CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 41 to 60 of 617

_id 2006_810
id 2006_810
authors Dokonal, Wolfgang and Knight,Michael
year 2006
title Pen or PC? - Is Sketching essential to architectural design?
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 810-817
summary This paper reports on an ongoing student architectural design project that is investigating the differing effects of the use of PC’s or Pens in the design process. We are interested to see whether designing wholly on the computer with a volume modeling software would produce differing results to a traditional design process with a strong basis in 2D sketching. To minimize the influence of the participants previous experience in either the use of PC’s or the pen, we have been working with very young students that have not yet gone through a traditional training on architectural design and CAAD software. This is one of the key aspects of our experimental procedure. We have found that recent software developments in the field of CAAD clearly have and will influence the way architects design and brings the computer as a design tool to the “normal architect”. Until very recently the computer was seen as a design tool almost solely for “computer geeks” in the profession, the majority of architects still using it mainly as a drafting machine or to produce visualizations of their projects after a more ‘conventional’ design process had finished. It is now very clear to us that the ongoing change in technology will have a profound effect on the way all of us will work in future undertaking architectural design. It is an important question for every school of architecture what effect these developments will have on our teaching methods and the curricula. We use the above mentioned ongoing educational project to find out about the benefits and risks of using the computer as a design tool for first year students.
keywords Early Design stages; Collaborative Design; Sketching
series eCAADe
email dokonal@tugraz.at
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id 2006_302
id 2006_302
authors Dounas, Theodoros and Anastasios M. Kotsiopoulos
year 2006
title Generation of alternative designs in architectural problems using Shape Grammars defined with animation tools - A computer implementation of shape grammars using modelling and animation software
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 302-307
summary We present a model of generation of alternative designs to selected architectural and spatial configurations of small complexity. Specifically we present a production pipeline of architectural / spatial configurations using the context of animation and time based design tools. Our model consists of time and space design constraints of boundaries / objects affecting a given architectural design, thus producing an alternative solution for every timeframe of the animation cycle. The alternative designs vary from the original according to their temporal and/or spatial distance from the original object on the animation time-line. The constraints placed upon the objects , used as actuators of Shape Grammars, are defined informally by the user/designer while their influence can vary according to time, speed, location, configuration of the object and/or the constraint itself. However the constraints further function as formal rules for the Shape Grammar creation so that our model tries to predict ahead of time the emergence of alternate designs. The employ of animation tools [shape driven curves, speed and time-line functions,parent child relationships] in the shape generation of our model empowers the user/designer to configure whole sets of shapes and designs interactively and without the need to define every solution independently. Simultaneously, a different, time-focused view of our model describes its use on designs that develop different configurations over time. Thus a duality of our model is established: either the animated schema may be a sum or family of various designs or the animated time-line represents a single design which changes over time. Finally the possibility of an automated analysis of every design is discussed, using Space Syntax diagrams so the designer can quickly evaluate the various spatial configurations produced by a single original.
keywords shape computation; shape grammar computer implementation; alternative designs; animation software techniques
series eCAADe
email dounas@gmail.com
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id sigradi2006_k004
id sigradi2006_k004
authors Dutta Madhu C.
year 2006
title The Myth of Cyberspace: Towards a New Technopolis
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 41-44
summary Professor Madhu C. Dutta has worked professionally as an urban planner and architect and was an Assistant Professor of Architecture at the University of Texas at San Antonio before coming to Wentworth. She teaches a broad range of courses, from design studio and architectural history through digital media and advanced computer applications for architectural design. Some of her most significant works include a city-wide urban riverfront design project in Varanasi, India, and “Solar Sails” a renewable energy design for the U.S. Department of Energy competition (2000) for which she was awarded the second prize among 110 entries. She has presented her scholarly work at conferences in Asia, Europe, Latin America, and the U.S. Her research interests are eclectic; she has recently been exploring the expansion of our notions of architectural space to include hybridized and virtual milieus in the “new frontier” of digital architecture. Professor Dutta is deeply committed to the creative and performing arts as well. She studied and performed Indian classical dance for sixteen years. She holds a BArch from the Manipal Institute of Technology of Mangalore University, and a Master’s in Architecture, specializing in Urban Design, from the University of Texas at Austin.
keywords Technopolis, cyberspace, future, digital society
series SIGRADI
type keynote paper
email duttam@wit.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:50

_id acadia06_251
id acadia06_251
authors d’Estrée Sterk, Tristan
year 2006
title Shape Change in Responsive Architectural Structures: Current Reasons & Challenge
source Synthetic Landscapes [Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture] pp. 251-260
summary Shape control within architectural structures is a natural extension to the practice of engineering and architectural design. The knowledge needed for it’s development builds upon two well understood foundations: 1) the long existing knowledge that building performance and function are intimately connected to the shape of built spaces; and 2) the relatively new idea that embedded computational systems may be employed to control devices in useful and beautiful ways. When combined, each type of knowledge can be used to further architecture and engineering at both theoretical and methodological levels. Structural shape control is of major interest within architecture because it is the primary ingredient needed to produce building envelopes that change shape. Structural shape control also currently represents a major technological and methodological stumbling block for architects, posing many challenges that have theoretical and practical origins. Theoretically, responsive architectural structures demand a re-evaluation of existing notions of space making. Practically, these systems demand a re-evaluation of construction and design methodologies across both engineering and architectural practice.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email tsterk@ofram.com
more admin
last changed 2017/04/10 11:08

_id 2006_590
id 2006_590
authors Flanagan, Robert
year 2006
title Restructuring Cubist Narratives in Non-Linear Time
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 590-596
summary The design of architectural environments through non-linear, abstract design techniques presents a significant opportunity for current architectural design theory. This paper explores time-functions in design, whether implied or actual, that are potentially interchangeable, and that are at least partially translatable between painting (implied) and film (actual). The founding theory is rooted in the convergence of two turn-of-the-century inventions: Cinématographe (1895), and Cubism (Picasso and Braque, 1906). A century later, the development of inexpensive digital tools facilitates essential capabilities in the application of time-functions in architectural design: the virtual simulation of dimensional space, and a practical approach to non-linear video editing.
keywords translation; restructure; video; non-linear; Cubism
series eCAADe
email robert.flanagan@cudenver.edu
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id 2006_352
id 2006_352
authors Fricker, Pia and Oskar Zieta
year 2006
title CNC Compliant Methods of Design - Understanding Technology
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 352-357
summary This paper investigates new design methods, showing the experimental use of new digital tools, CNC-techniques and technologies so as to expand the definition of contemporary architecture. This investigation of new technologies extends the traditional practice of architectural design to include issues of design, multimedia, programming, control systems and fabrication by using computer controlled machines. The main teaching and research focus of the Master of Advanced Studies in Architecture (MAS), Specialization in Computer Aided Architectural Design (CAAD), Prof. Dr. Ludger Hovestadt, is the computer based architectural design and its automated production. The aim of our research and teaching project is to achieve a close connection between design and production by embedding the “digital chain” in the whole process. The digital chain is a design and production sequence with no analogue steps; the process offers high flexibility in terms of design and production. The use of new digital tools in architecture extends the profession beyond traditional design.
keywords Digital Methods of Construction; Representation; Integration of CNC technology in Education; Digital Chain
series eCAADe
email fricker@hbt.arch.ethz.ch
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id sigradi2006_e171c
id sigradi2006_e171c
authors González Böhme, Luis Felipe and Vargas Cárdenas, Bernardo
year 2006
title Foundations for a Constraint-Based Floor Plan Layout Support in Participatory Planning of Low-Income Housing
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 283-287
summary We introduce the foundations of a novel approach that deals with constraint-based design methods to supporting participatory planning processes of low-income dwellings. We examine the space allocation problem inside the architectural domain on the basis of graph theory and combinatorics, providing a concise mathematical background for an implementation strategy called FLS (Floor plan Layout Support), which is analyzed here for the first time regarding this particular context of application. The philosophy underlying a design method that is mainly driven by the formulation of distinct constraints suggests to avoid the traditional procedure of first to create a yet not necessarily valid instance of the eventual design solution by directly choosing specific parameter values of its shape, and later on to evaluate its validity by confronting the designed model to a set of applicable constraints. Instead, constraint-based design poses a search procedure that operates in a space of planning-relevant constraint sets. The FLS methodology integrates some few principles of constraint-based automated reasoning with high user interactivity, into a design environment where as much dwellers as planners can collaboratively work in solving spatial organization problems of housing projects. The FLS model of application makes use of a combination of dweller-specified constraints, planning and zoning regulations, and a small library of modular space units. Constraint-based design ! methods are particularly capable of supplying efficient support for the collaborative involvement of dwellers into the architectural programming process of her/his own home. Mainly, because dwellers themselves tend to describe their space need and design intentions as a set of constraints on room quantity, space utilization, circulation system, allocation of available furniture, available budget, construction time, and so forth. The goal is to achieve an integrated tool for finding and modelling topologically valid solutions for floor plan layout alternatives, by combining user-driven interactive procedures with automatic search and generative processes. Thus, several design alternatives can be explored in less time and with less effort than using mainstream procedures of architectural practice. A FLS implementation will constitute one system module of a larger integrated system model called Esther. A FLS tool shall interact with other functional modules, like e.g. the BDS (Building Bulk Design Support), which also uses constraint-based design methods. A preliminary procedural model for the FLS was tested on Chile’s official social housing standards (Chilean Building Code – OGUC. Art. 6.4.1) which are very similar to most Latin American housing programs currently in operation.
keywords constraint-based design; floor plan layout; participatory planning; low-income housing; design theory; design proces
series SIGRADI
email bernardo.vargas@bauing.uni-weimar.de
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id 2006_904
id 2006_904
authors Gurer, Ethem and Gulen Cagdas
year 2006
title A Multi-Level Fusion of Evolutionary Design Processes
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 904-907
summary Evolutionary design methodologies generally aim to present new form-finding processes, where nature-based approaches are used, such as self-organization, genetic algorithms etc. This paper aims to present a new architectural design approach that focuses on integrating these different evolutionary methods in an emergent process. The main goal is to achieve a high-level of integration where lacking qualities of each evolutionary method are completed by the other one in a synergic and especially emergent behavior.
keywords Evolutionary design; morphogenetic; self-organization; emergence
series eCAADe
email ethemgurer@gmail.com
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id 2006_512
id 2006_512
authors Halin, Gilles and Sylvain Kubicki
year 2006
title Image: A Support for Architectural Cooperative Design
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 512-515
summary Cooperative design is an activity where actors share and exchange ideas, propositions, requirements, and constraints about the definition of an object. In architectural design, image plays an important role. It is the support of creation activity, object representation or references. Considering this important role of image, we suggest studying how the digital image is used as a support of collective activities in assistance tools dedicated to architectural design.
keywords Digital Image; Cooperative Design; Cooperative Assistance Tool
series eCAADe
email halin@crai.archi.fr
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id eaea2005_115
id eaea2005_115
authors Hoelscher, Christoph and J. Alexander Schmidt
year 2006
title User needs at the heart of town: Orientation and appraisal in an endoscopic city scale model (script)
source Motion, E-Motion and Urban Space [Proceedings of the 7th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN-10: 3-00-019070-8 - ISBN-13: 978-3-00-019070-4], pp. 115-131
summary In this paper we provide a “work-in-progress” report on on going investigation into the perception of building alternatives at a central urban place. The city-planning task in this case involves the development of several key parcels of real estate, with significant impact on a mediumsized German city’s overall appearance and functionality. The interests of investors wishing to maximize economic utilization are competing with public interests regarding urban planning and urban design as well as development needs. Hence, there is a need for the development of different spatial layouts for the district to help identify reasonable concepts for the use of these key properties and their impact on the visual townscape as well as the functional spatial properties of the city’s open space. Ultimately, clear deed restrictions and guidelines are to be identified for future investors to preserve the cityscape and to improve the quality of the existing public open space but also to enhance downtown’s existing sensible economic equilibrium.
series EAEA
type normal paper
email alexander.schmidt@uni-essen.de
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea
last changed 2008/04/29 18:46

_id 2006_262
id 2006_262
authors Ibrahim, Magdy
year 2006
title To BIM or not to BIM, This is NOT the Question - How to Implement BIM Solutions in Large Design Firm Environments
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 262-267
summary Building information modeling is the technology that is converting the workplace in design firms. The initial resistance to applying the concept has faded due to many reasons. Professional architects now see the feasibility and benefits of using the new technology. CAD managers in design firms are working toward the implementation of BIM packages in order to eventually, replace the conventional CAD platforms that are still widely used. However, there are still internal obstacles that slow down the process of the implementation. The change in the project management and the required proper training for the conversion are the two major internal obstacles. The current well organized work flow tailored around the conventional CAD platforms has to be changed in a way suitable for the new technology. The training firms provide for their employees should also be re-structured in a more vertical organization in order to guarantee that everyone understands the new concept and the new work flow. Architectural education usually reflects the needs of the work market. It is very important to understand the needs and identify the directions where the architectural education should go. What do we expect from newly graduated architects? How should we shift the focus toward BIM based CAD in design schools? And, what does it mean to teach modeling versus teaching drafting?
keywords Computer Aided Drafting; Building Information Modeling; Architectural Education
series eCAADe
email ibramag@iit.edu
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id 2006_486
id 2006_486
authors Jemtrud, Michael; Martin Brooks; Bobby Ho; Sandy Lui; Philam Nguyen; John Spence and Bruce Spencer
year 2006
title Intelligent Infrastructure Enabled Participatory Design Studio - Eucalyptus: Collaborating at the speed of light
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 486-493
summary A new notion of participation is at stake with advances in technologically mediated work environments. Insufficient bandwidth and insufficiently powerful, crudely coordinated tools resulted in distributed task-based modes of collaboration that did not allow full participation by members of the distributed design team. The emergence of Service Oriented Architectures and User-Controlled LightPaths (“intelligent infrastructure”) herald the beginning of a new age where fully participatory multi-site design may become possible. This paper will briefly outline the “mise en scène” or staging of the technical configuration of the Eucalyptus project; observations and results from the creative activity of the PDS in the context of two case studies; and speculate on the implications for design activity, pedagogy, and a more robust mode of participation.
keywords participatory design studio; e-design; SOA; architectural design education; design methods; dashboard
series eCAADe
email mjemtrud@ccs.carleton.ca
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id 2006_556
id 2006_556
authors Johansson, Troels Degn
year 2006
title Pictorial Genre and Discourse of Future in Digital Visualization of Architecture and Planning
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 556-559
summary This paper seeks to outline a theory of pictorial genre in discourses of future at play in digital visualisation of architecture and planning for communicative purposes. It claims that pictorial genre is crucial to the way we understand depictions of future in architectural and planning communication. Accordingly, professionals dealing with communication matters in architecture and planning should yield for a sufficient awareness of the function of pictorial genre—not least as concerns the adoption of digital technologies for the modelling and presentation of spatial matters. This is urgent since these technologies (primarily Geographic Information Systems, GIS) and software systems for spatial modelling and presentation do not include any aspect of pictorial genre in their current state of development.
keywords Visualization; planning information; pictorial representation; genre; planning
series eCAADe
email tdj@dkds.dk
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id 2006_066
id 2006_066
authors Kalisperis, Loukas N.; Katsuhiko Muramoto; Bimal Balakrishnan; Dragana Nikolic and Nevena Zikic
year 2006
title Evaluating Relative Impact of Virtual Reality System Variables on Architectural Design Comprehension and Presence - A variable-centered approach using fractional factorial experiment
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 66-73
summary The relative contributions of five variables (Stereoscopy, screen size, field of view, level of realism and level of detail) of virtual reality systems on spatial comprehension and presence are evaluated here. Using a variable-centered approach instead of an object-centric view as its theoretical basis, the contributions of these five variables and their two-way interactions are estimated through a 25-1 fractional factorial experiment (screening design) of resolution V with 84 subjects. The experiment design, procedure, measures used, creation of scales and indices, results of statistical analysis, their meaning and agenda for future research are elaborated.
keywords Virtual reality system variables - stereoscopy; screen size; field of view; level of realism; level of detail; spatial comprehension; presence; variable-centered approach; fractional factorial experiment design
series eCAADe
email lnk@psu.edu
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id ijac20064106
id ijac20064106
authors Kilian, Axel
year 2006
title Design innovation through constraint modeling
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 4 - no. 1, 87-105
summary In this paper we describe how constraint modeling can support design innovation. Furthermore, we lay out how constraints are employed in the construction and exploration of a model's design space. We place the approach within the context of design exploration using computational and conceptual representations of design. A review of the literature reveals that geometric, topologic, functional, and quantitative constraints are those most commonly used. For each constraint type, an example is presented drawing from several workshops and research conducted by the author. The examples range from product design, to structural design, to fabrication issues in freeform geometry. Based on the case studies, we describe how the different types of constraints can be used as design drivers and help in the exploration of solution spaces. In conclusion, we identify the need for bidirectional exercising of constraints as the next challenge in design exploration and discuss how it is relevant in particular for cross domain design.
keywords Design Exploration; Constraint Modeling; Parametric Modeling
series journal
email akilian@media.mit.edu
more http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/mscp/ijac/2006/00000004/00000001/art00007
last changed 2007/03/04 06:08

_id 2006_152
id 2006_152
authors Koutamanis, Alexander
year 2006
title Contextual awareness in mobile information processing
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 152-159
summary Applications of mobile information technologies in architecture and building require a high degree of contextual awareness not only for localization but also for distinguishing between different types of information (relevant, redundant, stable etc.). This awareness refers to the physical context of a device, as well as to the social dynamics of the situation (including interaction with shared information). Architectural knowledge and in particular design representations support the development of contextual awareness but there are significant differences between these representations and the use of information they convey in mobile applications.
keywords Mobile information processing; context; representation; information systems
series eCAADe
email a.koutamanis@tudelft.nl
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id 2006_244
id 2006_244
authors Lee, Ji-Hyun and Shu-Feng Pan
year 2006
title eCAADe: An Educational Commendation Mechanism for the Adaptive Semantic Web to Use in the Architectural Design Environment
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 244-251
summary The “Case Studies in Architecture” phase of a course in architectural design includes in-depth comparisons and analyses of architectural precedents. However, with the large number of cases now readily available, Web searching and navigation is a time-consuming, low precision activity. In the work described in this paper, we built eCAADe, an educational commendation system for the adaptive semantic Web to allow students to query and retrieve semantically for architectural cases during the case study phase of an architectural design process. In our suggested system, we built a Semantic Web for design knowledge representation to make query and retrieval efficient. We also applied a hybrid recommendation mechanism, which is combining both content-based filtering and collaborative filtering to help for students to find relevant cases more efficient and precise with their preferences. We illustrate our concepts with several concrete examples.
keywords Recommendation mechanism; adaptive; semantic Web; architectural cases; ontology
series eCAADe
email jihyun@yuntech.edu.tw
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id 2006_874
id 2006_874
authors Lee, Ming-xian and Ji-Hyun Lee
year 2006
title Form, Style and Function - A Constraint-Based Generative System for Apartment Façade Design
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 874-883
summary This paper describes the development of a constraint-based generative system (FSF system) to support the design of middle and high-rise apartment façades from architectural plans. Floor plan and façade designs are heavily interrelated, and, sometimes, the plan constrains the façade design during the design process. This relationship lends itself to apply constraint-based systems and we have designed the system to connect intelligently between apartment plan and façade. In our system, we define constraints into three categories: structural form, architectural style and function. We use genetic algorithm to generate plausible alternatives quickly and augmented by a constraint-based system, façades can be generated and modified much more easily in terms of real-time visual feedback for checking violence of the constraints and of dealing with updates smoothly through intelligent connecting plans to façades.
keywords Generative system; Plan-to-façade; Constraint-based system; Intelligent CAD; Style description
series eCAADe
email g9334707@yuntech.edu.tw
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id 2006_342
id 2006_342
authors Lyon, Eduardo
year 2006
title Component Based Design and Digital Manufacturing - A DfM Model for Curved Surfaces Fabrication using Three Axis CNC Router
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 342-350
summary Through the use of design for manufacturing (DfM) method and looking at the relations between its potential application in architectural production and its implementation using digital manufacturing technologies, we analyze building construction processes and explore, in more detail curved surface fabrication using two dimensional cutting and three dimensional milling processes. Afterwards a DfM model for curved surfaces fabrication using three-axis computer numerical control (CNC) router is proposed. The proposed DfM model relies fundamentally in two supporting factors; the implementation of design heuristics that integrates production knowledge and the availability of some design related to production evaluation metrics. Subsequently, we test and refine the model using structured design experiences. This was accomplished by capturing new design heuristics and detecting useful evaluation metrics for production. In the final part of the research, a refined DfM model was tested in a component design case study. The case study is based on producing a curved surface module on wood for an existing proprietary component based wall system. As a summary, we conceptualize from this top-down development approach to create a design for manufacturing model that integrates design and construction in architecture, based on three possible applications fields: Design processes improvement, building production process improvement, CAD-CAM tools development. Our purpose is to provide better foundational constructs and approaches for integrating design with manufacturing in architecture.
keywords Design for Manufacturing; Design Cognition; Digital Fabrication
series eCAADe
email eduardo.lyon@coa.gatech.edu
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id cf2011_p016
id cf2011_p016
authors Merrick, Kathryn; Gu Ning
year 2011
title Supporting Collective Intelligence for Design in Virtual Worlds: A Case Study of the Lego Universe
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 637-652.
summary Virtual worlds are multi-faceted technologies. Facets of virtual worlds include graphical simulation tools, communication, design and modelling tools, artificial intelligence, network structure, persistent object-oriented infrastructure, economy, governance and user presence and interaction. Recent studies (Merrick et al., 2010) and applications (Rosenman et al., 2006; Maher et al., 2006) have shown that the combination of design, modelling and communication tools, and artificial intelligence in virtual worlds makes them suitable platforms for supporting collaborative design, including human-human collaboration and human-computer co-creativity. Virtual worlds are also coming to be recognised as a platform for collective intelligence (Levy, 1997), a form of group intelligence that emerges from collaboration and competition among large numbers of individuals. Because of the close relationship between design, communication and virtual world technologies, there appears a strong possibility of using virtual worlds to harness collective intelligence for supporting upcoming “design challenges on a much larger scale as we become an increasingly global and technological society” (Maher et al, 2010), beyond the current support for small-scale collaborative design teams. Collaborative design is relatively well studied and is characterised by small-scale, carefully structured design teams, usually comprising design professionals with a good understanding of the design task at hand. All team members are generally motivated and have the skills required to structure the shared solution space and to complete the design task. In contrast, collective design (Maher et al, 2010) is characterised by a very large number of participants ranging from professional designers to design novices, who may need to be motivated to participate, whose contributions may not be directly utilised for design purposes, and who may need to learn some or all of the skills required to complete the task. Thus the facets of virtual worlds required to support collective design differ from those required to support collaborative design. Specifically, in addition to design, communication and artificial intelligence tools, various interpretive, mapping and educational tools together with appropriate motivational and reward systems may be required to inform, teach and motivate virtual world users to contribute and direct their inputs to desired design purposes. Many of these world facets are well understood by computer game developers, as level systems, quests or plot and achievement/reward systems. This suggests the possibility of drawing on or adapting computer gaming technologies as a basis for harnessing collective intelligence in design. Existing virtual worlds that permit open-ended design – such as Second Life and There – are not specifically game worlds as they do not have extensive level, quest and reward systems in the same way as game worlds like World of Warcraft or Ultima Online. As such, while Second Life and There demonstrate emergent design, they do not have the game-specific facets that focus users towards solving specific problems required for harnessing collective intelligence. However, a new massively multiplayer virtual world is soon to be released that combines open-ended design tools with levels, quests and achievement systems. This world is called Lego Universe (www.legouniverse.com). This paper presents technology spaces for the facets of virtual worlds that can contribute to the support of collective intelligence in design, including design and modelling tools, communication tools, artificial intelligence, level system, motivation, governance and other related facets. We discuss how these facets support the design, communication, motivational and educational requirements of collective intelligence applications. The paper concludes with a case study of Lego Universe, with reference to the technology spaces defined above. We evaluate the potential of this or similar tools to move design beyond the individual and small-scale design teams to harness large-scale collective intelligence. We also consider the types of design tasks that might best be addressed in this manner.
keywords collective intelligence, collective design, virtual worlds, computer games
series CAAD Futures
email k.merrick@adfa.edu.au
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

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