202
authors de Vries, Bauke; Buma, Sjoerd; Jessurun, Joran
year 2006
title An Intuitive Interface for Building Management and Planning
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 4 - no. 2, 17-26
summary Building management and planning professionals utilize database systems for administrative support, but these systems are inadequate for conveying architectural plans. In this article we describe the so-called Virtual Maquette that was developed at the Eindhoven University of Technology for the board of the University. The Virtual Maquette consists of a vertical display for 3D view and information of building stock, and an interactive horizontal display for manipulation of view and information. Interaction is implemented using infrared tracking of devices that are positioned on the desktop with the projected plan view. Through this interface the states of the buildings can be inspected at different periods in history and in the future. The support of multiple devices in a single environment is a technical challenge, but it provides a new interaction method for non-technical persons.
series journal
last changed 2007/03/04 06:08

_id eaea2005_000
id eaea2005_000
authors Dechène, Sigrun und Manfred Walz (Eds.)
year 2006
title Motion, E-Motion and Urban Space
source Proceedings of the 7th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN-10: 3-00-019070-8 - ISBN-13: 978-3-00-019070-4, 260 p.
summary Simulating the development and the image of architecture and urban design means to show how the environment of the future and the living conditions could develop. At the same time it is part of our task to explain our work to local people and to the public and to passion skills in methods, instruments and knowledge in planning to the next generation of architects, planners and last but not least to discuss and to renew them once more for ourselves. Our aim was also to reflect what we have done since starting the look through the key-hole of endoscopy. Meanwhile this look has been completed since the beginnings in 1993 much more by computer and monitor. It is not the question to take the endoscope or the computer as a methodical and instrumental approach. Nowadays we normally decide to take the endoscope and the computer. In preparing the conference and the workshop we thought that this should now also be the moment not only to inform each other and the participants on methods, tools and best practices in simulating and designing the environment but also to focus on the social and human consequences of perception, movement and use the present urban spaces and the urban space in future. So we proposed the theme “MOTION, E-MOTION and URBAN SPACE” and we invited a scientific expert in experimental psychology to give us some serious reflections and one or another hint on our research themes and methods. The contributions and discussions in the conference showed that the proposal has not only been accepted but has also been completed and enriched especially concerning the theme urban space, it’s processes of usage and it‘s atmosphere. Also in the themes of endoscopy and the research on modelling urban spaces and architecture, meanwhile nearly “traditional” ones, remarkable results were presented and discussed. A very important point of contributions and the following discussions was how to present our subjects to the interested public and to improve our own internal exchange. An object could be to enforce the research tasks in researching together even more.
series EAEA
last changed 2008/04/29 18:46

_id 2006_810
id 2006_810
authors Dokonal, Wolfgang and Knight,Michael
year 2006
title Pen or PC? - Is Sketching essential to architectural design?
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 810-817
summary This paper reports on an ongoing student architectural design project that is investigating the differing effects of the use of PC’s or Pens in the design process. We are interested to see whether designing wholly on the computer with a volume modeling software would produce differing results to a traditional design process with a strong basis in 2D sketching. To minimize the influence of the participants previous experience in either the use of PC’s or the pen, we have been working with very young students that have not yet gone through a traditional training on architectural design and CAAD software. This is one of the key aspects of our experimental procedure. We have found that recent software developments in the field of CAAD clearly have and will influence the way architects design and brings the computer as a design tool to the “normal architect”. Until very recently the computer was seen as a design tool almost solely for “computer geeks” in the profession, the majority of architects still using it mainly as a drafting machine or to produce visualizations of their projects after a more ‘conventional’ design process had finished. It is now very clear to us that the ongoing change in technology will have a profound effect on the way all of us will work in future undertaking architectural design. It is an important question for every school of architecture what effect these developments will have on our teaching methods and the curricula. We use the above mentioned ongoing educational project to find out about the benefits and risks of using the computer as a design tool for first year students.
keywords Early Design stages; Collaborative Design; Sketching
series eCAADe
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id sigradi2006_e172c
id sigradi2006_e172c
authors Donath, Dirk and González Böhme, Luis Felipe
year 2006
title A Constraint-Based Building Bulk Design Support
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 278-282
summary We introduce an architecture practice-oriented implementation strategy of constraint-based methods called BDS (Building Bulk Design Support) to supporting bulk analysis during the architectural programming phase. We examine the optmization problem of site coverage and building massing according to a set of standard planning and zoning regulations, and try a problem solving approach based on the paradigm of constraint satisfaction problems. The case study, which is focused on the paticipatory planning of very low-income dwellings within the Latin American context, serves as testbed for a prototypical application of the adopted methodology. The BDS constitutes a novel approach on computer-aided bulk analysis, regarding this particularly relevant context of application. In the case of participatively planned low-income housing projects, efficiency regarding time and cost of planning directly affects dwellers’ quality of life, whereas elementary programming tasks such as bulk analysis lack appropriate state-of-the-art technological support. Traditional architectural planning methods demand a large domain-specific knowledge base and skillful planners. A planning process, which is mainly driven by the formulation of planning-relevant constraints and sets of solution alternatives, suggests to avoid architects’ traditional procedure of: 1. Create an (yet not necessarily valid) instance of the eventual design solution by directly choosing specific values for its shape parameters. 2. Evaluate its validity by confronting the designed model to a set of applicable constraints, which have to be satisfied. Instead, the constraint-based design methodology poses a search procedure that operates in a space of pertinent constraint sets. A computer-aided interactive search procedure to find more valid design solution alternatives in less time and with less effort is particularly qualified to supply efficient support for participatory planning activities carried out between dwellers and planners. The set of solutions for a building-bulk design problem is constrained by both a large complex system of planning and zoning regulations and the geometry of the eventual design solution itself. Given a considerable amount of such regulations, a regular size geometric constraint satisfaction system proved to be capable of providing a highly efficient, interactive modeling and evaluation tool for the formulation in real time of valid solution alternatives for an ordinary building-bulk design problem. A BDS implementation will constitute one system module of a larger integrated system model called Esther. A BDS tool shall interact with other functional modules, like e.g. the FLS (Floor plan Layout Support), which also uses constraint-based design methods.
keywords constraint-based design; bulk analysis; participatory planning; low-income housing; design theory; design proces
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:50

_id sigradi2006_k004
id sigradi2006_k004
authors Dutta Madhu C.
year 2006
title The Myth of Cyberspace: Towards a New Technopolis
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 41-44
summary Professor Madhu C. Dutta has worked professionally as an urban planner and architect and was an Assistant Professor of Architecture at the University of Texas at San Antonio before coming to Wentworth. She teaches a broad range of courses, from design studio and architectural history through digital media and advanced computer applications for architectural design. Some of her most significant works include a city-wide urban riverfront design project in Varanasi, India, and “Solar Sails” a renewable energy design for the U.S. Department of Energy competition (2000) for which she was awarded the second prize among 110 entries. She has presented her scholarly work at conferences in Asia, Europe, Latin America, and the U.S. Her research interests are eclectic; she has recently been exploring the expansion of our notions of architectural space to include hybridized and virtual milieus in the “new frontier” of digital architecture. Professor Dutta is deeply committed to the creative and performing arts as well. She studied and performed Indian classical dance for sixteen years. She holds a BArch from the Manipal Institute of Technology of Mangalore University, and a Master’s in Architecture, specializing in Urban Design, from the University of Texas at Austin.
keywords Technopolis, cyberspace, future, digital society
series SIGRADI
type keynote paper
last changed 2016/03/10 08:50

_id 2006_832
id 2006_832
authors El-Khoury, Nada; De Paoli Giovanni and Dorta Tomás
year 2006
title Digital Reconstruction as a means of understanding a building’s history - Case studies of a multilayer prototype
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 832-839
summary The experiments presented in this paper are situated at the crossroads of two fields: the understanding and communication of history to students and the field of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). More specifically, we aim to propose to students, ways of transferring information about lifestyles and techniques linked to the construction methods used in the past and which are present in ancient sites. It is not merely a question of proposing experiments for managing an inventory of knowledge such as that summarized in historical texts, but rather a means for understanding it: How do we communicate the invisible? How do we make visible what we cannot see but that we can imagine lies beneath the ruins of ancient sites? Lastly, how do we propose new approaches in the transferring of these historic skills and lifestyles? Such are the questions that the students’ experiments will attempt to answer while using computers as cognitive tools. In this case, these cognitive tools are designated as “multilayer prototypes” which aim to develop a dynamic virtual history space through augmented reality.
keywords ICT; Byblos; multilayer prototype; augmented reality; education research
series eCAADe
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id ddss2006-hb-433
id DDSS2006-HB-433
authors Eric Landreneau, Ozan O. Ozener, Burak Pak, Ergun Akleman, and John Keyser
year 2006
title Interactive Rule-Based Design - An experimental interface for conceptual design
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) 2006, Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Dordrecht: Springer, ISBN-10: 1-4020-5059-3, ISBN-13: 978-1-4020-5059-6, p. 433-446
summary In this paper, we present a method that allows designers to interactively create partially self-similar manifold surfaces without relying on shape grammars or fractal methods. The modellers that are based on traditional fractal methods or shape grammars usually create disconnected surfaces and restrict the creative freedom of users. In most cases, the shapes through conventional fractal or shape grammar methods are defined by hard coded schemes that allow limited interactivity for the design process. We present a new approach for modelling such shapes. With this approach, we have developed a simple generative tool with given adjustable parameters to achieve variety of conceptual forms. Using this tool, designers can interactively create a variety of partially self-similar manifold surfaces.
keywords Fractal geometry, Conceptual design, Generative systems
series DDSS
last changed 2006/08/29 10:55

_id 2006_506
id 2006_506
authors Fioravanti, Antonio and Rinaldo Rustico
year 2006
title x-House game - A Space for simulating a Collaborative Working Environment in Architecture
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 506-511
summary The research consists of the set up of a game simulating a e Collaborative Working Environment – CWE – in Architectural Design. The use of a game is particularly useful as it makes it possible to simplify the complex terms of the problem and, through the game itself, makes it easier to study knowledge engineering tools, communication protocols and the areas of an ICT implementation of a general model of collaborative design. In the following several characteristics of the game are given (also with reference to other games) such as; participating actors (Wix 1997), the “pieces” (construction components) used, the modular space employed, the PDWs/SDW dialectics, the screenshot of the interface prototype, the score.
keywords Architectural Design; CWE; Game; Representation Model; KBs
series eCAADe
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id sigradi2006_e185d
id sigradi2006_e185d
authors Geva, Anat and Mukherji, Anuradha
year 2006
title The Holy Darkness: A Study of Light in Brihadeshvara Hindu Temple, in Tanjore, Tamilnadu, India (1010 AD)
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 425-428
summary The study investigates how religious principles govern the treatment of light/darkness in sacred monument. Specifically, a digitized daylight simulation is used in the analysis of Brihadeshvara Hindu Temple, built in 1010 AD in Tanjore, Tamilnadu, India. This sacred monument, listed as one of UNESCO's World Heritage Sites, is an intriguing case study since the treatment of the 'holy light' in the temple is the treatment of the 'holy darkness'.In spite of the importance given to sun in ancient Hindu scriptures, natural light was used very sparsely in Hindu temples. According to Hindu religious belief, when a worshipper is in the presence of the divine, there should be nothing to distract his/her senses (including vision). Therefore, the innermost sanctum is shrouded in total darkness and the progression into the temple is a ritual movement where the devotee goes through the dynamic experience of the darkening spaces of the temple before reaching the dark sacred chamber (see Fig.1). The dictation of the Hindu faith to create this spiritual procession toward the 'holy darkness' is examined in the historic Brihadeshvara Temple by using Lightscape -- computerized lighting simulation software. To run the program, a 3-D CAD surface model of the temple was created and imported into Lightscape. Then the model was assigned materials and its openings and lighting systems were defined. The simulations were run on four interior horizontal (floor) and vertical (walls) surfaces, along four spaces of the procession in the temple. The simulation targeted three time frames: sunrise, sunset and at high noon on March 21st (the equinox). The location of Tanjore, India was used for light conditions. The Lightscape simulations used the process of radiosity to generate single frame daylight renderings along with light analysis of each surface. A lighting animation was then produced in Quick Time.The results of this analysis demonstrate that the average illumination values for specific surfaces of the temple along the procession sequence correspond to the schematic expectation depicted in Figure 1, i.e., a progressively decreased luminance towards the dark innermost chamber. Furthermore, the simulated values were compared to the Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) standards, which recommend ranges of luminance for specific visual tasks and areas. The comparisons showed that the average luminance in the temple, from the illuminated entrance in the east to the darker chamber in the west, is lower than the IES standards for 'public places with dark surroundings' for 'short temporary visits'. Finally, a morphological analysis of the temple along accepted daylight design guidelines corroborated the previous findings. The multi-method investigation of the relationship of light and darkness, light and objects, and the designated light quality in the Brihadeshvara Temple demonstrates the strong influence of the specific dictum of Hinduism on the light/darkness treatment in the temple. The paper concludes that digitized media such as computerized daylight simulations can examine the significance of light/darkness in sacred monuments as a spiritual experience. This quantitative investigation can augment the qualitative studies in the field of historic sacred architecture.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id ascaad2007_060
id ascaad2007_060
authors Gillispie, D. and C. Calderon
year 2007
title A framework towards designing responsive public information systems
source Em‘body’ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2007), 28-30 November 2007, Alexandria, Egypt, pp. 767-782
summary "Evolving effective responsive systems, and creating a credible interface between the work and the user, requires an awareness of many different types of user, contexts and functions as well as the phenomenological aspects of social and environmental conditions." (Bullivant, 2006). Responsive design and interactive architecture operates at the intersection of Architecture, Arts, Technology, Media Arts, HCI and Interaction Design in a physical context suggesting ways in which the existing physical environments can be augmented and extended adding a greater level of depth, meaning and engagement with the world around us. Through a series of case studies, this paper explores a number of principles which may be applied to the design of responsive environments of which public information systems form part. Divided into three main sections, the paper first explains how responsive environments have addressed the application of public information systems, secondly, through a series of case studies, precedents are highlighted which lead to development of principles for developing designs for responsive environments. The third section discusses and elaborates on these principles which have been developed based upon our own interpretations and grouping of precedents and approaches towards interaction design. This paper contributes towards the field of responsive environments and interactive architecture through an analysis of case studies to infer a framework from which responsive environments may be created and developed.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2008/01/21 21:00

_id sigradi2006_e171c
id sigradi2006_e171c
authors González Böhme, Luis Felipe and Vargas Cárdenas, Bernardo
year 2006
title Foundations for a Constraint-Based Floor Plan Layout Support in Participatory Planning of Low-Income Housing
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 283-287
summary We introduce the foundations of a novel approach that deals with constraint-based design methods to supporting participatory planning processes of low-income dwellings. We examine the space allocation problem inside the architectural domain on the basis of graph theory and combinatorics, providing a concise mathematical background for an implementation strategy called FLS (Floor plan Layout Support), which is analyzed here for the first time regarding this particular context of application. The philosophy underlying a design method that is mainly driven by the formulation of distinct constraints suggests to avoid the traditional procedure of first to create a yet not necessarily valid instance of the eventual design solution by directly choosing specific parameter values of its shape, and later on to evaluate its validity by confronting the designed model to a set of applicable constraints. Instead, constraint-based design poses a search procedure that operates in a space of planning-relevant constraint sets. The FLS methodology integrates some few principles of constraint-based automated reasoning with high user interactivity, into a design environment where as much dwellers as planners can collaboratively work in solving spatial organization problems of housing projects. The FLS model of application makes use of a combination of dweller-specified constraints, planning and zoning regulations, and a small library of modular space units. Constraint-based design ! methods are particularly capable of supplying efficient support for the collaborative involvement of dwellers into the architectural programming process of her/his own home. Mainly, because dwellers themselves tend to describe their space need and design intentions as a set of constraints on room quantity, space utilization, circulation system, allocation of available furniture, available budget, construction time, and so forth. The goal is to achieve an integrated tool for finding and modelling topologically valid solutions for floor plan layout alternatives, by combining user-driven interactive procedures with automatic search and generative processes. Thus, several design alternatives can be explored in less time and with less effort than using mainstream procedures of architectural practice. A FLS implementation will constitute one system module of a larger integrated system model called Esther. A FLS tool shall interact with other functional modules, like e.g. the BDS (Building Bulk Design Support), which also uses constraint-based design methods. A preliminary procedural model for the FLS was tested on Chile’s official social housing standards (Chilean Building Code – OGUC. Art. 6.4.1) which are very similar to most Latin American housing programs currently in operation.
keywords constraint-based design; floor plan layout; participatory planning; low-income housing; design theory; design proces
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id ddss2008-02
id ddss2008-02
authors Gonçalves Barros, Ana Paula Borba; Valério Augusto Soares de Medeiros, Paulo Cesar Marques da Silva and Frederico de Holanda
year 2008
title Road hierarchy and speed limits in Brasília/Brazil
source H.J.P. Timmermans, B. de Vries (eds.) 2008, Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, ISBN 978-90-6814-173-3, University of Technology Eindhoven, published on CD
summary This paper aims at exploring the theory of the Social Logic of Space or Space Syntax as a strategy to define parameters of road hierarchy and, if this use is found possible, to establish maximum speeds allowed in the transportation system of Brasília, the capital city of Brazil. Space Syntax – a theory developed by Hillier and Hanson (1984) – incorporates the space topological relationships, considering the city shape and its influence in the distribution of movements within the space. The theory’s axiality method – used in this study – analyses the accessibility to the street network relationships, by means of the system’s integration, one of its explicative variables in terms of copresence, or potential co-existence between the through-passing movements of people and vehicles (Hillier, 1996). One of the most used concepts of Space Syntax in the integration, which represents the potential flow generation in the road axes and is the focus of this paper. It is believed there is a strong correlation between urban space-form configuration and the way flows and movements are distributed in the city, considering nodes articulations and the topological location of segments and streets in the grid (Holanda, 2002; Medeiros, 2006). For urban transportation studies, traffic-related problems are often investigated and simulated by assignment models – well-established in traffic studies. Space Syntax, on the other hand, is a tool with few applications in transport (Barros, 2006; Barros et al, 2007), an area where configurational models are considered to present inconsistencies when used in transportation (cf. Cybis et al, 1996). Although this is true in some cases, it should not be generalized. Therefore, in order to simulate and evaluate Space Syntax for the traffic approach, the city of Brasília was used as a case study. The reason for the choice was the fact the capital of Brazil is a masterpiece of modern urban design and presents a unique urban layout based on an axial grid system considering several express and arterial long roads, each one with 3 to 6 lanes,
keywords Space syntax, road hierarchy
series DDSS
last changed 2008/09/01 15:06

_id sigradi2006_e028c
id sigradi2006_e028c
authors Griffith, Kenfield; Sass, Larry and Michaud, Dennis
year 2006
title A strategy for complex-curved building design:Design structure with Bi-lateral contouring as integrally connected ribs
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 465-469
summary Shapes in designs created by architects such as Gehry Partners (Shelden, 2002), Foster and Partners, and Kohn Peterson and Fox rely on computational processes for rationalizing complex geometry for building construction. Rationalization is the reduction of a complete geometric shape into discrete components. Unfortunately, for many architects the rationalization is limited reducing solid models to surfaces or data on spread sheets for contractors to follow. Rationalized models produced by the firms listed above do not offer strategies for construction or digital fabrication. For the physical production of CAD description an alternative to the rationalized description is needed. This paper examines the coupling of digital rationalization and digital fabrication with physical mockups (Rich, 1989). Our aim is to explore complex relationships found in early and mid stage design phases when digital fabrication is used to produce design outcomes. Results of our investigation will aid architects and engineers in addressing the complications found in the translation of design models embedded with precision to constructible geometries. We present an algorithmically based approach to design rationalization that supports physical production as well as surface production of desktop models. Our approach is an alternative to conventional rapid prototyping that builds objects by assembly of laterally sliced contours from a solid model. We explored an improved product description for rapid manufacture as bilateral contouring for structure and panelling for strength (Kolarevic, 2003). Infrastructure typically found within aerospace, automotive, and shipbuilding industries, bilateral contouring is an organized matrix of horizontal and vertical interlocking ribs evenly distributed along a surface. These structures are monocoque and semi-monocoque assemblies composed of structural ribs and skinning attached by rivets and adhesives. Alternative, bi-lateral contouring discussed is an interlocking matrix of plywood strips having integral joinery for assembly. Unlike traditional methods of building representations through malleable materials for creating tangible objects (Friedman, 2002), this approach constructs with the implication for building life-size solutions. Three algorithms are presented as examples of rationalized design production with physical results. The first algorithm [Figure 1] deconstructs an initial 2D curved form into ribbed slices to be assembled through integral connections constructed as part of the rib solution. The second algorithm [Figure 2] deconstructs curved forms of greater complexity. The algorithm walks along the surface extracting surface information along horizontal and vertical axes saving surface information resulting in a ribbed structure of slight double curvature. The final algorithm [Figure 3] is expressed as plug-in software for Rhino that deconstructs a design to components for assembly as rib structures. The plug-in also translates geometries to a flatten position for 2D fabrication. The software demonstrates the full scope of the research exploration. Studies published by Dodgson argued that innovation technology (IvT) (Dodgson, Gann, Salter, 2004) helped in solving projects like the Guggenheim in Bilbao, the leaning Tower of Pisa in Italy, and the Millennium Bridge in London. Similarly, the method discussed in this paper will aid in solving physical production problems with complex building forms. References Bentley, P.J. (Ed.). Evolutionary Design by Computers. Morgan Kaufman Publishers Inc. San Francisco, CA, 1-73 Celani, G, (2004) “From simple to complex: using AutoCAD to build generative design systems” in: L. Caldas and J. Duarte (org.) Implementations issues in generative design systems. First Intl. Conference on Design Computing and Cognition, July 2004 Dodgson M, Gann D.M., Salter A, (2004), “Impact of Innovation Technology on Engineering Problem Solving: Lessons from High Profile Public Projects,” Industrial Dynamics, Innovation and Development, 2004 Dristas, (2004) “Design Operators.” Thesis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2004 Friedman, M, (2002), Gehry Talks: Architecture + Practice, Universe Publishing, New York, NY, 2002 Kolarevic, B, (2003), Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, Spon Press, London, UK, 2003 Opas J, Bochnick H, Tuomi J, (1994), “Manufacturability Analysis as a Part of CAD/CAM Integration”, Intelligent Systems in Design and Manufacturing, 261-292 Rudolph S, Alber R, (2002), “An Evolutionary Approach to the Inverse Problem in Rule-Based Design Representations”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 329-350 Rich M, (1989), Digital Mockup, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, VA, 1989 Schön, D., The Reflective Practitioner: How Professional Think in Action. Basic Books. 1983 Shelden, D, (2003), “Digital Surface Representation and the Constructability of Gehry’s Architecture.” Diss. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2003 Smithers T, Conkie A, Doheny J, Logan B, Millington K, (1989), “Design as Intelligent Behaviour: An AI in Design Thesis Programme”, Artificial Intelligence in Design, 293-334 Smithers T, (2002), “Synthesis in Designing”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 3-24 Stiny, G, (1977), “Ice-ray: a note on the generation of Chinese lattice designs” Environmental and Planning B, volume 4, pp. 89-98
keywords Digital fabrication; bilateral contouring; integral connection; complex-curve
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

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