CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 615

_id caadria2006_119
id caadria2006_119
authors MARY LOU MAHER , MIJEONG KIM
year 2006
title THE EFFECTS OF TANGIBLE USER INTERFACES ON DESIGNERS’ COGNITIVE ACTIONS
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 119-124
summary This paper presents a study of the comparison of tangible user interfaces and graphical user interfaces on designers’ cognitive actions. We conducted individual design experiments using the protocol analysis method. The results reveal that designers using the tabletop system with 3D blocks reasoned more about spatial relationships among 3D objects, while the designers using the keyboard and mouse reasoned more about individual 3D objects.
series CAADRIA
email mary@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

_id 2006_052
id 2006_052
authors Kieferle, Joachim; Uwe Wössner and Martin Becker
year 2006
title Interactive Simulation of Architecture in Virtual Environments
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 52-57
summary Architecture always has an environmental impact. By using simulations, planners can minimize the environmental impact. Since simulations normally take a long time and thus only allow a very limited number of iterations, our project describes the setup of a close-to-real-time simulation technique. By dividing the simulation into smaller parts and running the software on clusters or massively parallel computing platforms, first results are available within several seconds, reasonable results below one minute. In order to make this tool easily accessible to specialists and laymen, a tangible user interface provides an intuitive interaction method. The results of the simulation can be visualized and interacted with in different virtual environments. Limitations, mainly automatic grid generation, shape recognition and computation power are discussed.
keywords Interactive Simulation; Tangible User Interface; Virtual Environment; Virtual Reality
series eCAADe
email kieferle@fab.fh-wiesbaden.de
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id acadia06_342
id acadia06_342
authors Kobayashi, Yosihiro
year 2006
title Self-Organizing Map and Axial Spatial Arrangement: Topological Mapping of Alternative Designs
source Synthetic Landscapes [Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture] pp. 342-355
summary This research attempts to formulate a computational framework for exploring spatial arrangements in the early phases of design. In the physical world, this could be compared to exploring spatial arrangements using cardboard cut-outs or simply a grid of spaces on paper. This research demonstrates the framework by means of a generative design system that introduces axial order in a plan parti made up of discrete 3D objects. The tool is designed to organize the 3D objects along an Axis specified by the user and also rearrange them following user-defined mathematical expressions. The numerical parameters (the dimensions and physical properties of the individual objects) are linked through the mathematical expressions to vary the spatial arrangement of objects. Implementation of the tool involves the Self Organizing Maps (SOMs) as the Graphical User Interface (GUI) in generative systems. This allows the user to select and dynamically view spatial arrangements that have been organized on a map based on their similarity. The application is implemented, tested, and its results are demonstrated using buildings designed by Louis I. Kahn, Frank Lloyd Wright and Mies van der Rohe.
series ACADIA
email ykobaya@asu.edu
last changed 2006/09/22 06:22

_id caadria2006_161
id caadria2006_161
authors HERM HOFMEYER, JAN G.M. KERSTENS
year 2006
title FULL 3D STRUCTURAL ZONING OF SPACE: Using a Geometrically Related Reducer and Matrix Coupling
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 161-168
summary Structural zoning is the recognition of forms in spatial designs. It can be used by a structural designer to develop a structural system. This paper will start with the presentation of a proof that neither user action nor a two-dimensional approach -two existing approaches of zoning- are able to recognize all possibilities for the application of a structural design to a spatial design. Only full three-dimensional structural zoning is considered to be an appropriate instrument to give useful solutions. Two new concepts will be presented to overcome problems for three-dimensional zoning: (1) Geometrically Related Reducers and (2) Matrix Coupling. These concepts are first defined in a general form and thereafter the definitions are condensed into a practically applicable format. Both concepts are demonstrated when finding rectangular zones in spatial designs up to 44 separate spatial entities. They are programmed procedurally using the C++ computer language and are used for a comparison between structural designers and computer performance.
series CAADRIA
email h.hofmeyer@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

_id acadia06_304
id acadia06_304
authors Dorta, T., Perez, E.
year 2006
title Immersive Drafted Virtual Reality a new approach for ideation within virtual reality
source Synthetic Landscapes [Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture] pp. 304-316
summary There is a void between design and computer in ideation. Traditional tools like sketching are more appropriate for conceptual design since they can sustain abstraction, ambiguity, and inaccuracy—essentials at the beginning of the design process. Actual graphical user interface approaches, as well as hardware devices, constrain creative thinking. Computer representations and virtual reality are now used for presentation and validation rather than for design. Most virtual reality tools are seen as passive rather than active instruments in this process of ideation. Moreover, virtual reality techniques come from other disciplines and are applied to design without considering the design process itself and the skills designers already possess.This paper proposes and evaluates a new approach for the conceptual design of spaces within virtual reality. Starting from the non-immersive technique we developed before, where the user was able to be inside a 3D modeled space through real sketches, this technique goes one step further, allowing the designer to sketch the space from the inside all in real-time. Using an interactive pen display for sketching and an immersive projective spherical display, designers and colleagues are able to propose and make design decisions from inside the project. The capabilities of the computer to display the virtual environment are, therefore, mixed with the designer’s skills in sketching and understanding the space.
series ACADIA
email tomas.dorta@umontreal.ca
last changed 2006/09/22 06:22

_id ddss2006-pb-343
id DDSS2006-PB-343
authors Jumphon Lertlakkhanakul, Sangrae Do, and Jinwon Choi
year 2006
title Developing a Spatial Context-Aware Building Model and System to Construct a Virtual Place
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) 2006, Progress in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Eindhoven: Eindhoven University of Technology, ISBN-10: 90-386-1756-9, ISBN-13: 978-90-386-1756-5, p. 343-358
summary The current notion of space seems to be inappropriate to deal with contemporary and future CAAD applications because it lacks of user and social values. Instead of using a general term called 'space', our approach is to consider the common unit in architectural design process as a place composed of space, user and activity information. Our research focuses on developing a novel intelligent building data model carrying the essence of place. Through our research, the needs of using virtual architectural models among various architectural applications are investigated at first step. Second, key characteristics of spatial information are summarized and systematically classified. The third step is to construct a semantically-rich building data model based on structured floor plan and the semantic location modeling. Then intermediate functions are created providing an interface between the model and future applications. Finally, a prototype system, PlaceMaker, is developed to demonstrate how to apply our building data model to construct virtual architectural models embodying the essences of place.
keywords Spatial context-aware building model, Spatial reasoning, Virtual place, Location modeling, Design constraint
series DDSS
last changed 2006/08/29 10:55

_id sigradi2012_30
id sigradi2012_30
authors Angeluzzi, Gustavo; Hanns, Daniela Kutschat
year 2012
title Um levantamento de requisitos gerais para o desenvolvimento e posicionamento de DOOTERS – um aplicativo lúdico de listas de tarefas para iPhone [A survey of general requirements for developing and positioning DOOTERS - a to-do list application for iPhone]
source SIGraDi 2012 [Proceedings of the 16th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Brasil - Fortaleza 13-16 November 2012, pp. 191-195
summary DOOTERS is a to-do list application for iPhone which entertains and motivates the user to get things done. It was developed based on requirements obtained trough: 1. the study of several personal information organizing methods (Covey, 1989; Allen, 2005; Foster, 2006); 2. answers to a task lists user focused questionnaire; 3. observation of to-do list users while creating lists and organizing tasks; 4. comparison of digital and non-digital task list media (paper, computer and mobile device); 5. analysis of profiles, behaviors and to-do list applications for iPhone. In this paper, the authors present the process of obtaining requirements for developing and positioning DOOTERS.
keywords information and interface design, requirements, to-do list application, iPhone, DOOTERS
series SIGRADI
email dk.hanns@uol.com.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id sigradi2006_e159b
id sigradi2006_e159b
authors Barrow, Larry
year 2006
title Digital Design Pedagogy - Basic Design - CADCAM Space Box Exploration
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 127-130
summary This proposed paper will highlight the work of a “pre-architecture” graduate student’s work produced in a “Digital Design II” course in Spring 06. This student has a bachelor’s degree in Architectural Technologies and hopes to attend a “professional” degree program in architecture after completing our Master of Science degree program. The student entered our “pre / post-professional” graduate program as a means of learning more about design, technology and architecture. This provided a rare opportunity to do “research” in the area of digital technology in the early formative phases of a new architecture / design students development. The student chose to study “shadows” as a means of design inquiry. The primary focus of the work was the study of various “4” x 4” x 4” “space-cubes.” The student was given various “design” constraints, and “transformative” operations for the study of positive-negative space relationships, light+shadows, and surface as a means of gaining in-sight to form. The CADCAM tools proved to be empowering for the student’s exploration and learning. With the recent emergence of both more user-friendly hardware and software, we are seeing a paradigm shift in design “ideation.” This is attributed to the evolving human-computer-interface (HCI) that now allows a fluidic means of creative design ideation, digital representation and physical making. Computing technology is now infusing early conceptual design ideation and allowing designers, and form, to follow their ideas. The argument will be supported with primary evidence generated in our pedagogy and research that has shown the visualization and representational power of emerging 2D and 3D CADCAM tools. This paper will analyze the basic “digital design” process used by the writer’s student. Architectural form concepts, heretofore, impossible to model and represent, are now possible due to CADCAM. Emerging designers are integrating “digital thinking” in their fundamental conceptualization of form. These creative free-forms are only feasible for translation to tectonic form using digital design-make techniques. CADCAM tools are empowering designers for form exploration and design creativity. Current computing technology is now infusing the creative design process; the computer is becoming a design “partner” with the designer and is changing form and architecture; thus, we are now seeing unprecedented design-make creativity in architecture.
keywords Basic Design; CADCAM; Digital Design; Virtual 3D Models; Physical 3D Printed Models
series SIGRADI
email lbarrow@caad.msstate.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 2006_890
id 2006_890
authors Calabrese, Antonio; Carlo Coppola; Luca Licenziato; Francesco Mele; Antonio Sorgente and Oliviero Talamo
year 2006
title Creation and editing of artifacts’ models by Generative Projects
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 890-896
summary In this paper we propose an aiding system for the creation of models of artifacts which is based on a methodology that has its foundations in a concept that we call generative projects. This methodology has been defined separating the design paradigm of the designer from the computational model, defined in order to implement the system that support the designer in the design process, and from the graphical engine of the specific rendering system, chosen for the visualization of the generated artifact. In this work we defined an user interface that assists the designer during the design process, translates the result of the design into the underlying computational model and carries out the access to the rendering system in a transparent way. The experimentation of the system was conducted on various artifacts domains, as jewels, glasses, lamps, cutlery, wireless headphones, aerosols, pots and plans.
keywords formal ontology; generative design
series eCAADe
email Carlo.Coppola@unina2.it
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id 2006_160
id 2006_160
authors Charitos, Dimitris
year 2006
title Spatializing the Internet: new types of hybrid mobile communication environments and their impact on spatial design within the urban context
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 160-167
summary This paper aims at investigating the emergence of new forms of communication environments, supported by the integration of new mobile and locative media technologies and the impact that the implementation of these systems may have on mediated communication within the urban context. The paper discusses the technologies supporting such multi-user systems (interactive graphical interfaces for mobile devices and locative media) and investigates the experience of interacting with such systems from a user’s perspective. It focuses on such systems accessed via interfaces, which have a spatial character and which are supported by different output devices, ultimately affording a hybrid (synthetic & physical) spatial experience. Communication is tied to places and places to communication. Consequently, these emerging types of communication may lead revolutionary new ways of social interaction and inhabiting urban space. With the emergence of these ICT systems, the city may again become a social arena and this development certainly calls for reconsidering the way in which we conceptualize and design urban environments.
keywords Locative media: social computing; spatial interfaces; mobile technologies; context-aware systems
series eCAADe
email vedesign@otenet.gr
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id caadria2006_617
id caadria2006_617
authors CHING-CHIEN LIN
year 2006
title A GREATER SENSE OF PRESENCE: SPATIAL INTERFACE IN VR CAVE
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 617-619
summary Virtual environments are three–dimensional spaces presented visually. They combine the user’s experience and sense of 'being there' in the virtual environment. Presence is a central element of virtual reality that it is seen as a part of its definition (Steuer, 1992). Direct interactions between participants and the virtual environment generate a more enhanced sense of immersion, thus making the participants feels they are part of that environment (Witmer & Singer, 1998).
series CAADRIA
email karenlin@arch.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

_id caadria2006_295
id caadria2006_295
authors CHIUNG-HUI CHEN, MAO-LIN CHIU
year 2006
title TOWARDS A WEB-BASED URBAN STREET SIMULATOR FOR PEDESTRIAN BEHAVIORS STUDY WITH AGENT-BASED INTERFACES
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 295-302
summary The urban planning has largely placed the street users at the centre of infrastructural design, with significant implications for the perceived attractiveness of user environments. The urban designers faced with the task of designing such spaces and needs a tool that will allow different designs to be compared in terms of their attractiveness as well as their effectiveness. Therefore, this paper depicts an agent interface approach for creating a street simulator of user behaviors in urban street environments. We implemented the agent interface as individual-based simulation in the proposed project called "SCALE” (A Street Case Library for Environmental design). The project is demonstrated to find out differences between the simulation and the existed environment. The methodology and findings are reported.
series CAADRIA
email chchen@asia.edu.tw, mc2p@mail.ncku.edu.tw
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

_id acadia06_392
id acadia06_392
authors Dorta, T., Perez, E.
year 2006
title Hybrid modeling revaluing manual action for 3D modeling
source Synthetic Landscapes [Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture] pp. 392-402
summary 3D modeling software uses conventional interface devices like mouse, keyboard and display allowing the designer to model 3D shapes. Due to the complexity of 3D shape data structures, these programs work through a geometrical system and a graphical user interface to input and output data. However, these elements interfere with the conceptual stage of the design process because the software is always asking to be fed with accurate geometries—something hard to do at the beginning of the process. Furthermore, the interface does not recognize all the advantages and skills of the designer’s bare hands as a powerful modeling tool.This paper presents the evaluation of a hybrid modeling technique for conceptual design. The hybrid modeling approach proposes to use both computer and manual tools for 3D modeling at the beginning of the design process. Using 3D scanning and rapid prototyping techniques, the designer is able to go back and forth between digital and manual mode, thus taking advantage of each one. Starting from physical models, the design is then digitalized in order to be treated with special modeling software. Then, the rapid prototyping physical model becomes a matrix or physical 3D template used to explore design intentions with the hands, allowing the proposal of complex shapes, which is difficult to achieve by 3D modeling software alone.
series ACADIA
email tomas.dorta@umontreal.ca
last changed 2006/09/22 06:22

_id ddss2006-hb-3
id DDSS2006-HB-3
authors Guenter Emberger, Nikolaus Ibesich, and Paul Pfaffenbichler
year 2006
title Can Decision Making Processes Benefit from a User Friendly Land Use and Transport Interaction Model?
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) 2006, Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Dordrecht: Springer, ISBN-10: 1-4020-5059-3, ISBN-13: 978-1-4020-5059-6, p. 3-18
summary Urban regions today face serious challenges caused by past and ongoing transport and land use developments. Decision making in this context is a challenging task which was explored in detail in a series of research projects. To support decision making, tools were developed to reduce the risk of inappropriate decisions in the land use and transport context. One of these tools is MARS (Metropolitan Activity Relocation Simulator); an integrated dynamic land use and transport model. The paper presented here focuses therefore on two main issues: 1) the introduction of the decision support tool MARS and of the cause-effect relations between the land-use and the transport system implemented within MARS; and 2) the design and application of the MARS flight simulator (MARS FS) as a graphical user interface for MARS especially designed to the needs of decision makers.
keywords Land-use and transport model, Dynamic modelling, Decision-making support, Policy instruments, Flight simulator
series DDSS
last changed 2006/08/29 10:55

_id sigradi2006_e090b
id sigradi2006_e090b
authors Hanna, Sean and Turner, Alasdair
year 2006
title Teaching parametric design in code and construction
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 158-161
summary Automated manufacturing processes with the ability to translate digital models into physical form promise both an increase in the complexity of what can be built, and through rapid prototyping, a possibility to experiment easily with tangible examples of the evolving design. The increasing literacy of designers in computer languages, on the other hand, offers a new range of techniques through which the models themselves might be generated. This paper reviews the results of an integrated parametric modelling and digital manufacturing workshop combining participants with a background in computer programming with those with a background in fabrication. Its aim was both to encourage collaboration in a domain that overlaps both backgrounds, as well as to explore the ways in which the two working methods naturally extend the boundaries of traditional parametric design. The types of projects chosen by the students, the working methods adopted and progress made will be discussed in light of future educational possibilities, and of the future direction of parametric tools themselves. Where standard CAD constructs isolated geometric primitives, parametric models allow the user to set up a hierarchy of relationships, deferring such details as specific dimension and sometimes quantity to a later point. Usually these are captured by a geometric schema. Many such relationships in real design however, can not be defined in terms of geometry alone. Logical operations, environmental effects such as lighting and air flow, the behaviour of people and the dynamic behaviour of materials are all essential design parameters that require other methods of definition, including the algorithm. It has been our position that the skills of the programmer are necessary in the future of design. Bentley’s Generative Components software was used as the primary vehicle for the workshop design projects. Built within the familiar Microstation framework, it enables the construction of a parametric model at a range of different interfaces, from purely graphic through to entirely code based, thus allowing the manipulation of such non-geometric, algorithmic relationships as described above. Two-dimensional laser cutting was the primary fabrication method, allowing for rapid manufacturing, and in some cases iterative physical testing. The two technologies have led in the workshop to working methods that extend the geometric schema: the first, by forcing an explicit understanding of design as procedural, and the second by encouraging physical experimentation and optimisation. The resulting projects have tended to focus on responsiveness to conditions either coded or incorporated into experimental loop. Examples will be discussed. While programming languages and geometry are universal in intent, their constraints on the design process were still notable. The default data structures of computer languages (in particular the rectangular array) replace one schema limitation with another. The indexing of data in this way is conceptually hard-wired into much of our thinking both in CAD and in code. Thankfully this can be overcome with a bit of programming, but the number of projects which have required this suggests that more intuitive, or spatial methods of data access might be developed in the future.
keywords generative design; parametric model; teaching
series SIGRADI
email s.hanna@cs.ucl.ac.uk
last changed 2016/03/10 08:53

_id caadria2006_363
id caadria2006_363
authors HSIAO-CHEN YOU, SHANG-CHIA CHIOU, YI-SHIN DENG
year 2006
title DESIGN BY ACTIONS: An Affordance-based Modeling System in Spatial Design
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 363-369
summary From the viewpoint of interaction design, Gibson's affordance concept is interpreted as an emergent action possibility of the physical human-environment-system, which consists of three key components: the user, the environment, and the possible actions. It could help user to perform the suitable action within an artificial environment. This study aims to develop a formal description of affordance in spatial design. Using the formal description as groundwork, an affordance-based modeling system is then proposed to facilitate its further implementation in design and elucidate the new role of users and designers in spatial design. A simplified sink area design is used as an example to illustrate how this affordance-based modeling system works. For users of different conditions, different spatial arrangements in design will affect the performance and users’ behavior as well. This study demonstrates how design by action can be achieved, and then simulates the action sequence of different design solutions to evaluate the system performance.
series CAADRIA
email hcyou@ntit.edu.tw, chiousc@yuntech.edu.tw, ydest@faculty.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

_id ascaad2006_paper18
id ascaad2006_paper18
authors Huang, Chie-Chieh
year 2006
title An Approach to 3D Conceptual Modelling
source Computing in Architecture / Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2006), 25-27 April 2006, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
summary This article presents a 3D user interface required by the development of conceptual modeling. This 3D user interface provides a new structure for solving the problems of difficult interface operations and complicated commands due to the application of CAD 2D interface for controlling 3D environment. The 3D user interface integrates the controlling actions of “seeing – moving –seeing” while designers are operating CAD (Schön and Wiggins, 1992). Simple gestures are used to control the operations instead. The interface also provides a spatial positioning method which helps designers to eliminate the commands of converting a coordinate axis. The study aims to discuss the provision of more intuitively interactive control through CAD so as to fulfil the needs of designers. In our practices and experiments, a pair of LED gloves equipped with two CCD cameras for capturing is used to sense the motions of hands and positions in 3D. In addition, circuit design is applied to convert the motions of hands including selecting, browsing, zoom in / zoom out and rotating to LED switches in different colours so as to identify images.
series ASCAAD
email scottie@arch.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id acadia06_317
id acadia06_317
authors Lee, E. S., Hong, S., Johnson, Brian R.
year 2006
title Context Aware Paper-Based Review Instrument A Tangible User Interface for Architecture Design Review
source Synthetic Landscapes [Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture] pp. 317-327
summary We describe the design and implementation of a prototype computer-supported collaborative work (CSCW) environment for review of architectural construction documents. This environment utilizes a novel plain-paper tangible interface that supports shared activity such as review of construction documents using an “over the shoulder” computational assistant called CAPRI.Despite the increasing use of computers, work in most architecture firms still largely revolves around paper drawings. Architects structure their work around paper instead of digital representations for reasons of legal liability and tradition, as well as technical limitations. While hardcopy is intuitive, dense, and easy to access, it lacks direct connection to the wide range of design knowledge increasingly available in interactive design environments. This lack is felt most acutely during design review processes, when the designer or reviewer is often called upon to consult and consider holistically a variety of supporting (backing) documents, a task which requires focused attention and a good memory, if errors are to be avoided.Our prototype system enables multiple reviewers to interact equally with a paper construction document using a tangible interface to query detail and backing data from a project knowledge base. We believe this will decrease the reviewer’s cognitive load by bringing design data to them in a contextual and timely way. In doing so, we believe errors will be caught sooner and mistakes reduced.
series ACADIA
email soodori@gmail.com
last changed 2006/09/22 06:22

_id cf2011_p016
id cf2011_p016
authors Merrick, Kathryn; Gu Ning
year 2011
title Supporting Collective Intelligence for Design in Virtual Worlds: A Case Study of the Lego Universe
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 637-652.
summary Virtual worlds are multi-faceted technologies. Facets of virtual worlds include graphical simulation tools, communication, design and modelling tools, artificial intelligence, network structure, persistent object-oriented infrastructure, economy, governance and user presence and interaction. Recent studies (Merrick et al., 2010) and applications (Rosenman et al., 2006; Maher et al., 2006) have shown that the combination of design, modelling and communication tools, and artificial intelligence in virtual worlds makes them suitable platforms for supporting collaborative design, including human-human collaboration and human-computer co-creativity. Virtual worlds are also coming to be recognised as a platform for collective intelligence (Levy, 1997), a form of group intelligence that emerges from collaboration and competition among large numbers of individuals. Because of the close relationship between design, communication and virtual world technologies, there appears a strong possibility of using virtual worlds to harness collective intelligence for supporting upcoming “design challenges on a much larger scale as we become an increasingly global and technological society” (Maher et al, 2010), beyond the current support for small-scale collaborative design teams. Collaborative design is relatively well studied and is characterised by small-scale, carefully structured design teams, usually comprising design professionals with a good understanding of the design task at hand. All team members are generally motivated and have the skills required to structure the shared solution space and to complete the design task. In contrast, collective design (Maher et al, 2010) is characterised by a very large number of participants ranging from professional designers to design novices, who may need to be motivated to participate, whose contributions may not be directly utilised for design purposes, and who may need to learn some or all of the skills required to complete the task. Thus the facets of virtual worlds required to support collective design differ from those required to support collaborative design. Specifically, in addition to design, communication and artificial intelligence tools, various interpretive, mapping and educational tools together with appropriate motivational and reward systems may be required to inform, teach and motivate virtual world users to contribute and direct their inputs to desired design purposes. Many of these world facets are well understood by computer game developers, as level systems, quests or plot and achievement/reward systems. This suggests the possibility of drawing on or adapting computer gaming technologies as a basis for harnessing collective intelligence in design. Existing virtual worlds that permit open-ended design – such as Second Life and There – are not specifically game worlds as they do not have extensive level, quest and reward systems in the same way as game worlds like World of Warcraft or Ultima Online. As such, while Second Life and There demonstrate emergent design, they do not have the game-specific facets that focus users towards solving specific problems required for harnessing collective intelligence. However, a new massively multiplayer virtual world is soon to be released that combines open-ended design tools with levels, quests and achievement systems. This world is called Lego Universe (www.legouniverse.com). This paper presents technology spaces for the facets of virtual worlds that can contribute to the support of collective intelligence in design, including design and modelling tools, communication tools, artificial intelligence, level system, motivation, governance and other related facets. We discuss how these facets support the design, communication, motivational and educational requirements of collective intelligence applications. The paper concludes with a case study of Lego Universe, with reference to the technology spaces defined above. We evaluate the potential of this or similar tools to move design beyond the individual and small-scale design teams to harness large-scale collective intelligence. We also consider the types of design tasks that might best be addressed in this manner.
keywords collective intelligence, collective design, virtual worlds, computer games
series CAAD Futures
email k.merrick@adfa.edu.au
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id sigradi2006_e034d
id sigradi2006_e034d
authors Ryan, Rachel and Donn, Michael
year 2006
title A 3D, interactive, multilayered, web-enabled model as a tool for multiple sets of end user groups: A case study and end user analysis
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 392-396
summary This research undertakes a case study involving focus groups of potential end users, to identify how a successful digital tool could be created using new and emerging technologies, to accommodate the multiple needs of these end users. 2005 saw the completion of a research paper, which proposed that a single, 3 dimensional digital model of a city forming a core for many different information systems, is a better approach to the needs of the city than many individual models optimised for each information system. The case for the single 3D model was evaluated through the research, development, delivery and analysis of a prototype 3 Dimensional model of Wellington City, New Zealand, presenting different ‘views’ of information in Wellington: a rendered visualisation in an animated “walkthrough”; the impact of planning constraints on daylight; interactive “plots” of property values. The development and delivery of the prototype model was analysed in regards to how complex, costly and time consuming it may be to exploit one base model for several purposes; and also therefore how beneficial, affordable and potentially successful a single model may be. The prototype model was created to test the idea, and therefore provided conclusions based on a limited feasibility analysis - with four potential information layers modelled and two potential delivery methods tested. The prototype model and user analysis results were presented in a research report that suggested further research and development of a single model could be very beneficial: Positive feedback from potential end users and data providers, and examples of potential data mining opportunities forming the basis of the need for continued research. 2006 sees the research continue as an 18 month research project in conjunction with an industry partner, Terralink International, (http://www.terralink.co.nz/). Terralink International Limited provides GIS and mapping solutions which according to their web site: “enable better business management.” The company maintains a national resource of “imagery, cartography, and spatial databases” and provides consultancy services linking these to company databases through GIS systems. The research investigates the potential for 3 dimensional, interactive, multilayered models to enhance delivery of information to multiple end user groups. The research method uses functional prototypes in end-user focus group workshops. These workshops, consisting of a combination of presentations, hands on interactive examples, group discussions, and individual feedback surveys, aim to establish how a tool might best be developed to communicate to a wide range of end users. The means of delivery whether a stand alone tool or web-based is a key element of the user group workshop assessment process. Note: The submission of the prototype tool (via video or interactive media) would greatly increase the effectiveness of the research presentation. Ability to include such media would be greatly appreciated.
keywords multilayered; 3D; end users; interactive; web-enabled
series SIGRADI
email Rachel.A.Ryan@gmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:59

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