CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 617

_id ascaad2006_paper15
id ascaad2006_paper15
authors Anz, Craig and Akel Ismail Kahera
year 2006
title Critical Environmentalism and the Practice of Re-Construction
source Computing in Architecture / Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2006), 25-27 April 2006, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
summary This research focuses on the implications and applications of “critical environmentalism” as a quintessential epistemological framework for urban interventions while implementing digital applications that foster collective, round-table approaches to design. Essentially centering the environment (Umwelt) as an encompassing and interconnecting catalyst between multiple disciplines, philosophies, and modes of inquiry and technologies, the framework reciprocally fosters individual and critical identities associated with particular places, belief systems, and their participants as a primary concern. Critical environmentalism promotes a comprehensive, reciprocally unifying epistemological framework that can significantly inform architectural interventions and the tethered use of its technologies in order to foster increased vitality and a certain coinvested attention to the complexities of the greater domain. Grounding the theory in pedagogical practice, this paper documents an approach to urban design and architectural education, implemented as a case-study and design scenario, where divergent perspectives amalgamate into emergent urban configurations, critically rooted in the conditional partialities of place. Digital technologies are incorporated along with analogical methods as tools to integrate multiple perspectives into a single, working plane. Engaging the above framework, the approach fosters a critical (re)construction and on-going, co-vested regeneration of community and the context of place while attempting to dialogically converge multiple urban conditions and modes-of-thought through the co-application of various digital technologies. Critically understanding complex urban situations involves dialogically analyzing, mapping, and modeling a discursive, categorical structure through a common goal and rationale that seeks dialectic synthesis between divergent constructions while forming mutual, catalyzing impetuses between varying facets. In essence, the integration of varying technologies in conjunction, connected to real world scenarios and a guiding epistemic framework cultivates effective cross-pollination of ideas and modes through communicative and participatory interaction. As such it also provides greater ease in crosschecking between a multitude of divergent modes playing upon urban design and community development. Since current digital technologies aid in data collection and the synthesis of information, varying factors can be more easily and collectively identified, analyzed, and then simultaneously used in subsequent design configurations. It inherently fosters the not fully realized potential to collectively overlay or montage complex patterns and thoughts seamlessly and to thus subsequently merge a multitude of corresponding design configurations simultaneously within an ongoing, usable database. As a result, the pedagogical process reveals richly textured sociocultural fabrics and thus produces distinct amplifications in complexity and attentive management of diverse issues, while also generating significant narratives and themes for fostering creative and integrative solutions. As a model for urban community and social development, critical environmentalism is further supported the integrative use of digital technologies as an effective means and management for essential, communicative interchange of knowledge and thus rapprochement between divergent modes-of-thought, promoting critical, productive interaction with others in the (co)constructive processes of our life-space.
series ASCAAD
email canz@siu.edu
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id sigradi2006_e160c
id sigradi2006_e160c
authors Andrade, Max and Cheng, Liang-Yee
year 2006
title Diretrizez Geométricas de Auxílio ao Processo de Projeto de Edifícios Residenciais [Geometrical Guidelines to Aid the Design of Floor Plants of Residential Buildings]
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 243-247
summary This paper discusses the basic principles of a geometric method to aid the design process of residential buildings. It makes part of the initial phases of a research whose aim is to develop a computer system to aid the sketching and evaluation of floor plant design of multi-storied residential buildings. The fundamental idea of the research is the existence of some basic patterns of floor plants that reflect the designer’s mental models in this category of building. The models are regarding the usage of the space such as forms and dimensions, the elements for the circulation and the external skins. During the design process, architects work on each one of these models to generate the sketches of the floor plant layout. Generally, the layout of an apartment in multi-storied buildings depends basically on the internal dynamics of the users without the complex relationship with the neighborhood environment as in the case of houses. In this way, it would be easier to identify, to organize and to associate the mental models of multi-storied buildings on geometric basis, which, in their turns, might be effectively used as inputs for the layout planning of new design. By applying the geometric basis, the architects may reduce the universe of feasible alternatives into a small group of heuristic solutions that can be described by using few simple guidelines. In addition to this, the geometric bases of the existing buildings might be used to build a knowledge-based system to aid the architectural design. The objective of this paper is to show some initial results of the research obtained from a survey and the case studies of form, dimensions and topology of existing buildings. To limit the scope of the discussion, only residential buildings with two to three bedrooms are considered. At first, a survey of plants of residential buildings with two and three bedrooms, in Brazil, is carried out. In the next step, the dimensions, shape, external skin perimeter, circulation system and accessibility are analyzed. Finally, typical topologies of the building are investigated.
keywords Design process; geometric method; residential buildings
series SIGRADI
email maxandrade@uol.com.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id acadia06_555
id acadia06_555
authors Kudless, A., Vukcevich, I.
year 2006
title Flexible Formwork Research (FPR)
source Synthetic Landscapes [Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture] p. 555
summary FFR investigates the self-organization of plaster and elastic fabric to produce evocative visual and acoustic effects. Inspired by the work of the Spanish architect Miguel Fisac and his experiments with flexible concrete formwork in the 1960-70s, FFR continues this line of research by exploring aspects of pattern generation and recognition in relation to self-organized form. In line with the theme of the current exhibition, Digital Exchange, the work can be understood as a dialog between physical and digital computation. The form is a result of a negotiation between the digital manipulation of images and the physical deformations of materials under stress. Both digital and physical processes play an equal role in the final form of the plaster tiles.Reflecting on Miguel Fisac’s flexible concrete formwork, there was a desire to investigate the potential for more differentiated patterns while still using the same basic fabrication technique. This was accomplished through the use of a custom-designed script in Rhino that analyzes a given image and translates it into a field of points. These points establish areas of constraint in the elastic membrane of the mould. Through numerous physical tests, the minimum and maximum distances between constraint points was determined and these were entered into the script as limits for the point creation. If the points are too close, large wholes with very thin and weak plaster form whereas if the points are too far apart the amount of elastic deformation is so great that the weight of the plaster can cause failures to occur in the fabric mould. One of the most important aspects of the project is its resonance with the body and our natural attraction and repulsion for certain forms. Through exploring the natural self-organization of material under stress, FFR unintentionally reminds us of our own flesh. The plaster tiles resonate with our own body’s material as it sags, expands, and wrinkles in relationship with gravity, structure, and time.
series ACADIA
email akudless@gmail.com
last changed 2006/09/22 06:22

_id acadia06_455
id acadia06_455
authors Ambach, Barbara
year 2006
title Eve’s Four Faces interactive surface configurations
source Synthetic Landscapes [Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture] pp. 455-460
summary Eve’s Four Faces consists of a series of digitally animated and interactive surfaces. Their content and structure are derived from a collection of sources outside the conventional boundaries of architectural research, namely psychology and the broader spectrum of arts and culture.The investigation stems from a psychological study documenting the attributes and social relationships of four distinct personality prototypes: the Individuated, the Traditional, the Conflicted, and the Assured (York and John 1992). For the purposes of this investigation, all four prototypes are assumed to be inherent, to certain degrees, in each individual. However, the propensity towards one of the prototypes forms the basis for each individual’s “personality structure.” The attributes, social implications and prospects for habitation have been translated into animations and surfaces operating within A House for Eve’s Four Faces. The presentation illustrates the potential for constructed surfaces to be configured and transformed interactively, responding to the needs and qualities associated with each prototype. The intention is to study the effects of each configuration and how each configuration may be therapeutic in supporting, challenging or altering one’s personality as it oscillates and shifts through the four prototypical conditions.
series ACADIA
email Ambachb@aol.com
last changed 2006/09/22 06:22

_id 2006_040
id 2006_040
authors Ambach, Barbara
year 2006
title Eve’s Four Faces-Interactive surface configurations
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 40-44
summary Eve’s Four Faces consists of a series of digitally animated and interactive surfaces. Their content and structure are derived from a collection of sources outside the conventional boundaries of architectural research, namely psychology and the broader spectrum of arts and culture. The investigation stems from a psychological study documenting the attributes and social relationships of four distinct personality prototypes; the “Individuated”, the “Traditional”, the “Conflicted” and the “Assured”. (York and John, 1992) For the purposes of this investigation, all four prototypes are assumed to be inherent, to certain degrees, in each individual; however, the propensity towards one of the prototypes forms the basis for each individual’s “personality structure”. The attributes, social implications and prospects for habitation have been translated into animations and surfaces operating within A House for Eve’s Four Faces. The presentation illustrates the potential for constructed surfaces to be configured and transformed interactively, responding to the needs and qualities associated with each prototype. The intention is to study the effects of each configuration and how it may be therapeutic in supporting, challenging or altering one’s personality as it oscillates and shifts through the four prototypical conditions.
keywords interaction; digital; environments; psychology; prototypes
series eCAADe
type normal paper
last changed 2006/09/11 16:22

_id sigradi2006_e165b
id sigradi2006_e165b
authors Angulo, Antonieta
year 2006
title Optimization in the Balance between the Production Effort of E-learning Tutorials and their related Learning Outcome
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 122-126
summary This paper provides evidence on the level of media richness that may be cost effective in the development of e-learning tutorials for teaching and learning computer visualization techniques. For such a purpose the author provides an analysis of low-cost / high-impact media rich products, the effort and cost required in their development and the measurement of related learning outcomes. Circa twenty years of R&D of multimedia and hypermedia applications for instruction have demonstrated the benefits of communicating relevant information to learners using engaging media. Based on this evidence, this paper assumes that due to the cognitive style of design students, the instructional packages for learning computer techniques for design visualization that are rich in media content, tend to be more effective. Available visualization technologies make the development of e-learning tutorials feasible and apparently the logical way to implement our instructional packages. However the question in the development of e-learning tutorials becomes a more strategic one when we are called to reach a level of optimization between producing a package with a basic standard, namely; text & still-graphic based tutorials, or a state-of-the-art package that is based on video demonstrations (more than enough?) that can accommodate the students’ learning requirements and also our production costs. The costs include the human resources (instructor, producers, assistants and others) and the material resources (hardware and software, copies, and others) involved in the creation of the e-learning tutorials. The key question is: What is good enough, and what is clearly superfluous? In order to confirm our hypothesis and propose a relevant balance between media richness and learning effectiveness, this paper describes an experiment in the use of two different levels of media richness as used to deliver instructions on the production of computer animations for design visualization. The students recruited for this experiment were fairly familiarized with the use of 3D modeling concepts and software, but had no previous knowledge of the techniques included in the tutorials; in specific; camera animation procedures. The students, separated in two groups, used one of the two methods; then they proceeded to apply their newly acquired skills in the production of an animation without using the help of any external means. The assessment of results was based on the quality of the final product and the students’ performance in the recall of the production procedures. Finally an interview with the students was conducted on their perception of what was accomplished from a metacognitive point of view. The results were processed in order to establish comparisons between the different levels of achievement and the students’ metacognitive assessment of learning. These results have helped us to create a clear set of recommendations for the production of e-learning tutorials and their conditions for implementation. The most beneficial characteristics of the two tested methods in relation to type of information, choice of media, method of information delivery, flexibility of production/editorial tools,! and overall cost of production, will be transferred into the development of a more refined product to be tested at larger scale.
keywords e-learning tutorials; media richness; learning effectiveness; cognitive style; computer visualization techniques
series SIGRADI
email angulo@archone.tamu.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id sigradi2006_e159b
id sigradi2006_e159b
authors Barrow, Larry
year 2006
title Digital Design Pedagogy - Basic Design - CADCAM Space Box Exploration
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 127-130
summary This proposed paper will highlight the work of a “pre-architecture” graduate student’s work produced in a “Digital Design II” course in Spring 06. This student has a bachelor’s degree in Architectural Technologies and hopes to attend a “professional” degree program in architecture after completing our Master of Science degree program. The student entered our “pre / post-professional” graduate program as a means of learning more about design, technology and architecture. This provided a rare opportunity to do “research” in the area of digital technology in the early formative phases of a new architecture / design students development. The student chose to study “shadows” as a means of design inquiry. The primary focus of the work was the study of various “4” x 4” x 4” “space-cubes.” The student was given various “design” constraints, and “transformative” operations for the study of positive-negative space relationships, light+shadows, and surface as a means of gaining in-sight to form. The CADCAM tools proved to be empowering for the student’s exploration and learning. With the recent emergence of both more user-friendly hardware and software, we are seeing a paradigm shift in design “ideation.” This is attributed to the evolving human-computer-interface (HCI) that now allows a fluidic means of creative design ideation, digital representation and physical making. Computing technology is now infusing early conceptual design ideation and allowing designers, and form, to follow their ideas. The argument will be supported with primary evidence generated in our pedagogy and research that has shown the visualization and representational power of emerging 2D and 3D CADCAM tools. This paper will analyze the basic “digital design” process used by the writer’s student. Architectural form concepts, heretofore, impossible to model and represent, are now possible due to CADCAM. Emerging designers are integrating “digital thinking” in their fundamental conceptualization of form. These creative free-forms are only feasible for translation to tectonic form using digital design-make techniques. CADCAM tools are empowering designers for form exploration and design creativity. Current computing technology is now infusing the creative design process; the computer is becoming a design “partner” with the designer and is changing form and architecture; thus, we are now seeing unprecedented design-make creativity in architecture.
keywords Basic Design; CADCAM; Digital Design; Virtual 3D Models; Physical 3D Printed Models
series SIGRADI
email lbarrow@caad.msstate.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 2006_860
id 2006_860
authors Duarte, José P. and João Rocha
year 2006
title A Grammar for the Patio Houses of the Medina of Marrakech - Towards a Tool for Housing Design in Islamic Contexts
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 860-866
summary The goal of the research described in this paper is to develop a computational model of the Medina of Marrakech in Morocco. The ultimate goal is to develop a system that could capture some of the characteristics of traditional Muslim cities fabric and use it in contemporary urban planning. Previous papers have proposed the use of three grammars to encode the spatial complexity of the Medina: the urban grammar, the negotiation grammar, and the housing grammar, and addressed the development of the urban grammar. This paper proposes a grammar to describe the formal structure of the houses, the first step in the developments of the remaining two grammars. It describes the set of rules and then illustrates its application in the generation of an existing house. The basic formal structure consists of three concentric rectangular rings with the patio in the middle. The location of the entrance and the staircase are fundamental for the definition of the basic layout.
keywords Shape grammars; housing design; Islamic architecture
series eCAADe
email jduarte@civil.ist.utl.pt
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id a126
id a126
authors Finucane E, Derix C and Coates P
year 2006
title Evolving Urban Structures using Computational Optimisation
source Proceedings of the Generative Arts conference, Milan, 2006
summary This paper investigates the use of computer analogies for naturally inspired optimisation techniques as an aid to developing the site layout and massing for the new World Trade Centre development in Pristina Kosovo, which is being designed and developed by 4M Group architectural company, in conjunction with the Advanced Modelling Group Aedas. The development of a genetic algorithm will incorporate various techniques, that have been developed in the field of multi-objective optimisation, to create three dimensional massing models, and site layout solutions which partially fulfil the Prisina brief requirements, which are taken from specifications created by 4M Group. Genetic algorithms are based on natural evolutionary principles which are explained in this paper. It will incorporate Pareto concepts to manage the optimisation of the various objective functions. For example, these will include volume and position of units, which will ensure that the different and sometime conflicting needs of the site are balanced throughout the optimisation. This type of problem is often known as an NP-complete (non-determinate polynomial time) problem. This will provide architects and planners with a number of Pareto optimised site massing solutions as an aid to the design process. An initial investigation into the specifics of the Pristina site requirements, will be followed by an investigation into the the genetic algorithm which is created in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) linked with AutoCAD as the graphical output of the code. The embryology (development) of the various solutions from the genetic information incorporates an ‘ant’ pheromone trail model, which simulates the action of ants during food foraging, as a tool for initial route planning within the site. Diffusion and cellular automata are used during the development of the solution to construct the massing for the site.
keywords urban planning, evolutionary algorithms, pareto optimization, Lindenmayer systems, ant-colony optimization, cellular automaton
series other
type normal paper
email christian.derix@aedas.com
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2012/09/20 16:33

_id sigradi2006_e028c
id sigradi2006_e028c
authors Griffith, Kenfield; Sass, Larry and Michaud, Dennis
year 2006
title A strategy for complex-curved building design:Design structure with Bi-lateral contouring as integrally connected ribs
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 465-469
summary Shapes in designs created by architects such as Gehry Partners (Shelden, 2002), Foster and Partners, and Kohn Peterson and Fox rely on computational processes for rationalizing complex geometry for building construction. Rationalization is the reduction of a complete geometric shape into discrete components. Unfortunately, for many architects the rationalization is limited reducing solid models to surfaces or data on spread sheets for contractors to follow. Rationalized models produced by the firms listed above do not offer strategies for construction or digital fabrication. For the physical production of CAD description an alternative to the rationalized description is needed. This paper examines the coupling of digital rationalization and digital fabrication with physical mockups (Rich, 1989). Our aim is to explore complex relationships found in early and mid stage design phases when digital fabrication is used to produce design outcomes. Results of our investigation will aid architects and engineers in addressing the complications found in the translation of design models embedded with precision to constructible geometries. We present an algorithmically based approach to design rationalization that supports physical production as well as surface production of desktop models. Our approach is an alternative to conventional rapid prototyping that builds objects by assembly of laterally sliced contours from a solid model. We explored an improved product description for rapid manufacture as bilateral contouring for structure and panelling for strength (Kolarevic, 2003). Infrastructure typically found within aerospace, automotive, and shipbuilding industries, bilateral contouring is an organized matrix of horizontal and vertical interlocking ribs evenly distributed along a surface. These structures are monocoque and semi-monocoque assemblies composed of structural ribs and skinning attached by rivets and adhesives. Alternative, bi-lateral contouring discussed is an interlocking matrix of plywood strips having integral joinery for assembly. Unlike traditional methods of building representations through malleable materials for creating tangible objects (Friedman, 2002), this approach constructs with the implication for building life-size solutions. Three algorithms are presented as examples of rationalized design production with physical results. The first algorithm [Figure 1] deconstructs an initial 2D curved form into ribbed slices to be assembled through integral connections constructed as part of the rib solution. The second algorithm [Figure 2] deconstructs curved forms of greater complexity. The algorithm walks along the surface extracting surface information along horizontal and vertical axes saving surface information resulting in a ribbed structure of slight double curvature. The final algorithm [Figure 3] is expressed as plug-in software for Rhino that deconstructs a design to components for assembly as rib structures. The plug-in also translates geometries to a flatten position for 2D fabrication. The software demonstrates the full scope of the research exploration. Studies published by Dodgson argued that innovation technology (IvT) (Dodgson, Gann, Salter, 2004) helped in solving projects like the Guggenheim in Bilbao, the leaning Tower of Pisa in Italy, and the Millennium Bridge in London. Similarly, the method discussed in this paper will aid in solving physical production problems with complex building forms. References Bentley, P.J. (Ed.). Evolutionary Design by Computers. Morgan Kaufman Publishers Inc. San Francisco, CA, 1-73 Celani, G, (2004) “From simple to complex: using AutoCAD to build generative design systems” in: L. Caldas and J. Duarte (org.) Implementations issues in generative design systems. First Intl. Conference on Design Computing and Cognition, July 2004 Dodgson M, Gann D.M., Salter A, (2004), “Impact of Innovation Technology on Engineering Problem Solving: Lessons from High Profile Public Projects,” Industrial Dynamics, Innovation and Development, 2004 Dristas, (2004) “Design Operators.” Thesis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2004 Friedman, M, (2002), Gehry Talks: Architecture + Practice, Universe Publishing, New York, NY, 2002 Kolarevic, B, (2003), Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, Spon Press, London, UK, 2003 Opas J, Bochnick H, Tuomi J, (1994), “Manufacturability Analysis as a Part of CAD/CAM Integration”, Intelligent Systems in Design and Manufacturing, 261-292 Rudolph S, Alber R, (2002), “An Evolutionary Approach to the Inverse Problem in Rule-Based Design Representations”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 329-350 Rich M, (1989), Digital Mockup, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, VA, 1989 Schön, D., The Reflective Practitioner: How Professional Think in Action. Basic Books. 1983 Shelden, D, (2003), “Digital Surface Representation and the Constructability of Gehry’s Architecture.” Diss. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2003 Smithers T, Conkie A, Doheny J, Logan B, Millington K, (1989), “Design as Intelligent Behaviour: An AI in Design Thesis Programme”, Artificial Intelligence in Design, 293-334 Smithers T, (2002), “Synthesis in Designing”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 3-24 Stiny, G, (1977), “Ice-ray: a note on the generation of Chinese lattice designs” Environmental and Planning B, volume 4, pp. 89-98
keywords Digital fabrication; bilateral contouring; integral connection; complex-curve
series SIGRADI
email kenfield@mit.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id fcb4
id fcb4
authors Loemker, Thorsten Michael
year 2006
title Solving Revitalization-Problems by the Use of a Constraint Programming Language
source IKM 2006, International Conference on the Applications of Computer Science and Mathematics in Architecture and Civil Engineering, Weimar, July 2006
summary This research focuses on an approach to describe principles in architectural layout planning within the domain of revitalization. With the aid of mathematical rules, which are executed by a computer, solutions to design problems are generated. Provided that “design” is in principle a combinatorial problem, i.e. a constraint-based search for an overall optimal solution of a problem, an exemplary method will be described to solve such problems in architectural layout planning. To avoid conflicts relating to theoretical subtleness, a customary approach adopted from Operations Research has been chosen in this work [1]. In this approach, design is a synonym for planning, which could be described as a systematic and methodical course of action for the analysis and solution of current or future problems. The planning task is defined as an analysis of a problem with the aim to prepare optimal decisions by the use of mathematical methods. The decision problem of a planning task is represented by an optimization model and the application of an efficient algorithm in order to aid finding one or more solutions to the problem. The basic principle underlying the approach presented herein is the understanding of design in terms of searching for solutions that fulfill specific criteria. This search is executed by the use of a constraint programming language.
keywords Revitalization, Optimization, Constraint Programming, OPL
series other
type short paper
email thorsten.loemker@tu-dresden.de
more http://euklid.bauing.uni-weimar.de/ikm2006-cd/data/templates/papers/f26.pdf
last changed 2008/10/13 12:02

_id ascaad2006_paper7
id ascaad2006_paper7
authors Lömker, Thorsten M.
year 2006
title Designing with Machines: solving architectural layout planning problems by the use of a constraint programming language and scheduling algorithms
source Computing in Architecture / Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2006), 25-27 April 2006, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
summary In 1845 Edgar Allan Poe wrote the poem “The Raven”, an act full of poetry, love, passion, mourning, melancholia and death. In his essay “The Theory of Composition” which was published in 1846 Poe proved that the poem is based on an accurate mathematical description. Not only in literature are structures present that are based on mathematics. In the work of famous musicians, artists or architects like Bach, Escher or Palladio it is evident that the beauty and clarity of their work as well as its traceability has often been reached through the use of intrinsic mathematic coherences. If suchlike structures could be described within architecture, their mathematical abstraction could supplement “The Theory of Composition” of a building. This research focuses on an approach to describe principles in architectural layout planning in the form of mathematical rules that will be executed by the use of a computer. Provided that “design” is in principle a combinatorial problem, i.e. a constraint-based search for an overall optimal solution of a design problem, an exemplary method will be described to solve problems in architectural layout planning. Two problem domains will be examined: the design of new buildings, as well as the revitalization of existing buildings. Mathematical and syntactical difficulties that arise from the attempt to extract rules that relate to the process of building design will be pointed out. To avoid conflicts relating to theoretical subtleness a customary approach has been chosen in this work which is adopted from Operations Research. In this approach design is a synonym for planning, which could be described as a systematic and methodical course of action for the analysis and solution of current or future problems. The planning task is defined as an analysis of a problem with the aim to prepare optimal decisions by the use of mathematical methods. The decision problem of a planning task is represented by an optimization model and the application of an efficient algorithm to aid finding one or more solutions to the problem. The basic principle underlying the approach presented herein is the understanding of design in terms of searching for solutions that fulfill specific criteria. This search will be executed by the use of a constraint programming language, which refers to mathematical as well as to integer and mixed integer programming. Examples of architectural layout problems will be presented that can be solved by the use of this programming paradigm. In addition to this, a second programming approach resulting from the domain of resource-allocation has been followed in this research. It will be demonstrated that it is as well possible, to aid architectural layout planning by the use of scheduling algorithms.
series ASCAAD
email thorsten.loemker@tu-dresden.de
last changed 2007/11/27 07:22

_id cf2011_p163
id cf2011_p163
authors Park, Hyoung-June
year 2011
title Mass-Customization in the Design of 4,000 Bus Stops
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 265-278.
summary In Hawaii, ‚"TheBus‚" has been a main transportation system since 1971. Considering the high cost of living in Hawaii and the absence of a rail system, the use of ‚"TheBus‚" has been an instrumental vein of the city life in Honolulu with rhythmical pauses at about 4,000 bus stops in Honolulu. However, existing undifferentiated bus stops are developed from a cost effective mass production system so that they have been problematic for satisfying specific needs from various site conditions. In this research, an integrated computational method of mass-customization for designing 4,000 bus stops is introduced. According to various site conditions, the design of each bus stop is customized. Unlike the mass‚Äêproduced bus stops commonly seen in cities today, the proposed computational method in this paper produces bus stop design outcomes that fit into the physical characteristics of the location in which they are installed. Mass-customization allows for the creation and production of unique or similar buildings and building components, differentiated through digitally‚Äêcontrolled variation (Kolarevic, 2003). The employment of a computational mass‚Äêcustomization in architectural design extends the boundary of design solutions to the satisfaction of multi-objective requirements and unlimited freedom to search alternative solutions (Duarte, 2001; Caldas, 2006). The computational method developed in this paper consists of 1) definition of a prototype, 2) parametric variation, 3) manual deformation, and 4) simulation based deformation. The definition of a prototype is the development of a basic design to be transformed for satisfying various conditions given from a site. In this paper, the bus stop prototype is developed from the analysis of more than 300 bus stops and the categorization of the existing bus stops according to their physical conditions, contextual conditions, climatic conditions, and existing amenities. Based upon the outcome of the analysis, the design variables of a bus stop prototype are defined. Those design variables then guide the basic physical parameters for changing the physical configuration of the prototype according to a given site. From this, many possible design outcomes are generated as instances for further developments. The process of manual deformation is where the designer employs its intuition to develop the selected parametric variation. The designer is compelled to think about the possible implication derived from formal variation. This optional process allows every design decision to have a creative solution from an individual designer with an incidental quality in aesthetics, but substantiated functional quality. Finally the deformation of the selection is guided and controlled by the influence of sun direction/ exposure to the selection. The simulation based deformation starts with the movement of the sun as the trigger for generating the variations of the bus stop prototype. The implementation of the computational method was made within the combination of MEL (Maya Enbedded Language), autodesk MAYA and Ecotect environment.
keywords mass-customization, parametric variation, simulation based deformation
series CAAD Futures
email hjpark@hawaii.edu
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id sigradi2006_e113b
id sigradi2006_e113b
authors Sanza, Paolo
year 2006
title The built environment revisited digitally: an approach to 2D and 3D CAD teaching
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 215-218
summary There is a characteristic that distinguishes the School of Architecture at Oklahoma State University from other architecture schools in the United States and that is the absence of a design studio in the spring semester of the third year. Among the various classes the students are required to take during this time is ARCH 3253_computer applications in architecture defined in the School catalog as an “introduction to 2D and 3D computer CAD topics and their application in the design process.” The absence of a design studio has allowed [me] to morph an otherwise technically oriented course to a course that weaves the learning of the basic of various computer programs with research, writing, graphic and physical explorations. This paper exposes the pedagogy of the course alongside sample of students’ work during the spring 2006 semester and will disclose its future development as web and film technologies are introduced to the course. The introduction of the “forth dimension” to the course will both augment and foster alternative means of architectural communication by promoting multimodal representations and will respond to the personal observation that in spite of the essentially total use of the computer in the daily creative life of students and professionals alike, the architectural representation output has virtually remained unchanged [and for the most part unchallenged] since the time when pens, pencils, and papers were the media of choice. In addition to its pedagogical character, the paper will also share the personal explorations that triggered following one of the assignments and led to the development and realization of a graphic piece for one of the summer 2006 exhibits at the Scottsdale Museum of Contemporary Art in Scottsdale, Arizona and prompted the initial development of the design of a restaurant, also in Scottsdale, Arizona [in its schematic design phase at the time of the writing of this abstract].
keywords virtual; representation; 4th dimension
series SIGRADI
email paolo.sanza@okstate.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:59

_id caadria2006_047
id caadria2006_047
authors SHAI YESHAYAHU, A.; B. MARIA VERA
year 2006
title CUT, COPY, PASTE SOCIETY
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 47-52
summary You and I were not born in the 1990’s thus our experience about the true modalities of circulation and communication that have substantially transformed the methods that form and inform us today, are not really “pure”. Why? Because we know how slow time was before the communication boom of this last decade and because some of us still believe that we must read to be inform and thus, visit a bookstore, library or friends house and get peeks inside a subject of matter. So experiencing life as we bypass the book _ that’s a story of a brand new era! Taking note of the enormous changes this era brings, is fundamental to our current pedagogic undertakings. We seek data about the differences that lie in the way individuals, which never knew a world before or between analogue and digital zones, process information. It signals a dramatic shift in cognitive realms that is deeply imbedded in our emerging socio-economic spheres. So, you say “hypothesizing that economic, technologic, and cultural fluxes fabricate new means to learn and think, is not a fresh idea”_ True. But, it led us to ask one fundamental question _What are the upcoming learning habits employed by the “post digital” society? We noted that the post digital generation is an avid cut, copy, paste society that is able to extract information from infinite resources and mix, remix in diversified modes, through time and in real-time. We think these abilities are strengths, which will permit students to multitask yet they strongly differ from the academic agendas that are concerned with meditative processes and qualitative interdisciplinary task. As aspiring academics interested in the reconfiguration of current pedagogic formats we seek a creative intervention for future design generations, one that can benefit both the upheavals of the cultural world and the integrity of the academic setting where a pedagogy that links extended fields of knowledge with shifting cognitive habits can emerge. In this arena where cognition plays an important role, our goals are challenging and difficult, especially in the beginning years when the foundations set forward leaves lasting impressions. Thus, letting go of familiar grounds and tuning to continual alterations of the immediate surroundings enables us to seek means that facilitate important readings for our current learning/teaching processes. Demystifying changes and embracing differences as design potentials for new interventions are basic programmatic elements that permit us to incorporate a rigorous research agenda in the design exercises. Our presentation will project the current state of our teaching modality and provide examples of current studio work. It will demonstrate how everyday rituals, journeys and research observations, are documented by a society that heralds a new academic setting.
series CAADRIA
email shaiy@siu.edu
last changed 2007/07/23 05:08

_id 2006_366
id 2006_366
authors Voigt, Andreas and Bob Martens
year 2006
title Development of 3D Tactile Models for the Partially Sighted to Facilitate Spatial Orientation
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 366-370
summary Lacking or poor provision of comprehensive information about the spatial environment for the purposes of effective orientation is a problem that primarily affects the blind and partially sighted, but it can also cause difficulties for older people with increasing visual impairment. This research project in progress aims to obtain new scientific findings with regard to the basic suitability and required composition of tactile models to facilitate spatial orientation for the blind and partially sighted. Tactile scale models serve as an orientation aid. Their intention is to make it easier for visually impaired people to “experience” selected structural characteristics of the real space, even if in scaled-down form. This experience allows them to experiment with space and to better recognize spatial elements and their interrelationships. It also helps them to better recognize subspaces, possible spatial sequences, as well as decision-making situations in these spaces. These tactile processes are supported by the highly sensitive tactile faculties of people with visual impairment, which are far more finely differentiated than those of sighted people who experience objects without this disability. The amount of available digital model data is constantly growing and would allow for the creation of tactile models.
keywords rapid prototyping; 3D printing (3DP); visual impairment; scale modeling; haptical interface
series eCAADe
email voigt@ifoer.tuwien.ac.at
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id sigradi2006_e082d
id sigradi2006_e082d
authors Beros Contreras, Christian
year 2006
title Space, Events and Urban Performance
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 333-336
summary This report investigates different kinds of Urban Performance in Thames Path, South Bank of Thames River. Urban Performance is defined here as the expression or manifestation of different social groups in the city space regarding the appropriation of a specific place for its spatial practices. The Urban Performances are intrinsic to the cultural expression of the city and revealed through the spatial experience of both performer and spectator. The aim of this paper is to shed light on different kind of urban performances and how are they linked to spatial and syntactic properties of space. This topic is intrinsic in the space syntax theory due its fundamental relation between spatiality and human activity. The research method used were, direct observations by static snapshots and traces (related with human movement) and a survey of potential attractors, active facades and path widths. The results were overlaid with spatial analysis in terms of performers isovists and syntactic analysis through visibility graph. The findings show a strong relation between performers’ use of space and visibility in the urban area, and a high influence of the cultural attractions and public services that works as movement attractors. The discussion is developed through the research findings and theories of spatial experience putting forward varied interpretations related with the research topic and the selected site. The report concludes that the urban performances in Thames path is determined by the human co presence in the space, due to this strategic points chosen along the path by the performers are strongly related with the visual connections in the system. Furthermore, the attractors play an important role shaping the spatial experience and urban character of the studied area.
keywords Urban Performance; Space Syntax; Isovists
series SIGRADI
email c.beros-contreras@ucl.ac.uk
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id caadria2006_601
id caadria2006_601
authors BINSU CHIANG, MAO-LIN CHIU
year 2006
title PRIVATE/UN-PRIVATE SPACE: Scenario-based Digital Design for Enhancing User Awareness
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 601-603
summary Context awareness is important for human senses of places as well as human computer interaction. The aim of this research paper is focusing on controlling the user's privacy in a smart space which is adaptive to different users for enhancing the user's awareness in his diary life. In Environmental Psychology, the definition of privacy is that an individual has the control of deciding what information of himself is released to others, and under how he interact with others. (Westin 1970) And privacy is categorized as the linguistic privacy and visual privacy. (Sundstorm 1986). Solutions for privacy control: Plan Layout, Vision Boundary, Access Control and Architecture Metaphor - the transmission of information is not ascertainable for every single user. Although information are shown in public, but information is implied by cues and symbols. Only a certain user or a group of users have access to the full context of information. The methodology is to form an analytic framework to study the relationship between information, user and activities by using the computational supports derived from KitchenSense, ConceptNet, Python, 3d Studio Max and Flash; and to record patterns built up by users' behaviour and actions. Furthermore, the scenario-based simulation can envision the real world conditions by adding interfaces for enhancing user awareness.
series CAADRIA
email n7693103@mail.ncku.edu.twmc2p@mail.ncku.edu.tw
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

_id 2006_290
id 2006_290
authors Cenani, Sehnaz and Gulen Cagdas
year 2006
title Shape Grammar of Geometric Islamic Ornaments
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 290-297
summary Shape grammars are the algorithmic systems used to analyze existing designs or create new ones. In spite of using text or symbols to express abstract representations, shape grammars aid to create novel designs through computational effort with shapes and rules. Many probabilities of rule selections and applications of these rules may generate emergent design solutions or create new design objectives. This paper aims to present the characteristics, shape grammar rules and historical background of geometrical ornaments in Islamic culture and to point out the possibilities of mathematics of symmetry. The knowledge presented in this paper can be used to generate new depictions and to gain new application areas like typography, wallpaper, landscape, façade design, tiling, jewelry, and textile designs. Even, these types of shape grammar studies can be used to open a novel approach as in Jean Nouvel’s “Arab World Institute” in Paris. The role of shape grammar analysis of geometrical Islamic ornaments explained in this paper is to increase the efficiency of architectural design education by facilitating the formal understanding of historical patterns. Novel use of shape grammars in education can enrich the designer’s ability to generate original designs. In this paper variants of Islamic ornaments are created with a CAAD program. A selected geometrical bezeme (ornament) from Islamic ornamental design is generated by encoding with a computer programming language. According to the generated bezeme, interaction scenario is as follows: Computer has the main control over grammar application. Only, some of the rules can be selected by the user. Varieties of this ornament are generated randomly through their line weight, line colors, filling types and filling colors. The shape grammar rules outlined in this paper are simple, but the resulting figures can be very inspiring. Furthermore, the endless potential for future design innovations is unlimited.
keywords Computer-generated geometrical design; shape grammar rules; geometrical Islamic ornaments; Islamic patterns
series eCAADe
email sehnazcenani@yahoo.com
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id 2006_738
id 2006_738
authors Chen, Chiung-Hui and Mao-Lin Chiu
year 2006
title Space Tags and User Behavior Modeling - Applying agents to detect navigational patterns in urban streets
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 738-745
summary Urban pedestrian studies on navigation have been conducted for developing applications to ease the task of exploring in a virtual environment. As navigation in virtual environments is evidently difficult and as many virtual worlds have been designed to be used by untrained visitors that explore the environment, navigational supports are critically needed. This study is aimed to collect information about the user needs in order to build a model of user preference and produce simulative scenarios that can reveal the navigational patterns related to street design. The study is based on the attention theory for studying people who are socially interacting with street activities and furniture within designated areas. Furthermore, the study attempts to apply agent interface develop a prototype system with space tags. Finally, the system and its applications, and major findings of these applications are reported
keywords space tags; navigational patterns; street; agent interface; user behavior
series eCAADe
email 7451616@ms94.url.com.tw
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

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