CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 23

_id ecaade2008_204
id ecaade2008_204
authors Kieferle, Joachim; Katz, Neil; Thaleck, Kruno
year 2008
title From Shape to Fabrication
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 537-544
summary There is a close relation between building design and fabrication. However still it is mostly a sequential process where the fabrication with its geometric chances and limitations is only to a small extend taken into account in early design phases. In this paper we describe a protoype form work project, realized out of styrofoam cut out with a CNC hot wire-cutting system and coated with the Claraporon coating system. Due to the linear nature of hot wire cutting the surfaces that can be created are ruled surfaces. They are discussed in a more general way as well as first exercises with ruled surfaces in teaching.
keywords Digital fabrication, Form work, Ruled surface
series eCAADe
email kieferle@fab.fh-wiesbaden.de, Neil.Katz@som.com, k.s.thaleck@clarolon.de
last changed 2008/09/09 13:55

_id ecaade2008_181
id ecaade2008_181
authors Koehler, Tanja; Dieckmann, Andreas; Russell , Peter
year 2008
title An Evaluation of Contemporary Game Engines
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 743-750
summary The paper deals with a close examination of several contemporary game engines regarding their usability for architectural visualisation that was conducted by third to fifth year students in a seminar context. The study examines the technology of these game engines with the main focus on graphic quality and adaptability to architectural purpose. The evaluation included not only the workflow of importing the 3D model into the engine but also general handling of the software and its user interface. The documentation of the test process and the evaluation of the various engines have been documented in a wiki compiled and written by the students. The information therein and the cost-benefit analyses provided for every engine should assist future users to quickly find the most suitable game engine for their specific purposes.
keywords game engine, visualization, virtual reality, real-time graphic, 3d model
series eCAADe
email tanjakoehler@arcor.de, dieckmann@caad.arch.rwth-aachen.de, russell@caad.arch.rwth-aachen.de
last changed 2008/09/09 13:55

_id cdc2008_367
id cdc2008_367
authors Senagala, Mahesh
year 2008
title Deconstructing Materiality: Harderials, Softerials, Minderials, and the Transformation of Architecture
source First International Conference on Critical Digital: What Matters(s)? - 18-19 April 2008, Harvard University Graduate School of Design, Cambridge (USA), pp. 367-376
summary This paper presents a deconstructionist close reading of the conventional discourses about materiality by forwarding a triadic framework of harderials, softerials and minderials. The discourse draws from the Derridan notion of différance in articulating the fundamental difficulty in understanding materiality. Taking the discourse about materiality into the digital realm, a critical discussion of softerials (BREP Solids, Polynomial Surfaces and Isomorphic Polysurfaces) and their implication to architecture are presented. Questions about a possible material-envy and materiality-complex in architectural profession are also raised. Different binary strategies by which softerials are relegated by architects to a secondary status of “media” are exposed.
last changed 2009/01/07 07:05

_id acadia08_376
id acadia08_376
authors Silver, Mike
year 2008
title The Most Important Airplane In The History Of Architecture
source Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation, [Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) / ISBN 978-0-9789463-4-0] Minneapolis 16-19 October 2008, 376-381
summary Composite structures consist of high strength carbon threads held together in a matrix of epoxy resin or thermoplastics. Surfaces made from these materials are typically 10 times lighter and 1.5 times stronger than aluminum. Both simple and highly contoured shapes possessing extreme strength can be produced using a computer controlled fiber placement machine (FPM). These incredibly thin, corrosion resistant membranes require little or no supplemental support to manage loads and enclose space. The computer’s ability to determine the precise location of each fiber strand in a fiber placed part also facilitates unprecedented control of its aesthetic and functional properties. Fiber placement technology integrates building components that would normally be separated into clearly distinct systems. Here ornament, structure and cladding are collapsed into one material process. This paper explores the architectural potential of a technology normally reserved for aerospace applications through research conducted in close collaboration with fiber placement engineers at Automated Dynamics in Schenectady, New York (ADC).
keywords Composite; Digital Fabrication; Fiber; Skin; Structure
series ACADIA
last changed 2009/02/26 07:39

_id ecaade2008_149
id ecaade2008_149
authors Tamke, Martin; Ramsgard Thomsen, Mette
year 2008
title Designing Parametric Timber
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 609-616
summary Non-Standard elements in architecture bear the promise of a more suitable and sustainable solutions. A new understanding of design evolves, which is focusing on relational and evolutionary approaches. Parametric design tools and computer controlled production facilitate the emerging complex spatial constructions, as they are able to imply and feedback knowledge. Whereas the story of non-standard elements and mass customization is quickly told the actual facilitation of these techniques bears a lot of unresolved questions. We undertook a design based research taking in the whole process of digital design to production of complex shaped geometry. In close cooperation with wood construction software- and machine industry we fabricated a 1:1 demonstrator show casing the potential of digital wood fabrication.
keywords Non Standard Element digital production, CAD/CAM, Parametric design, complex geometry, industry cooperation, Case study
series eCAADe
email martin.tamke@karch.dk, mette.thomsen@karch.dk
last changed 2008/09/09 13:55

_id ecaade2008_127
id ecaade2008_127
authors Çagdas Durmazoglu, Mahmut; Çagdas, Gülen; Tong , Hakan
year 2008
title An Agent Based Approach for Evaluation of Free-Form Surfaces
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 405-412
summary Designers; architects and artists in general always proceed with one crucial goal in their mind when they design: to be able to materialize the scheme in their mind. There are some tools that can help designers to test their design to see if it will be successfully constructed or functioned as close as possible as the way they imagined or expected; visual simulation models in digital environments of the designs are such important tools for architectural design process, but these models does not provide enough data to determine the design’s applicability. Therefore, the need of a tool that would work with the designer in order to determine the possibility of whether the design could be built or not as the way designer imagined, is vital.
keywords Rain-flow analysis, performance analysis, agent systems, decision support system, free-form bodies
series eCAADe
type normal paper
email cagdas.durmazoglu@gmail.com, cagdas@itu.edu.tr, hakantong@gmail.com
last changed 2008/09/09 14:17

_id ddss2008-38
id ddss2008-38
authors Schieck, Ava Fatah gen.; Alan Penn, Eamonn O’Neill
year 2008
title Mapping, sensing and visualising the digitalco-presence in the public arena
source H.J.P. Timmermans, B. de Vries (eds.) 2008, Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, ISBN 978-90-6814-173-3, University of Technology Eindhoven, published on CD
summary This paper reports on work carried out within the Cityware project using mobile technologies to map, visualise and project the digital co-presence in the city. This paper focuses on two pilot studies exploring the Bluetooth landscape in the city of Bath. Here we apply adapted and ‘digitally augmented’ methods for spatial observation and analysis based on established methods used extensively in the space syntax approach to urban design. We map the physical and digital flows at a macro level and observe static space use at the micro level. In addition we look at social and mobile behaviour from an individual’s point of view. We apply a method based on intervention through ‘Sensing and projecting’ Bluetooth names and digital identity in the public arena. We present early findings in terms of patterns of Bluetooth flow and presence, and outline initial observations about how people’s reaction towards the projection of their Bluetooth names practices in public. In particular we note the importance of constructing socially meaningful relations between people mediated by these technologies. We discuss initial results and outline issues raised in detail before finally describing ongoing work.
keywords Pervasive systems, digital presence, urban encounter, digital identity
series DDSS
last changed 2008/09/01 15:06

_id acadia08_430
id acadia08_430
authors Wan, Peng-Hui; Ramesh Krishnamurti
year 2008
title A Computational Approach for Evaluating the Facilitation of Wayfinding in Environments
source Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation, [Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) / ISBN 978-0-9789463-4-0] Minneapolis 16-19 October 2008, 430-437
summary In any environment, wayfinding is a kind of spatial problem that people encounter almost daily. Although it has been well documented that environmental cues significantly facilitate wayfinding, there has been little work done to examine the effectiveness of the facilitation. In particular, wayfinding manageability is considered in this paper, and, to this end, a computational approach to its evaluation is proposed. This is illustrated through simulation, employing a quantifiable measure for wayfinding facilitation. The measure is statistically determined from experimental data on certain wayfinding variables.
keywords Algorithm; Analysis; Computation; Design; Environment
series ACADIA
last changed 2009/02/26 07:39

_id cdc2008_229
id cdc2008_229
authors Asut, Serdar
year 2008
title Rethinking the Creative Architectural Design in the Digital Culture
source First International Conference on Critical Digital: What Matters(s)? - 18-19 April 2008, Harvard University Graduate School of Design, Cambridge (USA), pp. 229-234
summary This paper tries to examine the effects of emerging digital tools in architectural design. Digital tools are not only practical instruments used for drawing, but they also affect design thinking. As the ones that are used in architectural design are mostly commercial, one can say that design thinking, the identity of the design and the creativity of the designer are defined by the companies which develop these tools. Therefore architects have to be able to manipulate these tools and personalize them in order to free their design thinking and creativity. This paper addresses the open source development in order to redefine creativity in architecture of digital culture.
keywords Design Tools, Digital Culture, CAD Software, Open Source
email sasut@anadolu.edu.tr
last changed 2009/01/07 07:05

_id breen02_paper_eaea2007
id breen02_paper_eaea2007
authors Breen, Jack
year 2008
title Viewing Models in Architecture
source Proceedings of the 8th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference
summary If we wish to understand the workings of design interventions, it may be opportune to simulate their effects using specialised techniques, such as Endoscopy or Computer Aided Modes of representation. In such undertakings, the method of study will generally involve the active use of some sort of a model. Models of all sorts are used extensively throughout architectural design, research and education. How such a model is conceived and executed is closely linked to the function it is to serve. This may concern design driven exploration, testing or communication, to name but a few of the options.
series EAEA
email j.l.h.breen@tudelft.nl
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea
last changed 2008/04/29 18:46

_id sigradi2008_199
id sigradi2008_199
authors Castañe, Dora
year 2008
title Rosario, views on the integral revitalization of a cultural heritage [Rosario, Miradas sobre la Revitalización Integral de un Patrimonio Cultural]
source SIGraDi 2008 - [Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] La Habana - Cuba 1-5 December 2008
summary This work shows the study of the methods and techniques for the development of a virtual vision VRML 3D included in an "Digitally-integrated knowledge base" with interactive interphases of a significantly revitalized fragment of a central area of the city of Rosario, Province of Santa Fé, Argentina, that includes an emblematic heritage for the Argentineans: the National Monument to the Flag. Digital models that partly allow the development of a hypothesis of integration between the digitized information and information technology—new digital proximity— to the effects of being able to investigate the generation of multimedia database that includes three-dimensional and dynamic models of the mentioned type, in this case, urban, architectonic, and cultural heritage. Different views and research on heritage have been developing. Nevertheless, the use of these new 3D non-immersive technologies and inter-phases are opening a new field of vision and understanding of the subject.
keywords Heritage, Urban-architectural planning, virtual reality
series SIGRADI
email dcastane05@ciudad.com.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:48

_id cdc2008_065
id cdc2008_065
authors Celento, David and Del Harrow
year 2008
title CeramiSKIN: Biophilic Topological Potentials for Microscopic and Macroscopic Data in Ceramic Cladding
source First International Conference on Critical Digital: What Matters(s)? - 18-19 April 2008, Harvard University Graduate School of Design, Cambridge (USA), pp. 65-76
summary CeramiSKIN is an inter-disciplinary investigation examining recursive patterns found in organic matter. Through the use of digital capture and translation techniques, these biophilic systems may serve as topological generators for structural and ornamental consequences well-suited to mass-customizable ceramic cladding systems for architecture. Digital information is acquired through laser scanning and confocal electron microscopy, then deformed using particle physics engines and parametric transformations to create a range of effects promulgated through digital fabrication techniques. This inquiry is primarily concerned with two questions: Is it possible that natural systems may be digitally captured and translated into biophilic structural forms and/or ornamental effects that may foster beneficial responses in humans? / Since natural orders eschew rigid manifold geometries in favor of compound plastic shapes, is it possible to fabricate mass-customized, large-scale biophilic ceramic cladding from organic digital data?
keywords Ceramic cladding systems, biophilia in architecture, digital design, digital fabrication, masscustomization
email dcelento@psu.edu
last changed 2009/01/07 07:05

_id ecaade2008_119
id ecaade2008_119
authors Celento, David; Harrow, Del
year 2008
title CeramiSKIN
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 709-716
summary ceramiSKIN is the result of an inter-disciplinary investigation between an architect and a ceramics artist. We are exploring natural orders as generators for aperiodic (non-repeating) tiling systems in architectural ceramic cladding systems. Of particular interest are the possibilities offered by digital imaging of organic materials [at various scales from 1:1 to 1:1 nanometer] as a means of form generation. After scanning, shapes are computationally deformed to create a range of biophilic effects promulgated through unique large scale ceramic cladding systems constructed using digital fabrication techniques.
keywords Ceramic cladding systems: biophilia in architecture, digital design, digital fabrication, mass-customization
series eCAADe
email dcelento@psu.edu,, dbh13@psu.edu
last changed 2008/09/09 13:55

_id sigradi2008_012
id sigradi2008_012
authors Dokonal, Wolfgang
year 2008
title What is the state of digital architectural design?
source SIGraDi 2008 - [Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] La Habana - Cuba 1-5 December 2008
summary What is the state of digital architectural design? The ubiquity of the computer in architecture can be seen in the many computer based presentations from famous architectural practices. BIM (Building Information Modelling) is the key word and we can see implementations in very ambitious projects all over the world. Glossy magazines show the results of this kind of architecture and predict that this is the future of our profession. But when we go out into the “small world” (in Europe) and talk with architects in small firms, there is a very different reality – at least at the moment. Although they all agree that the computer is crucial for their work, it is a love/hate relationship for many them. Most still use the computer purely as a drafting device and AutoCAD is still the dominant tool. Although many of them agree with the statement that you can use the computer for design, only a minority really use the computer as a design tool in the early design stages. To find out more about the reality of the use of computers in design in “small town Europe” we have been undertaking two different kinds of research over the past 4 years. The first one is an educational experiment using first year’s students to find out about the different qualities of designing with and without the computer. The results have been presented at previous conferences and, since we are doing a last run of these experiments this year, we will update and finalise our findings in this paper. To make it comparable to previous years, we use largely the same settings using the same type of student (first year) and the same project/site. We will also be comparing the results for students designing ‘freestyle’ ie in the way that they want against the previous years controlled groups. The second strand of research we have followed is a survey amongst practitioners and some of the above statements came out of this survey. We did this survey using a web questionnaire and focused on a particular region of Europe. Although the numbers of participants for this survey were quite satisfying we are re-running the survey in a different region and country to see whether there are significant differences. The results of our research and our experience as teachers and architects leads us to the main question of how we can give recommendations on how to teach design the new generation of architects. In many aspects most of the teaching that is done in our faculties is still strictly divided into teaching design and teaching computer skills. The crucial question for architectural education are the implications of the ubiquity of the computer will have especially in the field of design. We will try to give some suggestions for these effects this could have on our teaching. In the long run, this is the only way to avoid some of the pitfalls and bring the benefits of computers in design to our small architectural firms. The paper will present a summary of the results of our research and try to propose an answer to the question: “What is the state of digital design in small town Europe?”
series SIGRADI
email dokonal@tugraz.at
last changed 2016/03/10 08:50

_id acadia08_182
id acadia08_182
authors Gibson, Michael; Kevin R. Klinger; Joshua Vermillion
year 2008
title Constructing Information: Towards a Feedback Ecology in Digital Design and Fabrication
source Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation, [Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) / ISBN 978-0-9789463-4-0] Minneapolis 16-19 October 2008, 182-191
summary As strategies evolve using digital means to navigate design in architecture, critical process-based approaches are essential to the discourse. The often complex integration of design, analysis, and fabrication through digital technologies is wholly reliant upon a process-basis necessitating the use of a design feedback loop, which reinforces critical decision-making and challenges the notions of how we produce, visualize, and analyze information in the service of production and assembly. Central to this process-based approach is the effective and innovative integration of information and the interrogation of material based explorations in the making of architecture. This fabrication ‘ecology’ forces designers to engage complexity and accept the unpredictability of emergent systems. It also exposes the process of working to critique and refine feedback loops in light of complex tools, methods, materials, site, and performance considerations. In total, strategies for engaging this ‘ecology’ are essential to accentuate our present understanding of environmental design and theory in relation to digital processes for design and fabrication. ¶ This paper recounts a design/fabrication seminar entitled “Constructing Information” in which architecture students examined an environmental design problem by way of the design feedback loop, where their efforts in applying digital design and fabrication methods were driven explicitly by material and site realities and where their work was executed, installed, and critically explored in situ. These projections raise important questions about how information, complexity, and context overlay and merge, and underscore the critical potential of visual, spatial, and material effects as part of a fabrication-oriented design process.
keywords Digital Fabrication; Ecology; Environment; Feedback; Performance
series ACADIA
last changed 2009/02/26 07:39

_id acadia08_208
id acadia08_208
authors Griffiths, Jason
year 2008
title Man + Water + Fan = Freshman: Natural Process of Evaporative Cooling and the Digital Fabrication of the ASU Outdoor Dining Pavilion
source Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation, [Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) / ISBN 978-0-9789463-4-0] Minneapolis 16-19 October 2008, 208-213
summary To the east of Johnson City TX is the Lyndon B. Johnson’s family home. Part of the Johnson Estate2 is given over to a working farm circa 1870 that presents various aspects of domestic practice from the era. This includes a desert fridge which is a simple four-legged structure with a slightly battered profile that’s draped in calico. Its principle is simple; water from an upturned jar is drawn by osmosis down the sides of the calico where it evaporates in wind currents drawn though a “dog run” between two log cabins. Cooled air circulates within the structure and where cheese and milk are kept fresh during the summer. The desert fridge is a simple system that reaches a state of equilibrium through the natural process of evaporation. ¶ This system provides a working model for a prototype structure for an outdoor dining pavilion that was designed and constructed on the campus of Arizona State University. The desert fridge is the basis for a “biological process”3 of evaporative cooling that has been interpreted in terms a ritual of outdoor dining in arid climates. The pavilion is intended as a gathering point and a place of interaction for ASU freshmen. The long-term aim of this project is to provide a multiple of these pavilions across the campus that will be the locus of a sequence of dining events over a “dining season”4 during the fall and spring semester. ; This paper describes how the desert fridge principle has been interpreted in the program and construction of the dining pavilion. It explores a sequence of levels by which the structure, via digital production process, provides an educational narrative on sustainability. This communicative quality is portrayed by the building in direct biological terms, through tacit knowledge, perceived phenomena, lexical and mechanical systems. The paper also describes how these digital production process were used in the building’s design and fabrication. These range from an empirical prognosis of evaporative cooling effects, fluid dynamics, heat mapping and solar radiation analysis through to sheet steel laser cutting, folded plate construction and fully associative variable models of standard steel construction. The aim of the pavilion is to create an environment that presents the evaporative cooling message at a multiple of levels that will concentrate the visitor in holistic understanding of the processes imbued within the building.5
keywords Communication; Digital Fabrication; Environment; System
series ACADIA
last changed 2009/02/26 07:39

_id cdc2008_017
id cdc2008_017
authors Holzer, Dominik
year 2008
title Embracing the Post-digital
source First International Conference on Critical Digital: What Matters(s)? - 18-19 April 2008, Harvard University Graduate School of Design, Cambridge (USA), pp. 17-22
summary This paper discusses ways for designers to reconnect their design methodologies with the process of making. The paper takes a critical standpoint on the way architects have integrated digital tools and computational processes in their design over the past three to four decades. By scrutinising the support designers can derive from their virtual design-space it is debated in how far this may be complemented by sensory information-feedback from the physical design-space. A studio-based design project is used to illustrate how students have approached this issue to address aspects of building performance in a post-digital way. Moving between digital and physical models without difficulty, the students were able to study the effects geometrical changes on sustainability-performance in real time.
email dominik.holzer@rmit.edu.au
last changed 2009/01/07 07:05

_id caadria2008_69_session7a_572
id caadria2008_69_session7a_572
authors Lertlakkhanakul, Jumphon; Seoyoung Lee, Jinwon Choi
year 2008
title A Study of The Effects of Placeness on Collaborative Virtual Workplace
source CAADRIA 2008 [Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Chiang Mai (Thailand) 9-12 April 2008, pp. 572-578
summary So far, there is no empirical study on how ‘placeness’ can affect virtual workplace model. This problem has continuously been overlooked. The research objectives are to verify the effectiveness of ‘workplace metaphor’ and to find out factors that constitute ‘placeness’, the properties of being a place, in collaborative virtual workplace. An experiment was conducted to test the framework. At the end, different virtual workplace settings can result in dissimilar user behavior in terms of teamwork and attitude toward the workplace as disparate settings imply different requirements on function, organizational culture, and social meaning. In conclusion, if architectural elements are carefully applied to the virtual office, it cans strengthen teamwork and enhances social interaction.
keywords Collaborative virtual workplace; collaborative virtual environments; office ecology; place metaphor; socio-spatial behavior
series CAADRIA
email {jumphon, lsycubic, jchoi}@yonsei.ac.kr
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id ecaade2008_016
id ecaade2008_016
authors Martens, Bob; Achten, Henri
year 2008
title Do you Moodle?
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 153-160
summary The authors follow up on their long-standing interest in Virtual Learning Environments (VLE’s). They sketch out connected terms and definitions, taking into account the framework conditions of a design studio context as well as regular teaching. Subsequently, they describe the MOODLE-platform and supply arguments for selection along with alternatives. They particularly focus on enriching interaction targeted towards learning effects and discuss the connected pedagogical models. The selective use of features is also taken into consideration. The contribution concludes with a discussion of the pros and cons of MOODLE.
keywords VLE, Course Management System (CMS), e-learning platform, MOODLE
series eCAADe
email b.martens@tuwien.ac.at, achten@fa.cvut.cz
last changed 2008/09/09 13:55

_id caadria2008_000
id caadria2008_000
authors Nakapan, Walaiporn; Ekkachai Mahaek, Komson Teeraparbwong, Piyaboon Nilkaew (Eds.)
year 2008
title CAADRIA 2008: Beyond Computer-Aided Design
source Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (ISBN 978-974-672-290-2/ Chiang Mai, Thailand) 9-12 April 2008, 669 p.
summary In the Twenty-First Century, advanced digital technologies play a significant role in almost every aspect of our life. Many believe we are living in parallel space between the physical and the so-called ‘Digital World’ where alternative visualization and simulation seamlessly bridge these worlds. Many argue that advanced digital technologies improve human living condition as in the case of architectural design through the use of computer-generation can predict an outcome of better built environments. In cases of health, digital imaging tools improve the ability to diagnose and treat illness while in cases of entertainment, creates more visually stimulating effects. Yet, it provokes us to rethink aspects of culture and sense of belonging as well as to question the way we perceive, conceive, and represent the world we are living in.
series CAADRIA
email walaiporn@rsu.ac.th
last changed 2008/05/06 11:22

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