CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 561

_id 2006_566
id 2006_566
authors Rafi, Ahmad; Mohamad Izani Zainal Abidin; Avijit Paul and Aishah Abdul Razak
year 2006
title Simulation of architectural lighting in a virtual environment - A case study on real and fake High Dynamic Range Images (HDRI)
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 566-572
summary The early findings of this research were presented in eCAADe 2005 International Conference, Lisbon primarily to highlight the concept of High Dynamic Range Images (HDRI) when representing architectural spaces in the form of still images. An experiment had been carried out to compare the results between HDRI rendering and ‘conventional’ lighting simulation algorithms namely ray tracing and radiosity. The results were based on static and using the same exposure factors, when capturing HDRI. This project, funded by Intensification Research Priority Area (IRPA) grant continues to present and report HDRI results in a simulation environment. In this paper, we first briefly explain on the concept of real and fake HDRI. Then a comparison experiment is conducted to compare these two methods and discuss the impact and effectiveness of the illumination computation in architectural simulation environment. In order to carry out the experiment, a few models of the architectural scenes were developed. These models were then textured with real photos and manipulated with ‘shaders’, and further rendered using fake and real HDRI techniques. As for the fake HDRI, two methods were developed. The first was using an image as the ambient map and different exposures were created by increasing the value of Hue, V of HSV and saturation. The second involved a series of digital photos with the selection of the brightest and darkest area using Adobe Photoshop to establish the scale of luminosity. A few camera movements were triggered and position for ‘real-time’ rendering simulation. The result of the experiment has shown a significant improvement on the rendering time and quality of the rendering. Finally this paper suggests the selection criteria for choosing real and fake HDRI, and how each technique can be best utilized for architectural representations in a simulation environment.
keywords HDRI; simulation; Real HDRI;Fake HDRI; illumination computation
series eCAADe
email ahmadrafi.eshaq@mmu.edu.my
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id ascaad2006_paper20
id ascaad2006_paper20
authors Chougui, Ali
year 2006
title The Digital Design Process: reflections on architectural design positions on complexity and CAAD
source Computing in Architecture / Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2006), 25-27 April 2006, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
summary These instructions are intended to guide contributors to the Second Architecture is presently engaged in an impatient search for solutions to critical questions about the nature and the identity of the discipline, and digital technology is a key agent for prevailing innovations in architectural design. The problem of complexity underlies all design problems. With the advent of CAD however, Architect’s ability to truly represent complexity has increased considerably. Another source that provides information about dealing with complexity is architectural theory. As Rowe (1987) states, architectural theory constitutes “a corpus of principles that are agreed upon and therefore worthy of emulation”. Architectural theory often is a mixed reflection on the nature of architectural design, design processes, made in descriptive and prescriptive terms (see Kruft 1985). Complexity is obviously not a new issue in architectural theory. Since it is an inherent characteristic of design problems, it has been dealt with in many different ways throughout history. Contemporary architects incorporate the computer in their design process. They produce architecture that is generated by the use of particle systems, simulation software, animation software, but also the more standard modelling tools. The architects reflect on the impact of the computer in their theories, and display changes in style by using information modelling techniques that have become versatile enough to encompass the complexity of information in the architectural design process. In this way, architectural style and theory can provide directions to further develop CAD. Most notable is the acceptance of complexity as a given fact, not as a phenomenon to oppose in systems of organization, but as a structuring principle to begin with. No matter what information modelling paradigm is used, complex and huge amounts of information need to be processed by designers. A key aspect in the combination of CAD, complexity, and architectural design is the role of the design representation. The way the design is presented and perceived during the design process is instrumental to understanding the design task. More architects are trying to reformulate this working of the representation. The intention of this paper is to present and discuss the current state of the art in architectural design positions on complexity and CAAD, and to reflect in particular on the role of digital design representations in this discussion. We also try to investigate how complexity can be dealt with, by looking at architects, in particular their styles and theories. The way architects use digital media and graphic representations can be informative how units of information can be formed and used in the design process. A case study is a concrete architect’s design processes such as Peter Eisenman Rem Koolhaas, van Berkel, Lynn, and Franke gehry, who embrace complexity and make it a focus point in their design, Rather than viewing it as problematic issue, by using computer as an indispensable instrument in their approaches.
series ASCAAD
email ali_chougui@yahoo.fr
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id caadria2006_111
id caadria2006_111
authors DAVID HARRISON, MICHAEL DONN
year 2006
title USING WEB 2.0 TECHNOLOGIES TO PRESERVE DESIGN HISTORY AND IMPROVE COLLABORATION
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 111-117
summary This paper describes ongoing research into how emerging Internet concepts used in conjunction with existing Information Technologies (IT) can improve inter-project communication and understanding. The emphasis of the research is to use technology as an enabler to share personal thoughts and enhance the conversation that takes place within a development team. It stems from the observation that the emphasis of many new Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) technologies is to minimise and diffuse project conversation with highly complex, machine interpretable building information models.Project teams are usually brought together for a relatively short but intense period of time. Following project completion these unique teams are dissolved just as quickly and often are never formed again. As a consequence it is difficult to justify the investment in time and resources required to implement complex IT-based collaboration solutions. A further barrier to adoption is the differential application of IT skills across the AEC industry. Therefore in order for a new technology to gain broad acceptance and be most beneficial it must be applicable to the broadest audience with the minimum investment required from all parties. The primary objective of this research is to preserve the rich design history of a project from conception to completion. Submitted information can be intelligently searched using the meta-data sourced from syndicated data feeds about team members, project timelines, work diaries and email communication. Once indexed users can tag documents and messages in order to provide a further, far richer layer of meta-data to assist in searching, identification of issues and semantic clarification. This strategy of defining AEC semantics through social interaction differs greatly from that of more complex, computer interpretable solutions such as Industry Foundation Classes. Rather than abstracting information to suit a generic yet highly intelligent building model, the emphasis is on preserving the participant’s own thoughts and conversation about decisions and issues in order to create a forum for intelligent conversation as the design evolves.
series CAADRIA
email david.harrison@vuw.ac.nz
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

_id ijac20064307
id ijac20064307
authors Goldberg, Sergio Araya
year 2006
title Computational Design of Parametric Scripts for Digital Fabrication of Curved Structures
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 4 - no. 3, 99-117
summary This paper explores strategies for building toolchains to design, develop and fabricate architectural designs. It explains how complex curved structures can be constructed from flat standard panels. The hypothesis of this research is that by embedding ruled based procedures addressing generative, variational, iterative, and fabricational logics into early phases of design, both design techniques and digital fabrication methods can merge to solve a recurrent problem in contemporary architectural design, building double curved structures. Furthermore it achieves this using common fabrication methods and standard construction materials. It describes the processes of programming computational tools creating and developing designs to fabricate continuous complex curved structures. I describe this through a series of experiments, using parametric design environments and scripted functions, implementing certain techniques to fabricate these designs using rapid prototyping machines. Comparing different design and fabrication approaches I offer a discussion about universal application of programmed procedures into architectural design.
series journal
last changed 2007/03/04 06:08

_id ijac20064205
id ijac20064205
authors Hadjri, Karim
year 2006
title Experimenting with 3D Digitization of Architectural Physical Models using Laser Scanning Technology
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 4 - no. 2, 67-80
summary This paper assesses the use of 3D Digitization techniques by carrying out laser scanning of typical physical models produced by architecture students. The aim was to examine the product of laser scanning with respect to scanning and 3D modeling processes, and the effects of variables such as characteristics of the models, materials used, and design complexity. In order to assess the similarities and accuracies achieved by the scanning and 3D modeling processes, the research investigated human perception of differences between analogue and digital models. This enabled an assessment of the degree to which digital models were accurate representations of the real ones, and whether laser scanning can successfully be used as a medium to recreate and represent complex architectural physical models. The study presents a potential direction for digital translation in architectural education.
series journal
last changed 2007/03/04 06:08

_id sigradi2006_e145a
id sigradi2006_e145a
authors Heiss, Leah
year 2006
title Empathy over distance: Wearables as tools for augmenting Remote Emotional Connection
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 66-69
summary Mainstream communication modes emphasise network speed, connection access, resolution, portability, and aesthetic design as primary to the success of their products. Within this vision a three by four centimetre screen and high resolution display are deemed adequate to emulate the intensities and complexities of face-to-face connection with loved ones. They allow us to ‘be there with you’ from wherever we might be. Yet interpersonal communication is a massively complex phenomenon. It involves a plethora of micro-activities which occur at a physical, physiological, and psychological level allowing us to recognise at a cellular scale intention, motive and emotional authenticity. Our conscious and non-conscious involvement in spatially collocated communication is substantial due to these myriad channels of real-time bi-directional information transfer. While contemporary communications technologies have the capacity to mediate our relationships, they fall short of encouraging the richness of spatially co-present interaction. The research discussed in this paper investigates the potential expansion of remote connection when electronically enhanced apparel is incorporated into the communications mix. Rather than pursuing the manifold functionalities of traditional communications media the garments discussed focus solely on the goal of enhancing empathy between physically distant individuals. This paper reports on the development and testing of a range of garments that conduct presence information between remotely located people. The garments sense, process, transmit and receive the heartbeat wavelength (ECG). They are enabled with ECG sensors, signal processing equipment, small vibration motors, and radio transceivers which allow users to ‘feel’ the heartbeat of a remote friend/lover/relative as vibration through their garment. The prototypes aim to enrich the remote communications experience through reintroducing an embodied, tactile dimension that is present in face-to-face communication. A range of user testing trials will be discussed which have been undertaken to assess the impact of the garments at a conscious and a non-conscious level. Conscious experiences were gauged through qualitative testing, by way of interviews and unsolicited written reactions, which have provided a range of engaging emotional responses. Non-conscious physiological reactions were assessed by recording ECG throughout user-testing periods. This data has been processed using HRV (heart rate variability) analysis software, running on MatLab. Preliminary results suggest that users have strong conscious and non-conscious reactions to the experience of wearing the prototype garments. The paper will describe the data processing techniques and findings of the user testing trials. The development of biosignal sensing garments has raised a range of issues including: innovative potentials for embedded peripheral awareness media; the expansion of the classical body to incorporate remotely sensed information; the issue of data semantics and the development of intensely personal non-verbal languages; and the issue of corporeal privacy when one’s biological information is exposed for potential download. They also bring into question how our bodily experiences might change when we incorporate remote sensory systems.
keywords Enabled apparel; emotional tools; biosignals
series SIGRADI
email leah.heiss@rmit.edu.au
last changed 2016/03/10 08:53

_id sigradi2006_e068d
id sigradi2006_e068d
authors Catovic-Hughes, Selma
year 2006
title Digital Storytelling: "Memory….. Sarajevo, my personal story"
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 337-340
summary “It was a fresh summer night, sky deprived of stars, and hardly any signs of life. After hours of waiting, well passed midnight, they finally allowed us to enter. I couldn’t see or hear much, except movements of those in front of me, but judging by intense scent of mildew and worm-like smell of earth, I realized my mile long underground adventure had begun. There was no looking back, only the brave steps ahead into my new, and hopefully, safe and fruitful future.” [ from diary95 ] Just like many teens around the world, I too kept a journal. It began with playful thoughts of a teenage girl, living in Sarajevo, enjoying life. On my fifteenth birthday, those carefree moments were soon replaced with brutal facts of life under siege: Sarajevo and its citizens had been surrounded by the Serbs who took over all the roads leading in and out of the city. Three years later, I was weeks away from graduating high school, and instead of getting excited, I wondered about my future…”Yesterday was awesome -- we had both electricity and water for eight straight hours…hooray!! You could see the lights miles away…the entire city was awake, making pies and bread, washing clothes, watching movies.” [ from diary93 ] Was I going to spend the rest of my life anticipating the restricted electric and water timetable? Would I wake up the next day to see all my family alive? Would I ever have a chance to fulfill my dreams? This project captures the process of [re]tracing steps of my personal journey of leaving Sarajevo to come to the United States and [re]constructing memories as a sequence of spatial events using the artifacts and the text from my war journals. The intent of my project is to define that line between the old and the new, and intertwine and merge its current condition with the facts and memories from the past. Although there was never a permanent “Berlin-wall-like” divider, the natural contours of the river and invisible screens of the snipers served as impermeable walls and divided the city for four years. The implied boundary seemed to be more powerful than the massiveness of the concrete barricades. Is it possible to re-condition something [building, space, soul] to be and feel the same when it had been destroyed and deeply scarred on the inside? Instead of placing banal memorials engraved with the bare facts, how can we make a tribute to a series of events—a time period that changed the fabric of the city—in a more three-dimensional experience? How can we integrate digital phenomenon in the process of the post-war reconstruction to re-trace the past while creating necessary advanced improvements for the new contemporary society? The impact that social conditions have on architecture, art, culture, and ultimately, people can be told in a universal language – digital storytelling, containing pieces of history and personal memories to create representations of time and space of the past, present or future.
keywords memory; postwar; retrace; reconstruction; memorial
series SIGRADI
email selma977@yahoo.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:48

_id caadria2006_363
id caadria2006_363
authors HSIAO-CHEN YOU, SHANG-CHIA CHIOU, YI-SHIN DENG
year 2006
title DESIGN BY ACTIONS: An Affordance-based Modeling System in Spatial Design
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 363-369
summary From the viewpoint of interaction design, Gibson's affordance concept is interpreted as an emergent action possibility of the physical human-environment-system, which consists of three key components: the user, the environment, and the possible actions. It could help user to perform the suitable action within an artificial environment. This study aims to develop a formal description of affordance in spatial design. Using the formal description as groundwork, an affordance-based modeling system is then proposed to facilitate its further implementation in design and elucidate the new role of users and designers in spatial design. A simplified sink area design is used as an example to illustrate how this affordance-based modeling system works. For users of different conditions, different spatial arrangements in design will affect the performance and users’ behavior as well. This study demonstrates how design by action can be achieved, and then simulates the action sequence of different design solutions to evaluate the system performance.
series CAADRIA
email hcyou@ntit.edu.tw, chiousc@yuntech.edu.tw, ydest@faculty.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

_id caadria2006_047
id caadria2006_047
authors SHAI YESHAYAHU, A.; B. MARIA VERA
year 2006
title CUT, COPY, PASTE SOCIETY
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 47-52
summary You and I were not born in the 1990’s thus our experience about the true modalities of circulation and communication that have substantially transformed the methods that form and inform us today, are not really “pure”. Why? Because we know how slow time was before the communication boom of this last decade and because some of us still believe that we must read to be inform and thus, visit a bookstore, library or friends house and get peeks inside a subject of matter. So experiencing life as we bypass the book _ that’s a story of a brand new era! Taking note of the enormous changes this era brings, is fundamental to our current pedagogic undertakings. We seek data about the differences that lie in the way individuals, which never knew a world before or between analogue and digital zones, process information. It signals a dramatic shift in cognitive realms that is deeply imbedded in our emerging socio-economic spheres. So, you say “hypothesizing that economic, technologic, and cultural fluxes fabricate new means to learn and think, is not a fresh idea”_ True. But, it led us to ask one fundamental question _What are the upcoming learning habits employed by the “post digital” society? We noted that the post digital generation is an avid cut, copy, paste society that is able to extract information from infinite resources and mix, remix in diversified modes, through time and in real-time. We think these abilities are strengths, which will permit students to multitask yet they strongly differ from the academic agendas that are concerned with meditative processes and qualitative interdisciplinary task. As aspiring academics interested in the reconfiguration of current pedagogic formats we seek a creative intervention for future design generations, one that can benefit both the upheavals of the cultural world and the integrity of the academic setting where a pedagogy that links extended fields of knowledge with shifting cognitive habits can emerge. In this arena where cognition plays an important role, our goals are challenging and difficult, especially in the beginning years when the foundations set forward leaves lasting impressions. Thus, letting go of familiar grounds and tuning to continual alterations of the immediate surroundings enables us to seek means that facilitate important readings for our current learning/teaching processes. Demystifying changes and embracing differences as design potentials for new interventions are basic programmatic elements that permit us to incorporate a rigorous research agenda in the design exercises. Our presentation will project the current state of our teaching modality and provide examples of current studio work. It will demonstrate how everyday rituals, journeys and research observations, are documented by a society that heralds a new academic setting.
series CAADRIA
email shaiy@siu.edu
last changed 2007/07/23 05:08

_id ascaad2006_paper8
id ascaad2006_paper8
authors Abdullah, Sajid; Ramesh Marasini and Munir Ahmad
year 2006
title An Analysis of the Applications of Rapid Prototyping in Architecture
source Computing in Architecture / Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2006), 25-27 April 2006, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
summary Rapid prototyping (RP) techniques are widely used within the design/manufacturing industry and are well established in manufacturing industry. These digital techniques offer quick and accurate prototypes with relatively low cost when we require exact likeness to a particular scale and detail. 3D modeling of buildings on CAD-systems in the AEC sector is now becoming more popular and becoming widely used practice as the higher efficiency of working with computers is being recognized. However the building of scaled physical representations is still performed manually, which generally requires a high amount of time. Complex post-modernist building forms are more faithfully and easily represented in a solid visualization form, than they could be using traditional model making methods. Using RP within the engineering community has given the users the possibility to communicate and visualize designs with greater ease with the clients and capture any error within the CAD design at an early stage of the project or product lifecycle. In this paper, the application of RP in architecture is reviewed and the possibilities of modeling architectural models are explored. A methodology of developing rapid prototypes with 3D CAD models using methods of solid freeform manufacturing in particular Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is presented and compared against traditional model making methods. An economical analysis is presented and discussed using a case study and the potential of applying RP techniques to architectural models is discussed.
series ASCAAD
email s.abdullah@tees.ac.uk
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id sigradi2006_e160c
id sigradi2006_e160c
authors Andrade, Max and Cheng, Liang-Yee
year 2006
title Diretrizez Geométricas de Auxílio ao Processo de Projeto de Edifícios Residenciais [Geometrical Guidelines to Aid the Design of Floor Plants of Residential Buildings]
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 243-247
summary This paper discusses the basic principles of a geometric method to aid the design process of residential buildings. It makes part of the initial phases of a research whose aim is to develop a computer system to aid the sketching and evaluation of floor plant design of multi-storied residential buildings. The fundamental idea of the research is the existence of some basic patterns of floor plants that reflect the designer’s mental models in this category of building. The models are regarding the usage of the space such as forms and dimensions, the elements for the circulation and the external skins. During the design process, architects work on each one of these models to generate the sketches of the floor plant layout. Generally, the layout of an apartment in multi-storied buildings depends basically on the internal dynamics of the users without the complex relationship with the neighborhood environment as in the case of houses. In this way, it would be easier to identify, to organize and to associate the mental models of multi-storied buildings on geometric basis, which, in their turns, might be effectively used as inputs for the layout planning of new design. By applying the geometric basis, the architects may reduce the universe of feasible alternatives into a small group of heuristic solutions that can be described by using few simple guidelines. In addition to this, the geometric bases of the existing buildings might be used to build a knowledge-based system to aid the architectural design. The objective of this paper is to show some initial results of the research obtained from a survey and the case studies of form, dimensions and topology of existing buildings. To limit the scope of the discussion, only residential buildings with two to three bedrooms are considered. At first, a survey of plants of residential buildings with two and three bedrooms, in Brazil, is carried out. In the next step, the dimensions, shape, external skin perimeter, circulation system and accessibility are analyzed. Finally, typical topologies of the building are investigated.
keywords Design process; geometric method; residential buildings
series SIGRADI
email maxandrade@uol.com.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id acadia19_278
id acadia19_278
authors Ca?izares, Galo
year 2019
title Digital Suprematism
source ACADIA 19:UBIQUITY AND AUTONOMY [Proceedings of the 39th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-578-59179-7] (The University of Texas at Austin School of Architecture, Austin, Texas 21-26 October, 2019) pp. 278-287
summary It is widely held that sometime around 2006, the World Wide Web as we knew it mutated into Web 2.0. This colloquial label signaled a shift from an Internet designed for us to an Internet designed by us. Nowhere was this more explicitly stated than in Time Magazine’s 2006 Person of the Year selection: You. More than a decade later, Internet browsers have evolved into ubiquitous interfaces accessible from mobile devices, tablet computers, public kiosks, workstations, laptops, etc. It would, therefore, not be an overstatement to say that the browser is the most widespread content canvas in the world. Designers frequently use web browsers for their ability to exhibit and organize content. They are the sites for portfolios, announcements, magazines, and at times, discussions. But despite its flexibility and rich infrastructure, rarely is the browser used to generate design elements. Thanks to advanced web development languages like JavaScript and open-source code libraries, such as p5.JS, Matter.JS, and Three.JS, browsers now support interactive and spatial content. Typically, these tools are used to generate gimmicks or visual effects, such as the parallax illusion or the infinite scroll. But if we perceive the browser as a timebased picture plane, we can immediately recognize its architectonic potential. This paper puts forth a method for engaging the creative potential of web-based media and Internet browsers. Through example projects, I argue that the Internet browser is a highly complex spatial plane that warrants more architectural analysis and experimentation.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email canizares.1@osu.edu
last changed 2019/12/18 08:03

_id 2006_684
id 2006_684
authors De Bodt, Kathleen
year 2006
title SoundScapes & Architectural Spaces - Spatial sound research in digital architectural design
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 684-689
summary The paper presents ongoing research focusing on the development of digital tools and methodologies for spatial design based on non-Euclidean geometries. It addresses the way sound can be used both conceptually and acoustically in the early stages of the design process, examining digital architectural design and modeling based on three-dimensional sound visualization and the acoustical analysis and evaluation of complex curved surface geometry. The paper describes SoundMatrix, the first part of a digital design tool created by using Max/Msp/Jitter, to assist in the preliminary design of building façades in small-scale urban environments, specifically studying the possibilities of curvature to decrease sound reflection between opposing street façades. Examples from a workshop with the SoundMatrix application illustrate the real-time 3D authoring and sound spatialisation processing currently implemented in the tool.
keywords graphical programming; performance-based design; generative design
series eCAADe
email k.debodt@ha.be
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id acadia06_392
id acadia06_392
authors Dorta, T., Perez, E.
year 2006
title Hybrid modeling revaluing manual action for 3D modeling
source Synthetic Landscapes [Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture] pp. 392-402
summary 3D modeling software uses conventional interface devices like mouse, keyboard and display allowing the designer to model 3D shapes. Due to the complexity of 3D shape data structures, these programs work through a geometrical system and a graphical user interface to input and output data. However, these elements interfere with the conceptual stage of the design process because the software is always asking to be fed with accurate geometries—something hard to do at the beginning of the process. Furthermore, the interface does not recognize all the advantages and skills of the designer’s bare hands as a powerful modeling tool.This paper presents the evaluation of a hybrid modeling technique for conceptual design. The hybrid modeling approach proposes to use both computer and manual tools for 3D modeling at the beginning of the design process. Using 3D scanning and rapid prototyping techniques, the designer is able to go back and forth between digital and manual mode, thus taking advantage of each one. Starting from physical models, the design is then digitalized in order to be treated with special modeling software. Then, the rapid prototyping physical model becomes a matrix or physical 3D template used to explore design intentions with the hands, allowing the proposal of complex shapes, which is difficult to achieve by 3D modeling software alone.
series ACADIA
email tomas.dorta@umontreal.ca
last changed 2006/09/22 06:22

_id 2006_778
id 2006_778
authors Dritsas, Stylianos; Renos Charitou and Lars Hesselgren
year 2006
title Computational Methods on Tall Buildings - The Bishopsgate Tower
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 778-785
summary This paper summarizes the ongoing research done on The Bishopsgate Tower in the City of London using parametric design methodologies. The process is indicative of how computational methods will develop in the future and help designers find solutions for increasingly complex spaces.
keywords Tall Buildings; Computational Geometry; Building Information Management; Façade Optimization
series eCAADe
email sdritsas@kpf.com
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id 2006_670
id 2006_670
authors Fricker, Pia and Alexandre Kapellos
year 2006
title Digital Interaction in Urban Structure - Reflection : Six years and still scanning
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 670-673
summary The focus in our elective course for Master Students of Architecture is the following: in parallel to a more traditional way of analysing urban structures, how can the application of multimedia technology, networking and the integration of interactive computer applications lead to a different approach? The objective of our teaching and research project is to find out in what ways urban structure and specific features of a city can be represented by interactive interfaces and the use of CNC technology. Our attitude is based on small-scale approach: the sum of these microanalyses gives us the broader picture, the system or mechanisms of the city. We do not dive into the city but emerge from it. This reflection leads to a new understanding in the organisation of complex urban structures, highlighting and revealing different connections and relationships, thus giving a different final image.
keywords Abstract Types of Spatial Representation; Interaction – Interfaces; Innovative Integration of Multimedia Technology; Digital Design Education
series eCAADe
email fricker@hbt.arch.ethz.ch
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id sigradi2006_e028c
id sigradi2006_e028c
authors Griffith, Kenfield; Sass, Larry and Michaud, Dennis
year 2006
title A strategy for complex-curved building design:Design structure with Bi-lateral contouring as integrally connected ribs
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 465-469
summary Shapes in designs created by architects such as Gehry Partners (Shelden, 2002), Foster and Partners, and Kohn Peterson and Fox rely on computational processes for rationalizing complex geometry for building construction. Rationalization is the reduction of a complete geometric shape into discrete components. Unfortunately, for many architects the rationalization is limited reducing solid models to surfaces or data on spread sheets for contractors to follow. Rationalized models produced by the firms listed above do not offer strategies for construction or digital fabrication. For the physical production of CAD description an alternative to the rationalized description is needed. This paper examines the coupling of digital rationalization and digital fabrication with physical mockups (Rich, 1989). Our aim is to explore complex relationships found in early and mid stage design phases when digital fabrication is used to produce design outcomes. Results of our investigation will aid architects and engineers in addressing the complications found in the translation of design models embedded with precision to constructible geometries. We present an algorithmically based approach to design rationalization that supports physical production as well as surface production of desktop models. Our approach is an alternative to conventional rapid prototyping that builds objects by assembly of laterally sliced contours from a solid model. We explored an improved product description for rapid manufacture as bilateral contouring for structure and panelling for strength (Kolarevic, 2003). Infrastructure typically found within aerospace, automotive, and shipbuilding industries, bilateral contouring is an organized matrix of horizontal and vertical interlocking ribs evenly distributed along a surface. These structures are monocoque and semi-monocoque assemblies composed of structural ribs and skinning attached by rivets and adhesives. Alternative, bi-lateral contouring discussed is an interlocking matrix of plywood strips having integral joinery for assembly. Unlike traditional methods of building representations through malleable materials for creating tangible objects (Friedman, 2002), this approach constructs with the implication for building life-size solutions. Three algorithms are presented as examples of rationalized design production with physical results. The first algorithm [Figure 1] deconstructs an initial 2D curved form into ribbed slices to be assembled through integral connections constructed as part of the rib solution. The second algorithm [Figure 2] deconstructs curved forms of greater complexity. The algorithm walks along the surface extracting surface information along horizontal and vertical axes saving surface information resulting in a ribbed structure of slight double curvature. The final algorithm [Figure 3] is expressed as plug-in software for Rhino that deconstructs a design to components for assembly as rib structures. The plug-in also translates geometries to a flatten position for 2D fabrication. The software demonstrates the full scope of the research exploration. Studies published by Dodgson argued that innovation technology (IvT) (Dodgson, Gann, Salter, 2004) helped in solving projects like the Guggenheim in Bilbao, the leaning Tower of Pisa in Italy, and the Millennium Bridge in London. Similarly, the method discussed in this paper will aid in solving physical production problems with complex building forms. References Bentley, P.J. (Ed.). Evolutionary Design by Computers. Morgan Kaufman Publishers Inc. San Francisco, CA, 1-73 Celani, G, (2004) “From simple to complex: using AutoCAD to build generative design systems” in: L. Caldas and J. Duarte (org.) Implementations issues in generative design systems. First Intl. Conference on Design Computing and Cognition, July 2004 Dodgson M, Gann D.M., Salter A, (2004), “Impact of Innovation Technology on Engineering Problem Solving: Lessons from High Profile Public Projects,” Industrial Dynamics, Innovation and Development, 2004 Dristas, (2004) “Design Operators.” Thesis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2004 Friedman, M, (2002), Gehry Talks: Architecture + Practice, Universe Publishing, New York, NY, 2002 Kolarevic, B, (2003), Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, Spon Press, London, UK, 2003 Opas J, Bochnick H, Tuomi J, (1994), “Manufacturability Analysis as a Part of CAD/CAM Integration”, Intelligent Systems in Design and Manufacturing, 261-292 Rudolph S, Alber R, (2002), “An Evolutionary Approach to the Inverse Problem in Rule-Based Design Representations”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 329-350 Rich M, (1989), Digital Mockup, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, VA, 1989 Schön, D., The Reflective Practitioner: How Professional Think in Action. Basic Books. 1983 Shelden, D, (2003), “Digital Surface Representation and the Constructability of Gehry’s Architecture.” Diss. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2003 Smithers T, Conkie A, Doheny J, Logan B, Millington K, (1989), “Design as Intelligent Behaviour: An AI in Design Thesis Programme”, Artificial Intelligence in Design, 293-334 Smithers T, (2002), “Synthesis in Designing”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 3-24 Stiny, G, (1977), “Ice-ray: a note on the generation of Chinese lattice designs” Environmental and Planning B, volume 4, pp. 89-98
keywords Digital fabrication; bilateral contouring; integral connection; complex-curve
series SIGRADI
email kenfield@mit.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id ijac20064306
id ijac20064306
authors Klinger, Kevin R.; Vermillion, Joshua
year 2006
title Visualizing the Operative and Analytic: Representing the Digital Fabrication Feedback Loop and Managing the Digital Exchange
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 4 - no. 3, 79-97
summary Digital architecture is process-based and reliant upon a conversation between digital visualization, analysis, and production. With the complexity of information generated in process-based digital practices, we need to effectively manage and exchange the information. Feedback loops are integral to this process/product, and thus require extensive management of complex versions of visual and data related information. Quite a lot of scholarly attention has been focused upon highlighting innovative projects using digital fabrication and serial customization. However, there is a scarcity of scholarly work about innovations in visualizing and representing the design data integral in this feedback loop. This paper will examine innovative representational devices such as the matrix, sectioning, layering, bracketing, nesting, and other new forms of organizing, visualizing, analyzing, and simulating complex data, intent upon communicating multiple levels of operations during the design and fabrication process. With a rigorous taxonomy of operative and analytic devices for process-based digital design development, we can begin to outline a trajectory for future evolutions in practice. This writing is an attempt to make a few steps in this direction, and demonstrate some of these new representational ideas in practice.
series journal
last changed 2007/03/04 06:08

_id 2006_540
id 2006_540
authors Lang, Silke Berit
year 2006
title Learning from other Disciplines for Designing Technologically Enhanced Spaces
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 540-547
summary In this paper we explore how design methods from different disciplines can be applied to designing technology-embedded, communicative spaces and how interdisciplinary transfer can be improved. We present design understandings from architecture, engineering, natural sciences, management sciences, and philosophy. Methods, principles, practices, and procedures from mechanical engineering, neuroinformatics and knowledge visualization are applied in handling complex tasks and in improving communication among different disciplines. We present first findings for fruitful cooperation and for transferring knowledge across disciplines.
keywords Design Methods; Axiomatic Design; Design Axiom
series eCAADe
email lang@arch.ethz.ch
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id sigradi2006_e011c
id sigradi2006_e011c
authors Narahara, Taro and Terzidis, Kostas
year 2006
title Optimal Distribution of Architecture Programs with Multiple-constraint Genetic Algorithm
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 299-303
summary A genetic algorithm (GA) is a search technique for optimizing or solving a problem based on evolutionary biology, using terms and processes such as genomes, chromosomes, cross-over, mutation, or selection. The evolution starts from a population of completely random individuals and happens in generations. In each generation, the fitness of the whole population is evaluated, multiple individuals are stochastically selected from the current population (based on their fitness), modified (mutated or recombined) to form a new population, which becomes current in the next iteration of the algorithm. In architecture, GAs are of special interest mainly because of their ability to address a problem offering a multiplicity of possible solutions. Contrary to other algorithms where the objective is to accommodate a manually conceived diagram, GAs are emergent procedures that evolve over time through multiple attempt cycles (i.e. generations) and therefore offer a bottom-up approach to design. In addition, by using the computational power of computers they can resolve complex interactions between multiple factors and under multiple constraints offering solutions that occasionally surprise the designer. One of the main problems in architecture today is the quantity of the information and the level of complexity involved in most building projects. As globalization and economic development has started to arise at unprecedented levels, the need for large urban developments have become commonplace. Housing projects for a few hundreds to thousands of people have started to emerge over large urban areas. In such cases, the old paradigm for housing design was the development of high rises that served as stacking devices for multiple family housing units. Such a direction was unfortunately the only way to address excessive complexity using manual design skills mainly because it was simple to conceive but also simple to construct. The unfortunate nature of this approach lies rather in the uniformity, similarity, and invariability that these projects express in comparison to individuality, discreteness, and identity that human beings and families manifest. One of the main areas of complexity that could benefit architecture is in housing projects. In these projects there is a typology of residential units that need to be combined in various schemes that will fulfill multiple functional, environmental, and economic constraints. In this paper, the design of a 200-unit residential complex on a corner of two streets in an urban context was investigated as a case study. Recent advancement in tectonics and structural engineering enables the realization of buildings in mega scales and starts to introduce another layer of complexity into the building programs. Conventional design methods relying on the preconceived knowledge based approaches are no longer reliable. Beyond the certain quantitative factors and the complexity of the problems, search occasionally enters into the unpredictable domain of the human perception. Computational approaches to design allows us to go through thousands of iterations in a second and find the solution sets beyond the reach of designers’ intuitive search spaces. Genetic Algorithm can be a potential derivative for finding optimum design solution from indeterminate search spaces constrained by multi dimensional factors.
keywords Genetic Algorithm; Housing Design; Multiple-constraint
series SIGRADI
email narahara@mit.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

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