CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ijac20075209
id ijac20075209
authors Kersten, Thomas P.
year 2007
title Virtual Reality Model of the Northern Sluice of the Ancient Dam in Marib/Yemen by Combination of Digital Photogrammetry and Terrestrial Laser Scanning for Archaeological Applications
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 5 - no. 2, pp. 340-354
summary In this paper the potential of digital photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning in combination is demonstrated in the recording and 3D CAD construction of the northern sluice of the ancient dam in Marib/Yemen, which is located approx. 150 kilometre east of the capital city Sana'a, close to the inner Arabic desert. The Yemeni government proposed for initiation of the building into the list of the UNESCO world cultural heritage. This described project work is a co-operation between the Commission for Archaeology of Non-European Cultures (KAAK) Bonn of the German Archaeological Institute (DAI) and the department Geomatics of the HafenCity University Hamburg. The object recording was carried out in January 2006 with the digital SLR camera Fujifilm FinePix S2 pro and the terrestrial laser scanner Trimble GS100 during the archaeological excavations. The northern sluice was reconstructed and visualized as a computer-based 3D CAD model for archaeological investigations (as-builtdocumentation of the excavations) and for future tourism advertising and publication purposes.
series journal
last changed 2007/08/29 14:23

_id 2006_678
id 2006_678
authors Lefantzis, Michaelis
year 2006
title From Survey to Representation of ancient monuments: new methodology and technology - The cases of the Golgotha site in Jerusalem and the Stoa of Eumenes at the South Slope of the Acropolis of Athens
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 678-682
summary The purpose of this paper is to present the characteristics of laser scanning technology, based on two examples for the modeling at the reconstruction of the Golgotha site in Jerusalem and the ancient Stoa of Eumenes II, located at the South Slope of the Athens Acropolis. Terrestrial 3D laser scanning is a new methodology for three dimensional object modeling. Especially, the reconstruction of the ancient Stoa of Eumenes II comprises one of the most important restoration programs of the Greek Ministry of Culture. This paper will focus on the main steps of the laser scanning processing chain, starting from the acquisition of the data and ending with the evaluation of the 3D models.
keywords Golgotha; Eumenes Stoa; Laser scanning; archeological architectural documentation
series eCAADe
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id sigradi2006_c133d
id sigradi2006_c133d
authors Castañé, Dora
year 2006
title Rosario, Views on the Integral Revitalization of a Cultural Heritage
source SIGraDi 2006 - [10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006
summary This work shows the study of the methods and techniques for the development of a virtual vision VRML 3D included in an "Digitally-integrated knowledge base" with interactive interphases of a significantly revitalized fragment of a central area of the city of Rosario, Province of Santa Fé, Argentina, that includes an emblematic heritage for the Argentineans: the National Monument to the Flag. Digital models that partly allow the development of a hypothesis of integration between the digitized information and information technology - new digital proximity - to the effects of being able to investigate the generation of multimedia database that includes three-dimensional and dynamic models of the mentioned type, in this case, urban, architectonic, and cultural heritage. Different views and research on heritage have been developing. Nevertheless, the use of these new 3D non-immersive technologies and inter-phases are opening a new field of vision and understanding of the subject.
keywords Urban-architectural planning; heritage; virtual reality
series SIGRADI
type normal paper
last changed 2016/03/10 08:48

_id ascaad2006_paper24
id ascaad2006_paper24
authors Lerma, José and Salim A. Elwazani
year 2006
title Digital Rectified Imagery: a survey method for design and conservation projects
source Computing in Architecture / Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2006), 25-27 April 2006, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
summary Faced with the need for understanding the physical context of the projects that come under their jurisdiction, architects, urban designers, and conservationists strive to secure congruent information. Practicing professionals are not set to carry out the collecting of information themselves. As information “users,” they reach out to information “providers,” including surveyors, photogrammetrists, and GIS specialists, to secure needed information. Information providers employ a gamut of methods to survey and document design project contexts, including land surveying techniques, stereophotogrammetry, rectified imagery, laser scanning, and GIS. This study deals with digital rectified imagery (DRI) only and is aimed at creating an awareness of the method characteristics in the minds of the information users toward taking advantage of available DRI documentation opportunities offered by the information providers. As part of the methodology for this study, the authors have selected a subject building, captured a number of images through a digital camera, and processed the images using image processing software. The significance of this study resides in enabling the information users to understand RDI and to tap on its potential for consummating design, planning, and conservation projects.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id 2006_022
id 2006_022
authors Veirum, Niels Einar; Mogens Fiil Christensen and Mikkel Mayerhofer
year 2006
title Hybrid Experience Space for Cultural Heritage Communication
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 22-30
summary Cultural heritage institutions like the museums are challenged in the global experience society. On the one hand it is more important than ever to offer “authentic” and geographically rooted experiences at sites of historic glory and on the other hand the audience’s expectations are biased by daily use of experience products like computer-games, IMAX cinemas and theme parks featuring virtual reality installations. “It’s a question of stone-axe displays versus Disney-power installations” as one of the involved museum professionals point it, “but we don’t want any of these possibilities”. The paper presents an actual experience design case in Zea Harbour, Greece dealing with these challenges using hybrid experience space communicating cultural heritage material. Archaeological findings, physical reconstructions and digital models are mixed to effectively stage the interactive experience space. The Zea Case is a design scenario for the Museum of the Future showing how Cultural Heritage institutions can reinvent the relation to the visitor and the neighbourhood. While Hybrid Experience Space can be used for Cultural Heritage Communication in traditional exhibitions we have reached for the full potential of on-site deployment as a hybrid experience layer using Google Earth and mobile technology.
keywords Hybrid Experience Space; Cultural Heritage Communication
series eCAADe
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id sigradi2006_e165b
id sigradi2006_e165b
authors Angulo, Antonieta
year 2006
title Optimization in the Balance between the Production Effort of E-learning Tutorials and their related Learning Outcome
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 122-126
summary This paper provides evidence on the level of media richness that may be cost effective in the development of e-learning tutorials for teaching and learning computer visualization techniques. For such a purpose the author provides an analysis of low-cost / high-impact media rich products, the effort and cost required in their development and the measurement of related learning outcomes. Circa twenty years of R&D of multimedia and hypermedia applications for instruction have demonstrated the benefits of communicating relevant information to learners using engaging media. Based on this evidence, this paper assumes that due to the cognitive style of design students, the instructional packages for learning computer techniques for design visualization that are rich in media content, tend to be more effective. Available visualization technologies make the development of e-learning tutorials feasible and apparently the logical way to implement our instructional packages. However the question in the development of e-learning tutorials becomes a more strategic one when we are called to reach a level of optimization between producing a package with a basic standard, namely; text & still-graphic based tutorials, or a state-of-the-art package that is based on video demonstrations (more than enough?) that can accommodate the students’ learning requirements and also our production costs. The costs include the human resources (instructor, producers, assistants and others) and the material resources (hardware and software, copies, and others) involved in the creation of the e-learning tutorials. The key question is: What is good enough, and what is clearly superfluous? In order to confirm our hypothesis and propose a relevant balance between media richness and learning effectiveness, this paper describes an experiment in the use of two different levels of media richness as used to deliver instructions on the production of computer animations for design visualization. The students recruited for this experiment were fairly familiarized with the use of 3D modeling concepts and software, but had no previous knowledge of the techniques included in the tutorials; in specific; camera animation procedures. The students, separated in two groups, used one of the two methods; then they proceeded to apply their newly acquired skills in the production of an animation without using the help of any external means. The assessment of results was based on the quality of the final product and the students’ performance in the recall of the production procedures. Finally an interview with the students was conducted on their perception of what was accomplished from a metacognitive point of view. The results were processed in order to establish comparisons between the different levels of achievement and the students’ metacognitive assessment of learning. These results have helped us to create a clear set of recommendations for the production of e-learning tutorials and their conditions for implementation. The most beneficial characteristics of the two tested methods in relation to type of information, choice of media, method of information delivery, flexibility of production/editorial tools,! and overall cost of production, will be transferred into the development of a more refined product to be tested at larger scale.
keywords e-learning tutorials; media richness; learning effectiveness; cognitive style; computer visualization techniques
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id caadria2006_601
id caadria2006_601
year 2006
title PRIVATE/UN-PRIVATE SPACE: Scenario-based Digital Design for Enhancing User Awareness
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 601-603
summary Context awareness is important for human senses of places as well as human computer interaction. The aim of this research paper is focusing on controlling the user's privacy in a smart space which is adaptive to different users for enhancing the user's awareness in his diary life. In Environmental Psychology, the definition of privacy is that an individual has the control of deciding what information of himself is released to others, and under how he interact with others. (Westin 1970) And privacy is categorized as the linguistic privacy and visual privacy. (Sundstorm 1986). Solutions for privacy control: Plan Layout, Vision Boundary, Access Control and Architecture Metaphor - the transmission of information is not ascertainable for every single user. Although information are shown in public, but information is implied by cues and symbols. Only a certain user or a group of users have access to the full context of information. The methodology is to form an analytic framework to study the relationship between information, user and activities by using the computational supports derived from KitchenSense, ConceptNet, Python, 3d Studio Max and Flash; and to record patterns built up by users' behaviour and actions. Furthermore, the scenario-based simulation can envision the real world conditions by adding interfaces for enhancing user awareness.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

_id sigradi2006_c048c
id sigradi2006_c048c
authors Bruscato Portella, Underléa
year 2006
title I+D _ Ideación Digital en la Arquitectura Actual [I+D_Digital ideas in contemporary architecture]
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 258-262
summary Based on study of recent projects develop by reputed architectural firms, this paper reviews the role of digital techniques in the conception of design, describing mainly the proposals for Philarmonic Orchestra of Copenhagen by Jean Nouvel and the Harbour of Tenerife by Herzog and De Meuron, Both projects state innovative architectural concepts with diverse graphic resources. Digital media is not used as a specific tool, but as an integrated repertoire related to design issues, Image processing, photo-collages, 3D modelling, renderings, colored layouts and graphic sequences are applied to explore novelty shapes, spatial qualities, functional arrangements and constructive strategies. In these cases computer technologies are participating in design generation supporting overall architectural creativity. In order to benefit from new design media that approach express the relevance of firms' culture related to innovation and development (I+D).
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id acadia06_148
id acadia06_148
authors Cabrinha, Mark
year 2006
title Synthetic Pedagogy
source Synthetic Landscapes [Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture] pp. 148-149
summary As tools, techniques, and technologies expand design practice, there is likewise an innovation in design teaching shifting technology from a means of production and representation to a means of discovery and development. This has implications on studio culture and design pedagogy. Expanding the skills based notion of digital design from know-how, or know-how-to-do, toward know-for, or knowledge-for-action, forms a synthetic relationship between the skills necessary for action and the developing motivations of a young designer. This shifts digital design pedagogy to a medium of active inquiry through play and precision. As digital tools and infrastructure are now ubiquitous in most schools, including the increasing digital material exchange enabled through laser cutters, CNC routers, and rapid prototyping, this topic node presents research papers that engage technology not simply as tools to be taught, but as cognitive technologies which motivate and structure a design students knowledge, both tacit and explicit, in developing a digital and material, ecological and social synthetic environment. Digital fabrication, the Building Information Model, and parametric modeling have currency in architectural education today yet, beyond the instrumentality of teaching the tool, seldom is it questioned what the deeper motivations these technologies suggest. Each of these tools in their own way form a synthesis between representational artifacts and the technological impact on process weaving a wider web of materials, collaboration among peers and consultants, and engagement of the environment that the products of design are situated in.If it is true that this synthetic environment enabled by tools, techniques, and technologies moves from a representational model to a process model of design, the engagement of these tools in the design process is of critical importance in design education. What is the relationship between representation, simulation, and physical material in a digitally mediated design education? At the core of synthetic pedagogies is an underlying principle to form relationships of teaching architecture through digital tools, rather than simply teaching the tools themselves. What principles are taught through teaching with these tools, and furthermore, what new principles might these tools develop?
series ACADIA
last changed 2006/09/22 06:22

_id caadria2006_341
id caadria2006_341
year 2006
title SPACE TAGS: A Digital Guide to the Cultural District of Anping
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 341-348
summary Cities are filled with rich resources of fantasy and memories about the urban activities. Urban narrative is not only a way of storytelling but also a way to depict the contents of a story about the city. This paper depicts how a digital guide can be implemented in regarding with urban narratives by applying web-based and mobile technologies to navigate a cultural district and recall the experience. In this paper, we are concerned how to provide a digital platform for tourists to get related information in a cultural district during their visiting. A space tag approach is proposed to and system prototype is implemented for demonstration and discussion.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

_id sigradi2006_e183a
id sigradi2006_e183a
authors Costa Couceiro, Mauro
year 2006
title La Arquitectura como Extensión Fenotípica Humana - Un Acercamiento Basado en Análisis Computacionales [Architecture as human phenotypic extension – An approach based on computational explorations]
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 56-60
summary The study describes some of the aspects tackled within a current Ph.D. research where architectural applications of constructive, structural and organization processes existing in biological systems are considered. The present information processing capacity of computers and the specific software development have allowed creating a bridge between two holistic nature disciplines: architecture and biology. The crossover between those disciplines entails a methodological paradigm change towards a new one based on the dynamical aspects of forms and compositions. Recent studies about artificial-natural intelligence (Hawkins, 2004) and developmental-evolutionary biology (Maturana, 2004) have added fundamental knowledge about the role of the analogy in the creative process and the relationship between forms and functions. The dimensions and restrictions of the Evo-Devo concepts are analyzed, developed and tested by software that combines parametric geometries, L-systems (Lindenmayer, 1990), shape-grammars (Stiny and Gips, 1971) and evolutionary algorithms (Holland, 1975) as a way of testing new architectural solutions within computable environments. It is pondered Lamarck´s (1744-1829) and Weismann (1834-1914) theoretical approaches to evolution where can be found significant opposing views. Lamarck´s theory assumes that an individual effort towards a specific evolutionary goal can cause change to descendents. On the other hand, Weismann defended that the germ cells are not affected by anything the body learns or any ability it acquires during its life, and cannot pass this information on to the next generation; this is called the Weismann barrier. Lamarck’s widely rejected theory has recently found a new place in artificial and natural intelligence researches as a valid explanation to some aspects of the human knowledge evolution phenomena, that is, the deliberate change of paradigms in the intentional research of solutions. As well as the analogy between genetics and architecture (Estévez and Shu, 2000) is useful in order to understand and program emergent complexity phenomena (Hopfield, 1982) for architectural solutions, also the consideration of architecture as a product of a human extended phenotype can help us to understand better its cultural dimension.
keywords evolutionary computation; genetic architectures; artificial/natural intelligence
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:49

_id 2006_684
id 2006_684
authors De Bodt, Kathleen
year 2006
title SoundScapes & Architectural Spaces - Spatial sound research in digital architectural design
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 684-689
summary The paper presents ongoing research focusing on the development of digital tools and methodologies for spatial design based on non-Euclidean geometries. It addresses the way sound can be used both conceptually and acoustically in the early stages of the design process, examining digital architectural design and modeling based on three-dimensional sound visualization and the acoustical analysis and evaluation of complex curved surface geometry. The paper describes SoundMatrix, the first part of a digital design tool created by using Max/Msp/Jitter, to assist in the preliminary design of building façades in small-scale urban environments, specifically studying the possibilities of curvature to decrease sound reflection between opposing street façades. Examples from a workshop with the SoundMatrix application illustrate the real-time 3D authoring and sound spatialisation processing currently implemented in the tool.
keywords graphical programming; performance-based design; generative design
series eCAADe
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id sigradi2006_c198d
id sigradi2006_c198d
authors Espina B, Jane; Oliva, Javier; Rincón, Francisco and Herrero, Pilar
year 2006
title Entornos Virtuales y su interconectividad en la WEB para la planificación urbana [Virtual Environments and their Interconnectivity in the Web for the Urban Planning]
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 350-354
summary Virtual Environments and their Interconnectivity in the Web for the Urban Planning. This work presents the creation of virtual environments based on the urban space of the Plaza Baralt in Maracaibo, Venezuela; in defined historical moments as study scenarios, using autonomous virtual agents. The selection of the scenarios is based in the analysis of the place in the present, and the study of multimedia material of the period 1920-2006. The main objective is developing virtual environments, incorporating the interconnectivity in the Web into a multi-user system, for the urban planning. Methodologically, it's divided into the following phases: 1) Data search; 2) Study of the social, cultural, religious and economical activities of the square; 3) Analysis of the urban space; 4) Virtual reconstruction of the scenarios in the present and in the period between 1900 - 1927; 5) VRML exporting ; 6) Characters' animation; 7) Integration of the models into a multi-user system; and 8) Web event for the presentation of the results.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id 2006_670
id 2006_670
authors Fricker, Pia and Alexandre Kapellos
year 2006
title Digital Interaction in Urban Structure - Reflection : Six years and still scanning
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 670-673
summary The focus in our elective course for Master Students of Architecture is the following: in parallel to a more traditional way of analysing urban structures, how can the application of multimedia technology, networking and the integration of interactive computer applications lead to a different approach? The objective of our teaching and research project is to find out in what ways urban structure and specific features of a city can be represented by interactive interfaces and the use of CNC technology. Our attitude is based on small-scale approach: the sum of these microanalyses gives us the broader picture, the system or mechanisms of the city. We do not dive into the city but emerge from it. This reflection leads to a new understanding in the organisation of complex urban structures, highlighting and revealing different connections and relationships, thus giving a different final image.
keywords Abstract Types of Spatial Representation; Interaction – Interfaces; Innovative Integration of Multimedia Technology; Digital Design Education
series eCAADe
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id sigradi2006_e185d
id sigradi2006_e185d
authors Geva, Anat and Mukherji, Anuradha
year 2006
title The Holy Darkness: A Study of Light in Brihadeshvara Hindu Temple, in Tanjore, Tamilnadu, India (1010 AD)
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 425-428
summary The study investigates how religious principles govern the treatment of light/darkness in sacred monument. Specifically, a digitized daylight simulation is used in the analysis of Brihadeshvara Hindu Temple, built in 1010 AD in Tanjore, Tamilnadu, India. This sacred monument, listed as one of UNESCO's World Heritage Sites, is an intriguing case study since the treatment of the 'holy light' in the temple is the treatment of the 'holy darkness'.In spite of the importance given to sun in ancient Hindu scriptures, natural light was used very sparsely in Hindu temples. According to Hindu religious belief, when a worshipper is in the presence of the divine, there should be nothing to distract his/her senses (including vision). Therefore, the innermost sanctum is shrouded in total darkness and the progression into the temple is a ritual movement where the devotee goes through the dynamic experience of the darkening spaces of the temple before reaching the dark sacred chamber (see Fig.1). The dictation of the Hindu faith to create this spiritual procession toward the 'holy darkness' is examined in the historic Brihadeshvara Temple by using Lightscape -- computerized lighting simulation software. To run the program, a 3-D CAD surface model of the temple was created and imported into Lightscape. Then the model was assigned materials and its openings and lighting systems were defined. The simulations were run on four interior horizontal (floor) and vertical (walls) surfaces, along four spaces of the procession in the temple. The simulation targeted three time frames: sunrise, sunset and at high noon on March 21st (the equinox). The location of Tanjore, India was used for light conditions. The Lightscape simulations used the process of radiosity to generate single frame daylight renderings along with light analysis of each surface. A lighting animation was then produced in Quick Time.The results of this analysis demonstrate that the average illumination values for specific surfaces of the temple along the procession sequence correspond to the schematic expectation depicted in Figure 1, i.e., a progressively decreased luminance towards the dark innermost chamber. Furthermore, the simulated values were compared to the Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) standards, which recommend ranges of luminance for specific visual tasks and areas. The comparisons showed that the average luminance in the temple, from the illuminated entrance in the east to the darker chamber in the west, is lower than the IES standards for 'public places with dark surroundings' for 'short temporary visits'. Finally, a morphological analysis of the temple along accepted daylight design guidelines corroborated the previous findings. The multi-method investigation of the relationship of light and darkness, light and objects, and the designated light quality in the Brihadeshvara Temple demonstrates the strong influence of the specific dictum of Hinduism on the light/darkness treatment in the temple. The paper concludes that digitized media such as computerized daylight simulations can examine the significance of light/darkness in sacred monuments as a spiritual experience. This quantitative investigation can augment the qualitative studies in the field of historic sacred architecture.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id ijac20064205
id ijac20064205
authors Hadjri, Karim
year 2006
title Experimenting with 3D Digitization of Architectural Physical Models using Laser Scanning Technology
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 4 - no. 2, 67-80
summary This paper assesses the use of 3D Digitization techniques by carrying out laser scanning of typical physical models produced by architecture students. The aim was to examine the product of laser scanning with respect to scanning and 3D modeling processes, and the effects of variables such as characteristics of the models, materials used, and design complexity. In order to assess the similarities and accuracies achieved by the scanning and 3D modeling processes, the research investigated human perception of differences between analogue and digital models. This enabled an assessment of the degree to which digital models were accurate representations of the real ones, and whether laser scanning can successfully be used as a medium to recreate and represent complex architectural physical models. The study presents a potential direction for digital translation in architectural education.
series journal
last changed 2007/03/04 06:08

_id sigradi2006_e090b
id sigradi2006_e090b
authors Hanna, Sean and Turner, Alasdair
year 2006
title Teaching parametric design in code and construction
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 158-161
summary Automated manufacturing processes with the ability to translate digital models into physical form promise both an increase in the complexity of what can be built, and through rapid prototyping, a possibility to experiment easily with tangible examples of the evolving design. The increasing literacy of designers in computer languages, on the other hand, offers a new range of techniques through which the models themselves might be generated. This paper reviews the results of an integrated parametric modelling and digital manufacturing workshop combining participants with a background in computer programming with those with a background in fabrication. Its aim was both to encourage collaboration in a domain that overlaps both backgrounds, as well as to explore the ways in which the two working methods naturally extend the boundaries of traditional parametric design. The types of projects chosen by the students, the working methods adopted and progress made will be discussed in light of future educational possibilities, and of the future direction of parametric tools themselves. Where standard CAD constructs isolated geometric primitives, parametric models allow the user to set up a hierarchy of relationships, deferring such details as specific dimension and sometimes quantity to a later point. Usually these are captured by a geometric schema. Many such relationships in real design however, can not be defined in terms of geometry alone. Logical operations, environmental effects such as lighting and air flow, the behaviour of people and the dynamic behaviour of materials are all essential design parameters that require other methods of definition, including the algorithm. It has been our position that the skills of the programmer are necessary in the future of design. Bentley’s Generative Components software was used as the primary vehicle for the workshop design projects. Built within the familiar Microstation framework, it enables the construction of a parametric model at a range of different interfaces, from purely graphic through to entirely code based, thus allowing the manipulation of such non-geometric, algorithmic relationships as described above. Two-dimensional laser cutting was the primary fabrication method, allowing for rapid manufacturing, and in some cases iterative physical testing. The two technologies have led in the workshop to working methods that extend the geometric schema: the first, by forcing an explicit understanding of design as procedural, and the second by encouraging physical experimentation and optimisation. The resulting projects have tended to focus on responsiveness to conditions either coded or incorporated into experimental loop. Examples will be discussed. While programming languages and geometry are universal in intent, their constraints on the design process were still notable. The default data structures of computer languages (in particular the rectangular array) replace one schema limitation with another. The indexing of data in this way is conceptually hard-wired into much of our thinking both in CAD and in code. Thankfully this can be overcome with a bit of programming, but the number of projects which have required this suggests that more intuitive, or spatial methods of data access might be developed in the future.
keywords generative design; parametric model; teaching
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:53

_id sigradi2006_e149b
id sigradi2006_e149b
authors Kendir, Elif
year 2006
title Prêt-à-Construire – An Educational Inquiry into Computer Aided Fabrication
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 162-165
summary This paper aims to show and discuss the relevance of developing necessary strategies for reintegrating the concept of fabrication into the architectural design process. The discussion will be partly based on the outcome of a graduate architectural design studio conducted in Spring semester 2002-2003. The graduate studio was part of a series of exploratory studies conducted on the nature of architectural design process transformed by information technologies. Preceded by studios investigating cognition and representation, this last studio focused on the concept of fabrication. The overarching aim of the studio series was to put CAD and CAM in context both within the actual architectural design process and within architectural education. The last of this series, which will be discussed within the frame of this paper, has specifically focused on CAM and the concept of fabrication in architecture. In accordance with the nature of a design studio, the research was more methodological than technical. The studio derived its main inspiration from the constructional templates used in dressmaking, which can be considered as an initial model for mass customization. In this context, the recladding of Le Corbusier’s Maison Domino was given as the main design problem, along with several methodological constraints. The main constraint was to develop the design idea through constructional drawings instead of representational ones. The students were asked to develop their volumetric ideas through digital 3D CAD models while working out structural solutions on a physical 1/50 model of Maison Domino. There was also a material constraint for the model, where only specified types of non-structural paper could be used. At this stage, origami provided the working model for adding structural strength to sheet materials. The final outcome included the explanation of different surface generation strategies and preliminary design proposals for their subcomponents. The paper will discuss both the utilized methodology and the final outcome along the lines of the issues raised during the studio sessions, some of which could be decisive in the putting into context of CAD – CAM in architectural design process. One such issue is mass customization, that is, the mass production of different specific elements with the help of CAM technologies. Another issue is “open source” design, indicating the possibility of a do-it-yourself architecture, where architecture is coded as information, and its code can be subject to change by different designers. The final key issue is the direct utilization of constructional drawings in the preliminary design phase as opposed to representational ones, which aimed at reminding the designer the final phase of fabrication right from the beginning. Finally, the paper will also point at the problems faced during the conduct of the studio and discuss those in the context of promoting CAM for architectural design and production in countries where there is no actual utilization of these technologies for these purposes yet.
keywords Education; Fabrication; CAM
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:53

_id 2006_284
id 2006_284
authors Nardelli, Eduardo Sampaio
year 2006
title The use of ICT – Information and Communication Technologies to support decisions in the area of heritage and landscape preservation
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 284-287
summary This work presents an experience of Information and Communication Technologies – ICTS used in heritage and landscape preservation activities. The focus is a special enterprise in the city of São Paulo. The proposal is to build a new building on the backyard of an historical mansion as a way of getting financial resources to the revival and maintenance of this building. We describe, step by step, the entire path, using computing tools, to get the necessary documentation to demonstrate the interferences range of the new building on the existing one.
keywords town planning; heritage and landscape preservation; digital modeling
series eCAADe
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id sigradi2006_e151c
id sigradi2006_e151c
authors Neumann, Oliver and Schmidt, Daniel
year 2006
title CNC Timber Framing – Innovative Applications of Digital Wood Fabrication Technology
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 304-307
summary The discourse on depleting natural resources and compromised environments have led to extended research on sustainable designs methods, building practices and materials. Beyond the actual performance of building products and components, research on sustainable building increasingly focuses on the long-term effects of the production, application and life cycle of building materials on the natural environment, human inhabitation and quality of life. Computer aided manufacturing technologies play a significant role not only in the transformation of design and building methods, but also in an extended discourse on cultural development. Globally available technologies connect the design and building process to a broad range of long-term ecological factors by creating a correlation between "the emergent political, economical and social processes and … architectural techniques, geometries and organization." Through this interrelationship to economy and culture, technology and its applications are also directly related to notions of place and territory as well as to fundamental ideas of ecology. The collaborative research and design study for an outdoor theater roof structure at the University of British Columbia Malcolm Knapp Research Forest at Maple Ridge, B.C., Canada, focuses on the use of digital media in prefabrication and material optimization. By utilizing small square section timber and minimizing the use of alienating connectors the research on the wood roof structure illustrates the potential of a design culture that seeks innovation in a broader understanding of ecology routed in regional culture, environmental conditions, economy and tradition. Labor intensive manufacturing techniques are redefined aided by computer controlled machines and virtual modeling of complex geometries is translated into simple operations. The result is a more sensible and accurate response to the place’s demands. In order to generate innovative design interventions that make a constructive long-term contribution to the preservation, maintenance and evolution of the environment, design needs to be based on a comprehensive understanding of its context and the distinctive qualities of the materials used. Following the example of the outdoor roof structure, this paper aims to define innovative design as work that resonates at the intersection of the fields of technology, material science, manufacturing processes, techniques of assembly and context that constitute the expanded context or complex ecology that projects need to engage. It is in design research studies like for the outdoor theater roof structure with focus on CNC wood fabrication technologies that the common design and building discourse is put to question, boundaries are explored and expanded and the collective understanding is improved towards ecological design.
keywords CNC Wood Fabrication; Design Innovation; Ecology
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:56

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