CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 561

_id eaea2005_199
id eaea2005_199
authors Martens, Bob
year 2006
title Dissemination of knowledge in architectural endoscopy
source Motion, E-Motion and Urban Space [Proceedings of the 7th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN-10: 3-00-019070-8 - ISBN-13: 978-3-00-019070-4], pp. 199-206
summary The first EAEA conference was hosted 1993 in Tampere (Finland) and subsequently a further six conferences have taken place. Future conferences are already pre-scheduled and a steadily rising number of papers has been written. So far, the conference proceedings have been published in a paperbased format and, as these were published in small numbers, it is rather hard to take stock of preceding entries. However, the published proceedings can be regarded as capital for the EAEA-Association and it is both necessary and worthwhile to preserve this collective memory by means of an archived e-collection. At the time of the formation of the EAEA, electronic publishing was not yet widely used. Since then, computerbased infrastructure and related (web-based) software tools have become widely available. There is even an ongoing debate within the associations dedicated to electronic publishing, as to whether conference proceedings should be solely distributed in a digital format. Doubtless, a discussion towards the value of electronic publication output in the framework of research assessments etc. would be a step too far for this paper. Still, a dual strategy for the EAEA could be aiming at the production of a limited number of paperbased copies, which would mainly be distributed to the conference participants (and the remaining part being made available resp. free library copies to make this output more visible). However, the high commercial interest derived by financial revenues is not given and dissemination by digital means is far more in the interest of both the participants and the EAEA-association. Today, the creation of an electronic version of the conference proceedings costs very little extra. In both cases (analogue and digital) the materials should not only be “deposited” on the desktop of individuals, but also be capable of reaching more public destinations. As the conference host is changing biennially, it has to be confirmed that the hosting institution will handle the delivery of metadata. Local printing houses arrange the printing work, and no further interests (concerning copyright, revenues etc) from the side of publishing houses are in charge. The import of the provided metadata is supported by way of self-organisation on a shoestring budget, as it does not require extensive work if properly defined. This means that minimal effort is needed to make the material available and to achieve a certain level of sustainability.
series EAEA
email b.martens@tuwien.ac.at
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea
last changed 2008/04/29 18:46

_id sigradi2006_c129b
id sigradi2006_c129b
authors Abad, Gabriel; Adriane Borde; Mónica Fuentes; Virginia Agrielav; Adriana Granero and Jacqueline Fernández
year 2006
title Producción colaborativa de material de enseñanza-aprendizaje de Gráfica Digital con aportes multidisciplinarios [Collaborative production for taught-learning materials for digital graphic with multidisciplinary contributions]
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 117-121
summary For a contribution to problem solving processes at different areas, this paper presents the use of Digital Graphics as a knowledge object for a distance teaching/learning workshop. At the Learning Management System, different theoretical subjects with supporting tools were proposed, and exercises requiring collaborative work. An specific didactic situation using available technologies at Internet for 3D modelling, combined with satellite images and geographic information program was proposed. The final works were then shared by a 3D models repository. As a complement of this experience and in relation with their professional work, every student proposed a new didactic situation including Learning Objects, sharing them with the others members of the group, through conceptual maps built up in a co-operative way.
series SIGRADI
email gabad@terra.com.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id sigradi2006_e131c
id sigradi2006_e131c
authors Ataman, Osman
year 2006
title Toward New Wall Systems: Lighter, Stronger, Versatile
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 248-253
summary Recent developments in digital technologies and smart materials have created new opportunities and are suggesting significant changes in the way we design and build architecture. Traditionally, however, there has always been a gap between the new technologies and their applications into other areas. Even though, most technological innovations hold the promise to transform the building industry and the architecture within, and although, there have been some limited attempts in this area recently; to date architecture has failed to utilize the vast amount of accumulated technological knowledge and innovations to significantly transform the industry. Consequently, the applications of new technologies to architecture remain remote and inadequate. One of the main reasons of this problem is economical. Architecture is still seen and operated as a sub-service to the Construction industry and it does not seem to be feasible to apply recent innovations in Building Technology area. Another reason lies at the heart of architectural education. Architectural education does not follow technological innovations (Watson 1997), and that “design and technology issues are trivialized by their segregation from one another” (Fernandez 2004). The final reason is practicality and this one is partially related to the previous reasons. The history of architecture is full of visions for revolutionizing building technology, ideas that failed to achieve commercial practicality. Although, there have been some adaptations in this area recently, the improvements in architecture reflect only incremental progress, not the significant discoveries needed to transform the industry. However, architectural innovations and movements have often been generated by the advances of building materials, such as the impact of steel in the last and reinforced concrete in this century. There have been some scattered attempts of the creation of new materials and systems but currently they are mainly used for limited remote applications and mostly for aesthetic purposes. We believe a new architectural material class is needed which will merge digital and material technologies, embedded in architectural spaces and play a significant role in the way we use and experience architecture. As a principle element of architecture, technology has allowed for the wall to become an increasingly dynamic component of the built environment. The traditional connotations and objectives related to the wall are being redefined: static becomes fluid, opaque becomes transparent, barrier becomes filter and boundary becomes borderless. Combining smart materials, intelligent systems, engineering, and art can create a component that does not just support and define but significantly enhances the architectural space. This paper presents an ongoing research project about the development of new class of architectural wall system by incorporating distributed sensors and macroelectronics directly into the building environment. This type of composite, which is a representative example of an even broader class of smart architectural material, has the potential to change the design and function of an architectural structure or living environment. As of today, this kind of composite does not exist. Once completed, this will be the first technology on its own. We believe this study will lay the fundamental groundwork for a new paradigm in surface engineering that may be of considerable significance in architecture, building and construction industry, and materials science.
keywords Digital; Material; Wall; Electronics
series SIGRADI
email oataman@uiuc.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id sigradi2006_e048c
id sigradi2006_e048c
authors Beck, Mateus Paulo; Brener, Rafael; Giustina, Marcelo and Turkienicz, Benamy
year 2006
title Light and Form in Design – A Computational Approach
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 254-257
summary Shape perception is strongly influenced by the reciprocal relation between light and form. Computational applications can increase the number of design alternatives taking into account possible variations in the relation between light and form. The aim of this study is to discuss a pedagogical experience carried out with 5th semester architectural students, based on a series of exercises prior to the term project. The exercises were concerned with the relation between light and form from an aesthetical point of view and should be understood as examples for the use of computers as tools to creatively accelerate the process of design and learning. The paper is divided in five parts. The first one describes the conceptual background for the exercises, a descriptive method for the identification of light effects in architectural objects based on ideas of shape emergence. The exercises’ methodology is explained in the second part, referring to the use of computational applications in 3-dimensional modeling, material and light simulation. The methodology includes different phases: –creation of bi-dimensional compositions according to symmetry operations; –creation of a minimal living space assigning functions to spaces originated from the former composition; –analysis of the impact of light on the form and spaces created; –alteration of form and materials creating new light effects considering the functions related to the spaces. The exercises alternate work in computational environment in two and three dimensions with the use of mockups, lamps and photography. In the third part the results –student’s design steps– are described. In the fourth part the results are analyzed and some conclusions are outlined in the fifth and last part. The use of emergent forms combined with computational tools has proved to be an effective way to achieve an accelerated understanding of the impact of light on forms as demonstrated by the evolution of the students work during the term and by their final results concerning the term project.
keywords Architectural Design; Lighting; Design Simulation; Virtual Environment
series SIGRADI
email mateusbeck@pop.com.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id acadia06_148
id acadia06_148
authors Cabrinha, Mark
year 2006
title Synthetic Pedagogy
source Synthetic Landscapes [Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture] pp. 148-149
summary As tools, techniques, and technologies expand design practice, there is likewise an innovation in design teaching shifting technology from a means of production and representation to a means of discovery and development. This has implications on studio culture and design pedagogy. Expanding the skills based notion of digital design from know-how, or know-how-to-do, toward know-for, or knowledge-for-action, forms a synthetic relationship between the skills necessary for action and the developing motivations of a young designer. This shifts digital design pedagogy to a medium of active inquiry through play and precision. As digital tools and infrastructure are now ubiquitous in most schools, including the increasing digital material exchange enabled through laser cutters, CNC routers, and rapid prototyping, this topic node presents research papers that engage technology not simply as tools to be taught, but as cognitive technologies which motivate and structure a design students knowledge, both tacit and explicit, in developing a digital and material, ecological and social synthetic environment. Digital fabrication, the Building Information Model, and parametric modeling have currency in architectural education today yet, beyond the instrumentality of teaching the tool, seldom is it questioned what the deeper motivations these technologies suggest. Each of these tools in their own way form a synthesis between representational artifacts and the technological impact on process weaving a wider web of materials, collaboration among peers and consultants, and engagement of the environment that the products of design are situated in.If it is true that this synthetic environment enabled by tools, techniques, and technologies moves from a representational model to a process model of design, the engagement of these tools in the design process is of critical importance in design education. What is the relationship between representation, simulation, and physical material in a digitally mediated design education? At the core of synthetic pedagogies is an underlying principle to form relationships of teaching architecture through digital tools, rather than simply teaching the tools themselves. What principles are taught through teaching with these tools, and furthermore, what new principles might these tools develop?
series ACADIA
email cabrim@rpi.edu
last changed 2006/09/22 06:22

_id 2006_190
id 2006_190
authors Chiu, Mao-Lin and Chien-Rung Lou
year 2006
title Teaching Tectonic Design Studio with A Digital Design Approach
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 190-197
summary Digital design education is shifting from software and hardware application to issue-based, methodology-driven and technology-driven exploration. The attempts in design education have to address the future needs for architects, for instance the tectonic design. Our design studio tries to structure the design process to help students understand the principles and use the digital technology to operate tectonic design issue in the process. The dialogue with the materials (virtual and physical ones) is integrated with the exercises. The attempts in the design studio undertaken in National Cheng Kung University provide the foundation for observation and discussion. The pedagogy and approaches are examined, and the potential directions are reported.
keywords Design studio; digital design; tectonic design; design education
series eCAADe
email mc2p@ms21.hinet.net
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id acadia06_068
id acadia06_068
authors Elys, John
year 2006
title Digital Ornament
source Synthetic Landscapes [Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture] pp. 68-78
summary Gaming software has a history of fostering development of economical and creative methods to deal with hardware limitations. Traditionally the visual representation of gaming software has been a poor offspring of high-end visualization. In a twist of irony, this paper proposes that game production software leads the way into a new era of physical digital ornament. The toolbox of the rendering engine evolved rapidly between 1974-1985 and it is still today, 20 years later the main component of all visualization programs. The development of the bump map is of particular interest; its evolution into a physical displacement map provides untold opportunities of the appropriation of the 2D image to a physical 3D object.To expose the creative potential of the displacement map, a wide scope of existing displacement usage has been identified: Top2maya is a scientific appropriation, Caruso St John Architects an architectural precedent and Tord Boonje’s use of 2D digital pattern provides us with an artistic production precedent. Current gaming technologies give us an indication of how the resolution of displacement is set to enter an unprecedented level of geometric detail. As modernity was inspired by the machine age, we should be led by current technological advancement and appropriate its usage. It is about a move away from the simplification of structure and form to one that deals with the real possibilities of expanding the dialogue of surface topology. Digital Ornament is a kinetic process rather than static, its intentions lie in returning the choice of bespoke materials back to the Architect, Designer and Artist.
series ACADIA
email elysjohn@hotmail.com
last changed 2006/09/22 06:22

_id sigradi2006_e185d
id sigradi2006_e185d
authors Geva, Anat and Mukherji, Anuradha
year 2006
title The Holy Darkness: A Study of Light in Brihadeshvara Hindu Temple, in Tanjore, Tamilnadu, India (1010 AD)
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 425-428
summary The study investigates how religious principles govern the treatment of light/darkness in sacred monument. Specifically, a digitized daylight simulation is used in the analysis of Brihadeshvara Hindu Temple, built in 1010 AD in Tanjore, Tamilnadu, India. This sacred monument, listed as one of UNESCO's World Heritage Sites, is an intriguing case study since the treatment of the 'holy light' in the temple is the treatment of the 'holy darkness'.In spite of the importance given to sun in ancient Hindu scriptures, natural light was used very sparsely in Hindu temples. According to Hindu religious belief, when a worshipper is in the presence of the divine, there should be nothing to distract his/her senses (including vision). Therefore, the innermost sanctum is shrouded in total darkness and the progression into the temple is a ritual movement where the devotee goes through the dynamic experience of the darkening spaces of the temple before reaching the dark sacred chamber (see Fig.1). The dictation of the Hindu faith to create this spiritual procession toward the 'holy darkness' is examined in the historic Brihadeshvara Temple by using Lightscape -- computerized lighting simulation software. To run the program, a 3-D CAD surface model of the temple was created and imported into Lightscape. Then the model was assigned materials and its openings and lighting systems were defined. The simulations were run on four interior horizontal (floor) and vertical (walls) surfaces, along four spaces of the procession in the temple. The simulation targeted three time frames: sunrise, sunset and at high noon on March 21st (the equinox). The location of Tanjore, India was used for light conditions. The Lightscape simulations used the process of radiosity to generate single frame daylight renderings along with light analysis of each surface. A lighting animation was then produced in Quick Time.The results of this analysis demonstrate that the average illumination values for specific surfaces of the temple along the procession sequence correspond to the schematic expectation depicted in Figure 1, i.e., a progressively decreased luminance towards the dark innermost chamber. Furthermore, the simulated values were compared to the Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) standards, which recommend ranges of luminance for specific visual tasks and areas. The comparisons showed that the average luminance in the temple, from the illuminated entrance in the east to the darker chamber in the west, is lower than the IES standards for 'public places with dark surroundings' for 'short temporary visits'. Finally, a morphological analysis of the temple along accepted daylight design guidelines corroborated the previous findings. The multi-method investigation of the relationship of light and darkness, light and objects, and the designated light quality in the Brihadeshvara Temple demonstrates the strong influence of the specific dictum of Hinduism on the light/darkness treatment in the temple. The paper concludes that digitized media such as computerized daylight simulations can examine the significance of light/darkness in sacred monuments as a spiritual experience. This quantitative investigation can augment the qualitative studies in the field of historic sacred architecture.
series SIGRADI
email ageva@archmail.tamu.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id ijac20064307
id ijac20064307
authors Goldberg, Sergio Araya
year 2006
title Computational Design of Parametric Scripts for Digital Fabrication of Curved Structures
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 4 - no. 3, 99-117
summary This paper explores strategies for building toolchains to design, develop and fabricate architectural designs. It explains how complex curved structures can be constructed from flat standard panels. The hypothesis of this research is that by embedding ruled based procedures addressing generative, variational, iterative, and fabricational logics into early phases of design, both design techniques and digital fabrication methods can merge to solve a recurrent problem in contemporary architectural design, building double curved structures. Furthermore it achieves this using common fabrication methods and standard construction materials. It describes the processes of programming computational tools creating and developing designs to fabricate continuous complex curved structures. I describe this through a series of experiments, using parametric design environments and scripted functions, implementing certain techniques to fabricate these designs using rapid prototyping machines. Comparing different design and fabrication approaches I offer a discussion about universal application of programmed procedures into architectural design.
series journal
last changed 2007/03/04 06:08

_id sigradi2006_e028c
id sigradi2006_e028c
authors Griffith, Kenfield; Sass, Larry and Michaud, Dennis
year 2006
title A strategy for complex-curved building design:Design structure with Bi-lateral contouring as integrally connected ribs
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 465-469
summary Shapes in designs created by architects such as Gehry Partners (Shelden, 2002), Foster and Partners, and Kohn Peterson and Fox rely on computational processes for rationalizing complex geometry for building construction. Rationalization is the reduction of a complete geometric shape into discrete components. Unfortunately, for many architects the rationalization is limited reducing solid models to surfaces or data on spread sheets for contractors to follow. Rationalized models produced by the firms listed above do not offer strategies for construction or digital fabrication. For the physical production of CAD description an alternative to the rationalized description is needed. This paper examines the coupling of digital rationalization and digital fabrication with physical mockups (Rich, 1989). Our aim is to explore complex relationships found in early and mid stage design phases when digital fabrication is used to produce design outcomes. Results of our investigation will aid architects and engineers in addressing the complications found in the translation of design models embedded with precision to constructible geometries. We present an algorithmically based approach to design rationalization that supports physical production as well as surface production of desktop models. Our approach is an alternative to conventional rapid prototyping that builds objects by assembly of laterally sliced contours from a solid model. We explored an improved product description for rapid manufacture as bilateral contouring for structure and panelling for strength (Kolarevic, 2003). Infrastructure typically found within aerospace, automotive, and shipbuilding industries, bilateral contouring is an organized matrix of horizontal and vertical interlocking ribs evenly distributed along a surface. These structures are monocoque and semi-monocoque assemblies composed of structural ribs and skinning attached by rivets and adhesives. Alternative, bi-lateral contouring discussed is an interlocking matrix of plywood strips having integral joinery for assembly. Unlike traditional methods of building representations through malleable materials for creating tangible objects (Friedman, 2002), this approach constructs with the implication for building life-size solutions. Three algorithms are presented as examples of rationalized design production with physical results. The first algorithm [Figure 1] deconstructs an initial 2D curved form into ribbed slices to be assembled through integral connections constructed as part of the rib solution. The second algorithm [Figure 2] deconstructs curved forms of greater complexity. The algorithm walks along the surface extracting surface information along horizontal and vertical axes saving surface information resulting in a ribbed structure of slight double curvature. The final algorithm [Figure 3] is expressed as plug-in software for Rhino that deconstructs a design to components for assembly as rib structures. The plug-in also translates geometries to a flatten position for 2D fabrication. The software demonstrates the full scope of the research exploration. Studies published by Dodgson argued that innovation technology (IvT) (Dodgson, Gann, Salter, 2004) helped in solving projects like the Guggenheim in Bilbao, the leaning Tower of Pisa in Italy, and the Millennium Bridge in London. Similarly, the method discussed in this paper will aid in solving physical production problems with complex building forms. References Bentley, P.J. (Ed.). Evolutionary Design by Computers. Morgan Kaufman Publishers Inc. San Francisco, CA, 1-73 Celani, G, (2004) “From simple to complex: using AutoCAD to build generative design systems” in: L. Caldas and J. Duarte (org.) Implementations issues in generative design systems. First Intl. Conference on Design Computing and Cognition, July 2004 Dodgson M, Gann D.M., Salter A, (2004), “Impact of Innovation Technology on Engineering Problem Solving: Lessons from High Profile Public Projects,” Industrial Dynamics, Innovation and Development, 2004 Dristas, (2004) “Design Operators.” Thesis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2004 Friedman, M, (2002), Gehry Talks: Architecture + Practice, Universe Publishing, New York, NY, 2002 Kolarevic, B, (2003), Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, Spon Press, London, UK, 2003 Opas J, Bochnick H, Tuomi J, (1994), “Manufacturability Analysis as a Part of CAD/CAM Integration”, Intelligent Systems in Design and Manufacturing, 261-292 Rudolph S, Alber R, (2002), “An Evolutionary Approach to the Inverse Problem in Rule-Based Design Representations”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 329-350 Rich M, (1989), Digital Mockup, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, VA, 1989 Schön, D., The Reflective Practitioner: How Professional Think in Action. Basic Books. 1983 Shelden, D, (2003), “Digital Surface Representation and the Constructability of Gehry’s Architecture.” Diss. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2003 Smithers T, Conkie A, Doheny J, Logan B, Millington K, (1989), “Design as Intelligent Behaviour: An AI in Design Thesis Programme”, Artificial Intelligence in Design, 293-334 Smithers T, (2002), “Synthesis in Designing”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 3-24 Stiny, G, (1977), “Ice-ray: a note on the generation of Chinese lattice designs” Environmental and Planning B, volume 4, pp. 89-98
keywords Digital fabrication; bilateral contouring; integral connection; complex-curve
series SIGRADI
email kenfield@mit.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id ijac20064205
id ijac20064205
authors Hadjri, Karim
year 2006
title Experimenting with 3D Digitization of Architectural Physical Models using Laser Scanning Technology
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 4 - no. 2, 67-80
summary This paper assesses the use of 3D Digitization techniques by carrying out laser scanning of typical physical models produced by architecture students. The aim was to examine the product of laser scanning with respect to scanning and 3D modeling processes, and the effects of variables such as characteristics of the models, materials used, and design complexity. In order to assess the similarities and accuracies achieved by the scanning and 3D modeling processes, the research investigated human perception of differences between analogue and digital models. This enabled an assessment of the degree to which digital models were accurate representations of the real ones, and whether laser scanning can successfully be used as a medium to recreate and represent complex architectural physical models. The study presents a potential direction for digital translation in architectural education.
series journal
last changed 2007/03/04 06:08

_id sigradi2006_e090b
id sigradi2006_e090b
authors Hanna, Sean and Turner, Alasdair
year 2006
title Teaching parametric design in code and construction
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 158-161
summary Automated manufacturing processes with the ability to translate digital models into physical form promise both an increase in the complexity of what can be built, and through rapid prototyping, a possibility to experiment easily with tangible examples of the evolving design. The increasing literacy of designers in computer languages, on the other hand, offers a new range of techniques through which the models themselves might be generated. This paper reviews the results of an integrated parametric modelling and digital manufacturing workshop combining participants with a background in computer programming with those with a background in fabrication. Its aim was both to encourage collaboration in a domain that overlaps both backgrounds, as well as to explore the ways in which the two working methods naturally extend the boundaries of traditional parametric design. The types of projects chosen by the students, the working methods adopted and progress made will be discussed in light of future educational possibilities, and of the future direction of parametric tools themselves. Where standard CAD constructs isolated geometric primitives, parametric models allow the user to set up a hierarchy of relationships, deferring such details as specific dimension and sometimes quantity to a later point. Usually these are captured by a geometric schema. Many such relationships in real design however, can not be defined in terms of geometry alone. Logical operations, environmental effects such as lighting and air flow, the behaviour of people and the dynamic behaviour of materials are all essential design parameters that require other methods of definition, including the algorithm. It has been our position that the skills of the programmer are necessary in the future of design. Bentley’s Generative Components software was used as the primary vehicle for the workshop design projects. Built within the familiar Microstation framework, it enables the construction of a parametric model at a range of different interfaces, from purely graphic through to entirely code based, thus allowing the manipulation of such non-geometric, algorithmic relationships as described above. Two-dimensional laser cutting was the primary fabrication method, allowing for rapid manufacturing, and in some cases iterative physical testing. The two technologies have led in the workshop to working methods that extend the geometric schema: the first, by forcing an explicit understanding of design as procedural, and the second by encouraging physical experimentation and optimisation. The resulting projects have tended to focus on responsiveness to conditions either coded or incorporated into experimental loop. Examples will be discussed. While programming languages and geometry are universal in intent, their constraints on the design process were still notable. The default data structures of computer languages (in particular the rectangular array) replace one schema limitation with another. The indexing of data in this way is conceptually hard-wired into much of our thinking both in CAD and in code. Thankfully this can be overcome with a bit of programming, but the number of projects which have required this suggests that more intuitive, or spatial methods of data access might be developed in the future.
keywords generative design; parametric model; teaching
series SIGRADI
email s.hanna@cs.ucl.ac.uk
last changed 2016/03/10 08:53

_id sigradi2006_e149b
id sigradi2006_e149b
authors Kendir, Elif
year 2006
title Prêt-à-Construire – An Educational Inquiry into Computer Aided Fabrication
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 162-165
summary This paper aims to show and discuss the relevance of developing necessary strategies for reintegrating the concept of fabrication into the architectural design process. The discussion will be partly based on the outcome of a graduate architectural design studio conducted in Spring semester 2002-2003. The graduate studio was part of a series of exploratory studies conducted on the nature of architectural design process transformed by information technologies. Preceded by studios investigating cognition and representation, this last studio focused on the concept of fabrication. The overarching aim of the studio series was to put CAD and CAM in context both within the actual architectural design process and within architectural education. The last of this series, which will be discussed within the frame of this paper, has specifically focused on CAM and the concept of fabrication in architecture. In accordance with the nature of a design studio, the research was more methodological than technical. The studio derived its main inspiration from the constructional templates used in dressmaking, which can be considered as an initial model for mass customization. In this context, the recladding of Le Corbusier’s Maison Domino was given as the main design problem, along with several methodological constraints. The main constraint was to develop the design idea through constructional drawings instead of representational ones. The students were asked to develop their volumetric ideas through digital 3D CAD models while working out structural solutions on a physical 1/50 model of Maison Domino. There was also a material constraint for the model, where only specified types of non-structural paper could be used. At this stage, origami provided the working model for adding structural strength to sheet materials. The final outcome included the explanation of different surface generation strategies and preliminary design proposals for their subcomponents. The paper will discuss both the utilized methodology and the final outcome along the lines of the issues raised during the studio sessions, some of which could be decisive in the putting into context of CAD – CAM in architectural design process. One such issue is mass customization, that is, the mass production of different specific elements with the help of CAM technologies. Another issue is “open source” design, indicating the possibility of a do-it-yourself architecture, where architecture is coded as information, and its code can be subject to change by different designers. The final key issue is the direct utilization of constructional drawings in the preliminary design phase as opposed to representational ones, which aimed at reminding the designer the final phase of fabrication right from the beginning. Finally, the paper will also point at the problems faced during the conduct of the studio and discuss those in the context of promoting CAM for architectural design and production in countries where there is no actual utilization of these technologies for these purposes yet.
keywords Education; Fabrication; CAM
series SIGRADI
email s3131573@student.rmit.edu.au
last changed 2016/03/10 08:53

_id acadia06_555
id acadia06_555
authors Kudless, A., Vukcevich, I.
year 2006
title Flexible Formwork Research (FPR)
source Synthetic Landscapes [Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture] p. 555
summary FFR investigates the self-organization of plaster and elastic fabric to produce evocative visual and acoustic effects. Inspired by the work of the Spanish architect Miguel Fisac and his experiments with flexible concrete formwork in the 1960-70s, FFR continues this line of research by exploring aspects of pattern generation and recognition in relation to self-organized form. In line with the theme of the current exhibition, Digital Exchange, the work can be understood as a dialog between physical and digital computation. The form is a result of a negotiation between the digital manipulation of images and the physical deformations of materials under stress. Both digital and physical processes play an equal role in the final form of the plaster tiles.Reflecting on Miguel Fisac’s flexible concrete formwork, there was a desire to investigate the potential for more differentiated patterns while still using the same basic fabrication technique. This was accomplished through the use of a custom-designed script in Rhino that analyzes a given image and translates it into a field of points. These points establish areas of constraint in the elastic membrane of the mould. Through numerous physical tests, the minimum and maximum distances between constraint points was determined and these were entered into the script as limits for the point creation. If the points are too close, large wholes with very thin and weak plaster form whereas if the points are too far apart the amount of elastic deformation is so great that the weight of the plaster can cause failures to occur in the fabric mould. One of the most important aspects of the project is its resonance with the body and our natural attraction and repulsion for certain forms. Through exploring the natural self-organization of material under stress, FFR unintentionally reminds us of our own flesh. The plaster tiles resonate with our own body’s material as it sags, expands, and wrinkles in relationship with gravity, structure, and time.
series ACADIA
email akudless@gmail.com
last changed 2006/09/22 06:22

_id acadia06_064
id acadia06_064
authors Luhan, Gregory A.
year 2006
title Synthetic Making
source Synthetic Landscapes [Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture] pp. 64-67
summary Various approaches of virtual and physical modeling have led to a synthetic form of making that is plastic and scalable in nature. This shift from traditional forms of representing and generating architecture now offers a better possibility of full-scale construction and fabrication processes and links transparently to industry. Architects are beginning to dynamically inform the visioning processes of assemblies and design through a range of precise subassemblies. Further to this end, the synthetic techniques and materials are opening up avenues for designers to investigate a range of fibers and fabrics that radically transform light and color renditions, and texture. Investigations in the realm of traditional materials such as stone, wood, and concrete continue to evolve, as do their associated methods of making. As a result of synthetic technologies, architects today have the possibility to work along side industry engineers and professionals to design castings, moldings, patterns, and tools that challenge not only the architectural work of art, but industrial and product design as well. This cultural shift from physical space to virtual space back to physical space and the combination of hand-, digital-, and robotic-making offers a unique juxtaposition of the built artifact to its manufacturing that challenges both spatial conventions and also the levels of precision and tolerance by which buildings are assembled. Traditional forms of documentation for example result typically in discrepancies between the drawn and the actualized which are now challenged by the level of precision and tolerance at the virtual level. It is within this context that leading-edge architects and designers operate today. Yet, how the profession and the academy respond to these opportunities remains an open line of inquiry and addressing these concerns opens up the rich potential enabled through synthetic making.
series ACADIA
email gregory.luhan@uky.edu
last changed 2006/09/22 06:22

_id d939
id d939
authors Marc Aurel Schnabel
year 2007
title 8448cubed
source The Faculty of Architecture, Design and Planning, The University of Sydney, Sydney 2006, NSW, Australia www.arch.usyd.edu.au ISBN: 978-0-9581221-2-2
summary 8448cubed is an architectural design exhibition showcasing creative digital design techniques. It explores how the coupling of architectural designs with digital modelling and manufacturing methods allow for a deeper comprehension and experience of space and form. The core of this collection is held together by the idea of spatial concepts within constraints of a cube 8448 millimetres3 in volume. Materials are creatively cut using computer-aided architectural design tools, parametric design techniques and digital manufacturing processes.
keywords digital modelling, parametric modeling, digital manufacturing, form generation, exhibition
series book
type normal paper
email marcaurel@usyd.edu.au
more http://8448cubed.tk/
last changed 2007/11/17 15:07

_id caadria2006_209
id caadria2006_209
authors MARCEL BOTHA, LAWRENCE D. SASS
year 2006
title THE INSTANT HOUSE: Design and digital fabrication of housing for developing environments
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 209-216
summary Through a novel method, it is possible to provide mass customized, designed housing to emergency and poverty stricken locations. A definitive need exists for a system that is rapidly deployable and scalable while fostering individuality within the larger rebuilt community. This paper describes the relationship of digital fabrication to materials and design rules by example. The paper ends with different iterations of the Instant house and an explanation of its construction method and execution.
series CAADRIA
email mbotha@mit.edu, lsass@mit.edu
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

_id sigradi2006_e151c
id sigradi2006_e151c
authors Neumann, Oliver and Schmidt, Daniel
year 2006
title CNC Timber Framing – Innovative Applications of Digital Wood Fabrication Technology
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 304-307
summary The discourse on depleting natural resources and compromised environments have led to extended research on sustainable designs methods, building practices and materials. Beyond the actual performance of building products and components, research on sustainable building increasingly focuses on the long-term effects of the production, application and life cycle of building materials on the natural environment, human inhabitation and quality of life. Computer aided manufacturing technologies play a significant role not only in the transformation of design and building methods, but also in an extended discourse on cultural development. Globally available technologies connect the design and building process to a broad range of long-term ecological factors by creating a correlation between "the emergent political, economical and social processes and … architectural techniques, geometries and organization." Through this interrelationship to economy and culture, technology and its applications are also directly related to notions of place and territory as well as to fundamental ideas of ecology. The collaborative research and design study for an outdoor theater roof structure at the University of British Columbia Malcolm Knapp Research Forest at Maple Ridge, B.C., Canada, focuses on the use of digital media in prefabrication and material optimization. By utilizing small square section timber and minimizing the use of alienating connectors the research on the wood roof structure illustrates the potential of a design culture that seeks innovation in a broader understanding of ecology routed in regional culture, environmental conditions, economy and tradition. Labor intensive manufacturing techniques are redefined aided by computer controlled machines and virtual modeling of complex geometries is translated into simple operations. The result is a more sensible and accurate response to the place’s demands. In order to generate innovative design interventions that make a constructive long-term contribution to the preservation, maintenance and evolution of the environment, design needs to be based on a comprehensive understanding of its context and the distinctive qualities of the materials used. Following the example of the outdoor roof structure, this paper aims to define innovative design as work that resonates at the intersection of the fields of technology, material science, manufacturing processes, techniques of assembly and context that constitute the expanded context or complex ecology that projects need to engage. It is in design research studies like for the outdoor theater roof structure with focus on CNC wood fabrication technologies that the common design and building discourse is put to question, boundaries are explored and expanded and the collective understanding is improved towards ecological design.
keywords CNC Wood Fabrication; Design Innovation; Ecology
series SIGRADI
email neumann@oliverneumann.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:56

_id fc73
id fc73
authors Rafi, A, Samsudin, K A, and Ismail, A
year 2006
title On Improving Spatial ability through computer-mediated engineering drawing instruction
source Journal of Educational Technology and Society 9 (3), 149-159.
summary This study investigates the effectiveness of computer-mediated Engineering Drawing instruction in improving spatial ability namely spatial visualisation and mental rotation. A multi factorial quasi experimental design study was employed involving a cohort of 138, 20 year old average undergraduates. Three interventional treatments were administered, namely Interactive Engineering Drawing Trainer (EDwgT), conventional instruction using printed materials enhanced with digital video clips, and conventional instruction using printed materials only. Using an experimental 3 x 2 x 2 factorial design, the research has found statistical significant improvements in spatial visualisation tasks. There appears to be no improvement in reaction times for Mental Rotation. The authors also have investigated the gender differences and the influence of prior experience of spatial ability.
keywords Spatial ability, Spatial visualisation, Mental rotation, Computer-mediated Engineering Drawing
series journal paper
type normal paper
email ahmadrafi.eshaq@mmu.edu.my
more http://www.ifets.info/
last changed 2007/09/07 06:49

_id ddss2006-pb-373
id DDSS2006-PB-373
authors Rohan Bailey
year 2006
title Towards a Digital Design Teaching Tool - A look at the ideas that should define a digital design primer
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) 2006, Progress in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Eindhoven: Eindhoven University of Technology, ISBN-10: 90-386-1756-9, ISBN-13: 978-90-386-1756-5, p. 373-386
summary Architecture in the 21st century has become an increasingly complex affair. In addition to new social and cultural norms, architects are inundated with constantly changing information regarding new materials, sustainable processes, and complex building types. This state of affairs has also affected the expectations placed on architectural education. Critics (in diverse spheres) have expressed concerns about the lack of requisite skills of graduates that characterise good design thinking strategies as well as promote responsible design. It has been proposed by this author in other forums that by using digital technology to empower design learning, we can allow students to confidently use (through reading and analysis) their sketches to develop conceptual ideas that reconcile disparate elements into a habitable, environmentally friendly and architecturally responsible whole that is fit for purpose, cost effective, sustainable and a delight to clients and users. This paper will seek to discuss one of the concepts that govern such a tool. It will start by delineating the problem (discussed earlier in the abstract) before outlining the concepts or principles that a design teaching tool should adhere to. These concepts acknowledge the importance for the tool to reflect the nature of design tasks, facilitate learning and be accessible to all learning types. The paper will then focus on one concept - the nature of design tasks. The subsequent sections will describe an information structure borne from this idea and make mention of a current prototype of the tool. The paper will conclude with a discussion of the strengths of considering this concept.
keywords Design & decision support systems, Architectural education, Computer assisted learning, Design thinking
series DDSS
last changed 2006/08/29 10:55

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