CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ecaade2008_049
id ecaade2008_049
authors Dokonal, Wolfgang
year 2008
title Creating and Using 3D City Models
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 223-230
summary City modelling is a topic which has been on the agenda for a long time. Today crucial questions concerning the creation of a city model are resolved. The vision of the automatic generation of the 3D geometry of a city out of high resolution digital aerial images is a reality now. These new developments decreased the cost for creating and maintaining a 3D city model of a complete city significantly. This paper wants to outline the ‘history’ of 3D city models and show recent developments in this field. An overview about current applications and uses in this field in Austria and the implementation into daily work is shown with examples (Graz and Vienna city models). Additionally the new developments like Street View in Google Earth or Bird’s Eye in Virtual earth are discussed in relation to their 3D ‘relatives’.
keywords 3Dcity Models, GIS, Google Earth, Virtual Earth
series eCAADe
last changed 2008/09/09 13:55

_id sigradi2008_081
id sigradi2008_081
authors Kirschner, Ursula
year 2008
title Study of digital morphing tools during the design process - Application of freeware software and of tools in commercial products as well as their integration in AutoCAD
source SIGraDi 2008 - [Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] La Habana - Cuba 1-5 December 2008
summary This research work examines methods of experimental designing with CAAD in a CAD laboratory with architecture students as the testing persons. Thereby the main focus is on the early phase of finding forms, in which different techniques with digital media are tried out in the didactic architectural design lessons. In these work have been traced the influences of the media employed on the design processes and combined the approaches of current CAAD research with aspects from classic design theory. For mathematical rules of proportion, atmospheric influence factors and analogy concepts in architecture, I have developed design methods which have been applied and verified in several series of seminars. (Kirschner, U.: 2000, Thesis, a CAAD supported architectural design teaching, Hamburg, school of arts). Previous experimental exercises showed that morphological sequences of modeling are effective sources for playful designing processes. In the current work these approaches are enhanced and supplemented by different morphological architectural concepts for creating shapes. For this purpose 2D based software like Morphit, Winmorph and other freeware were used. Whereas in the further development of this design technique we used 3D freeware morphing programs like zhu3D or Blender. The resulting morphological shapes were imported in CAD and refined. Ideally the morphing tool is integrated in the modeling environment of the standard software AutoCAD. A digital city model is the starting basis of the design process to guarantee the reference to the reality. The applied design didactic is predicated on the theories of Bernhard Hoesli. The act of designing viewed as „waiting for a good idea“ is, according to him, unteachable; students should, in contrast, learn to judge the „the force of an idea“. On the subject of morphology a form-generating method in the pre-design phase has been tested. Starting from urban-planning lines on an area map, two simple geometric initial images were produced which were merged by means of morphing software. Selected images from this film sequence were extruded with CAAD to produce solid models as sectional drawings. The high motivation of the students and the quality of the design results produced with these simple morphing techniques were the reason for the integration of the artistic and scientific software into the creative shape modeling process with the computer. The students learned in addition to the „bottom up “and „ top down” new design methods. In the presentation the properties and benefits of the morphing tools are presented in tables and are analyzed with regard to the architectural shape generating in an urban context. A catalogue of criteria with the following topics was developed: user friendliness, the ability of integrating the tools or as the case may be the import of data into a CAD environment, the artistic aspects in terms of the flexibility of shape generating as well as the evaluation of the aesthetic consideration of shapes.
keywords Architectural design, freeware morphing software, AutoCAD
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:53

_id cf2011_p035
id cf2011_p035
authors Langenhan, Christoph; Weber Markus, Petzold Frank, Liwicki Marcus, Dengel Andreas
year 2011
title Sketch-based Methods for Researching Building Layouts through the Semantic Fingerprint of Architecture
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 85-102.
summary The paper focuses on the early stages of the design process where the architect needs assistance in finding reference projects and describes different aspects of a concept for retrieving previous design solutions with similar layout characteristics. Such references are typically used to see how others have solved a similar architectural problem or simply for inspiration. Current electronic search methods use textual information rather than graphical information. The configuration of space and the relations between rooms are hard to represent using keywords, in fact transforming these spatial configurations into verbally expressed typologies tends to result in unclear and often imprecise descriptions of architecture. Nowadays, modern IT-technologies lead to fundamental changes during the process of designing buildings. Digital representations of architecture require suitable approaches to the storage, indexing and management of information as well as adequate retrieval methods. Traditionally planning information is represented in the form of floor plans, elevations, sections and textual descriptions. State of the art digital representations include renderings, computer aided design (CAD) and semantic information like Building Information Modelling (BIM) including 2D and 3D file formats such as Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) (IAI, 2010). In the paper, we examine the development of IT-technologies in the area of case-based reasoning (Richter et al., 2007) to provide a sketch-based submission and retrieval system for publishing and researching building layouts including their manipulation and subsequent use. The user interface focuses on specifying space and their relations by drawing them. This query style supports the spatial thinking approach that architects use, who often have a visual representation in mind without being able to provide an accurate description of the spatial configuration. The semantic fingerprint proposed by (Langenhan, 2008) is a description and query language for creating an index of floor plans to store meta-data about architecture, which can be used as signature for retrieving reference projects. The functional spaces, such as living room or kitchen and the relation among on another, are used to create a fingerprint. Furthermore, we propose a visual sketch-based interface (Weber et al., 2010) based on the Touch&Write paradigm (Liwicki et al., 2010) for the submission and the retrieval phase. During the submission process the architect is sketching the space-boundaries, space relations and functional coherence's. Using state of the art document analysis techniques, the architects are supported offering an automatic detection of room boundaries and their physical relations. During the retrieval the application will interpret the sketches of the architect and find reference projects based on a similarity based search utilizing the semantic fingerprint. By recommending reference projects, architects will be able to reuse collective experience which match the current requirements. The way of performing a search using a sketch as a query is a new way of thinking and working. The retrieval of 3D models based on a sketched shape are already realized in several domains. We already propose a step further, using the semantics of a spatial configuration. Observing the design process of buildings reveals that the initial design phase serves as the foundation for the quality of the later outcome. The sketch-based approach to access valuable information using the semantic fingerprint enables the user to digitally capture knowledge about architecture, to recover and reuse it in common-sense. Furthermore, automatically analysed fingerprints can put forward both commonly used as well as best practice projects. It will be possible to rate architecture according to the fingerprint of a building.
keywords new media, case-based reasoning, ontology, semantic building design, sketch-based, knowledge management
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ecaade2008_137
id ecaade2008_137
authors Palmquist, Erik; Shaw, Jonathan
year 2008
title Collaborative City Modeling
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 249-256
summary This paper presents an approach to creating an online real time rendering environment, upon which a large-scale, urban 3D model can be produced as a collaborative effort between initial content creators and outside parties with an interest in simulation and visualization. In 2007, the City of Atlanta, Georgia organized a taskforce to provide recommendations on the future development and mobility along the city’s signature street, Peachtree Street. To aid in the visualization of this area, datasets were converted into low polygon textured 3D models for the entire study area. This content will serve as the foundation of a collaborative effort to complete a high quality real time environment. The process for this project will be described and the means to extend the boundaries, maintain, and collaborate with this content will be proposed.
keywords 3D model, collaborative design, real time, visualization, training
series eCAADe
last changed 2008/09/09 13:55

_id 9d5f
id 9d5f
authors Podevyn M, Horne M, Fisher P, Thompson, E
year 2008
title Global Visualisation Engines – Issues for Urban Landscape Planning Participation Processes
source Digital Design in Landscape Architecture 2008, Proceedings at Anhalt University of Applied Sciences, 29-31 May 2008
summary Traditional planning processes use two-dimensional drawings, plans, sections, elevations and artists’ impressions to communicate design intent to interested parties. Three-dimensional computer visualisation technologies that support the planning process raise institutional and organisational challenges as their perceived benefits are considered. Virtual Reality (VR) models add interactivity and immersiveness to landscape visualisations but require appropriate technical input and management. This paper explores two main themes. Firstly, how interactive 3D computer simulations of planning proposals can be adopted to successfully improve the traditional process. It reports on a pilot study to examine how architects, clients, planning officers and university researchers have worked together to systematically examine and analyse this changing process. It reports on issues concerned with ownership of city models, the roles and the compatibility, accuracy and remote sharing of urban data. Secondly, we explore the emerging theme of web-based GIS applications and their impact on architectural visualisation. The process of placing urban data onto Google Earth was tested and the resulting issues emerging with this software, including IT and data management and accuracy issues for suitable architectural visualisation are discussed. The study also reports and offers an overview of placing accurate urban landscape data onto Google Earth and a discussion of using this method for online public participation and communicating technical building information.
keywords 3D modelling, planning process, VR city models, Google Earth
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2008/11/02 20:09

_id ef93
id ef93
authors Krawczyk, Robert J
year 2008
title The Codewriting Workbook: Creating Computational Architecture in AutoLISP
source Princeton Architectural Press, New York
summary Conceived as a primer for architects, artists and designers, The Codewriting Workbook introduces students and practitioners to basic programming concepts for computeraided design (CAD). Through a series of guided exercises using algorithmic functions, readers learn how to develop and write procedures for two-dimensional drawings and three-dimensional models. Each sequence of exercises starts with a simple concept and evolves into a family of possible solutions, including specifying and exploring a wide range of design alternatives, integrating parameters for controlling randomness, utilizing meteorological data, and developing complex patterns for laser-cutting and CNC-milling. Exercises are presented in AutoLISP, a widely accessible CAD programming environment.

Forward by William J. Mitchell

CD included, over 400 functions, 416 pages, 274 drawings

keywords programming, algorithmic design, computational architecture, AutoLISP
series book
type normal paper
last changed 2008/12/08 21:08

_id caadria2008_55_session5b_452
id caadria2008_55_session5b_452
authors Park, Jae Wan; Yunseok Oscar Kang, Kostas Terzidis
year 2008
title [SIN]uous: Developing a Pattern Fabricator Bridging between Visualization in the Digital and Fabrication in the Physical
source CAADRIA 2008 [Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Chiang Mai (Thailand) 9-12 April 2008, pp. 452-458
summary We describe a domain-specific design tool capable of creating and fabricating complicated curvilinear patterns within the early stages of the design. This tool entitled “[SIN]uous” is a parametric design application that allows both the customization and fabrication of dynamic patterns created by the combination of SINE and COSINE functions. This tool allows designers and architects to design curvilinear patterns and manufacture schematic physical models of them in a short period of time, using rapid prototyping equipment such as a laser cutter. This tool consists of several modules, including a pattern maker, a fabricator, and a 3-D simulator. Using this tool, patterns are generated by manipulating variable parameters and fabricated according to the assembly sequence easily and quickly through algorithms by locating nodes of intersections. The end result is an exported computer file compatible with laser cutting technology. We expect that this design tool will facilitate the transition between the virtual and the physical, thus resulting in a better design product.
keywords Pattern; Fabrication; Fabricator; Rapid Prototyping
series CAADRIA
email {Jpark, ykang, terzidis}
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id caadria2008_68_session7a_564
id caadria2008_68_session7a_564
authors Watanabe, Shun; Yu Nishikawa
year 2008
title Production Method Of Accurated 3d Urban Models With Digital Photogrammetry
source CAADRIA 2008 [Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Chiang Mai (Thailand) 9-12 April 2008, pp. 564-571
summary A convenient method for creating accurate 3D urban models without expensive survey equipment is developed by introducing digital photogrammetry. As a matter of logic, the 3D models for urban landscape simulations are expected to limit errors to several dozen centimeters. The proposed method is examined in order to reproduce the actual urban landscape and to provide accuracy that is sufficient to meet the theoretical requirement.
keywords downtown; landscape; simulation; VRML
series CAADRIA
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id bbc9
id bbc9
authors Aeck, Richard
year 2008
title Turnstijl Houses & Cannoli Framing
source VDM Verlag Dr. Muller Aktiengesellschaft Co. KG, Germany

ISBN: 3639078470 ISBN-13: 9783639078473

summary This work presumes that integrating modeling tools and digital fabrication technology into architectural practice will transform how we build the detached house. Single-family houses come in all shapes and sizes, and in doing so, imply variation as well in certain materials, methods, and lighter classes of structure. Ultimately, houses are extensions, if not expressions, of those dwelling within, yet our attempts to produce appealing manufactured houses have prioritized standardization over variation and fall short of this ideal. Rather than considering new offerings born of the flexibility and precision afforded by digital production, sadly, today’s homebuilders are busy using our advancing fabrication technology to hasten the production of yesterday’s home. In response to such observations, and drawing upon meta-themes (i.e., blending and transition) present in contemporary design, this study proposes a hybrid SIP/Lam framing system and a corresponding family of houses. The development of the Cannoli Framing System (CFS) through 3D and physical models culminates in the machining and testing of full-scale prototypes. Three demonstrations, branded the Turnstijl Houses, are generated via a phased process where their schema, structure, and system geometry are personalized at their conception. This work pursues the variation of type and explores the connection between type and production methodology. Additional questions are also raised and addressed, such as how is a categorical notion like type defined, affected, and even “bred”?
keywords Digital Manufacturing, Type, Typology, CNC, SIP, SIPs, Foam, PreFab, Prefabrication, Framing, Manufactured House, Modular, Packaged House, Digital, Plywood, Methodology
series thesis:MSc
type normal paper
last changed 2010/11/16 07:29

_id sigradi2008_103
id sigradi2008_103
authors Baltazar, Ana Paula; Maria Lucia Malard, Silke Kapp, Pedro Schultz
year 2008
title From physical models to immersive collaborative environments: testing the best way for homeless people to visualise and negotiate spaces
source SIGraDi 2008 - [Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] La Habana - Cuba 1-5 December 2008
summary This paper describes an experiment to investigate the best way for lay people to use representation to visualise and negotiate space. It was motivated by our observations in workshops for digital inclusion in the context of a housing project for a homeless association. Computers were used to make it easier for the community to understand and change the spaces in real time. The first workshops proved that our approach was efficient as an exercise but not certainly effective concerning the understanding of spatial qualities. So we have designed an experiment to compare the usability of different media in participatory design processes. For that we have adapted the ‘Usability’ methodology, which is fully described in the paper. We started with three main questions. The first concerned the effectiveness of different media to represent spatial quality; the second concerned the best way for novices to approach space, whether by refurbishing a pre-existing space or by starting from the scratch; and the third concerned the effectiveness of negotiation by means of discourse and by means of or action. We also had two main hypothesis: one coming from research on digital environments and stereo visualisation, indicating that the more people feel immersed in the represented environment the more they are able to correlate it with physical space; and the other coming from our own observations in the participatory design workshops, in which the collective decision-making was manipulated by those people with more advanced communication skills who use their ability in an authoritative way regardless of the relevance of what they have to say. This paper describes the whole experiment, which was an exercise of spatial negotiation in 5 versions. In the first version we provided fixed digital views of a room in plan and axonometry; for another two versions we provided a physical model of the room in 1:10 scale, with some pieces of the existing furniture in different scales. This was done to check if people were just playing with a puzzle or actually grasping the correspondence between representation and the object or the space represented. One version proposes refurbishment and the other starts from the scratch. And the last two versions repeated the same task made with the physical model, but this time using a 3D interactive digital model. People were required not only to organise the furniture in the space but also to build a full scale cardboard structure and organise the real furniture reproducing their proposed model. Their comments on the spaces they had built confronted with what they had imaged when working with the model has enabled us to compare the different models, as also the different ways of negotiating spaces. This paper describes this experiment in detail concluding that 3D digital interactive models are far more effective than physical models and 2D drawings; when negotiation happens by means of action it provides more creative results than when the discoursive practice prevails; people are more creative when they start something from scratch, though they spend more time. The results of this experiment led us to formulate a new hypothesis leading to the development of an immersive collaborative environment using stereoscopy.
keywords Visualisation, negotiation, immersive environment, digital interfaces, homeless people
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id ijac20076301
id ijac20076301
authors Barros, Diana Rodriguez; Castane, Dora; Stipech, Alfredo
year 2008
title Hypermedia urban models in virtual environments: Case studies of central areas of Argentine cities
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 6 - no. 3, pp. 221-241
summary The virtual models of urban fragments recreate environments of simulation and analysis with a great degree of realism. This paper addresses a review of case studies in which Argentine researchers from three different university centres have worked jointly. We examine spatial databases from a representational and communicational perspective as virtual 3D, walkthrough, and interconnected urban models. Our aim is to explore, recognise and analyse advances in this direction, and to apply them to the development of virtual models of central areas in the Argentine cities of Buenos Aires, Rosario, Santa Fe and Mar del Plata. We present the methodology used to analyse the design, production and management processes of the virtual model as well as the results of our research. We acknowledge that these models are consistent non-traditional instruments of analysis which complement the knowledge of the city and facilitate spatial comprehension. Finally, we review predominant tendencies.
series journal
last changed 2008/10/14 12:00

_id ecaade2008_083
id ecaade2008_083
authors Belcher, Daniel; Johnson, Brian R.
year 2008
title ARchitectureView
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 561-568
summary We present a system for viewing architectural building models – specifically Building Information Modeling (BIM) models – in 3D using an Augmented Reality Tangible User Interface (TUI) and a Magic Lens interaction metaphor. ARchitectureView is meant to facilitate communication and collaboration around a shared model. We present the system overview and a number of use scenarios in which the interface would serve to improve communication across disciplines and varied technical backgrounds, while supporting a rich and coherent common understanding.
keywords Augmented Reality, Building Information Modeling, Magic Lens, Tangible User Interface
series eCAADe
last changed 2008/09/09 13:55

_id sigradi2008_049
id sigradi2008_049
authors Benamy, Turkienicz ; Beck Mateus, Mayer Rosirene
year 2008
title Computing And Manipulation In Design - A Pedagogical Experience Using Symmetry
source SIGraDi 2008 - [Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] La Habana - Cuba 1-5 December 2008
summary The concept of symmetry has been usually restricted to bilateral symmetry, though in an extended sense it refers to any isometric transformation that maintains a certain shape invariant. Groups of operations such as translation, rotation, reflection and combinations of these originate patterns classified by modern mathematics as point groups, friezes and wallpapers (March and Steadman, 1974). This extended notion represents a tool for the recognition and reproduction of patterns, a primal aspect of the perception, comprehension and description of everything that we see. Another aspect of this process is the perception of shapes, primary and emergent. Primary shapes are the ones explicitly represented and emergent shapes are the ones implicit in the others (Gero and Yan, 1994). Some groups of shapes known as Semantic Shapes are especially meaningful in architecture, expressing visual features so as symmetry, rhythm, movement and balance. The extended understanding of the concept of symmetry might improve the development of cognitive abilities concerning the creation, recognition and meaning of forms and shapes, aspects of visual reasoning involved in the design process. This paper discusses the development of a pedagogical experience concerned with the application of the concept of symmetry in the creative generation of forms using computational tools and manipulation. The experience has been carried out since 1995 with 3rd year architectural design students. For the exploration of compositions based on symmetry operations with computational support we followed a method developed by Celani (2003) comprising the automatic generation and update of symmetry patterns using AutoCAD. The exercises with computational support were combined with other different exercises in each semester. The first approach combined the creation of two-dimensional patterns to their application and to their modeling into three-dimensions. The second approach combined the work with computational support with work with physical models and mirrors and the analysis of the created patterns. And the third approach combined the computational tasks with work with two-dimensional physical shapes and mirrors. The student’s work was analyzed under aspects such as Discretion/ Continuity –the creation of isolated groups of shapes or continuous overlapped patterns; Generation of Meta-Shapes –the emergence of new shapes from the geometrical relation between the generative shape and the structure of the symmetrical arrangement; Modes of Representation –the visual aspects of the generative shape such as color and shading; Visual Reasoning –the derivation of 3D compositions from 2D patterns by their progressive analysis and recognition; Conscious Interaction –the simultaneous creation and analysis of symmetry compositions, whether with computational support or with physical shapes and mirrors. The combined work with computational support and with physical models and mirrors enhanced the students understanding on the extended concept of symmetry. The conscious creation and analysis of the patterns also stimulated the student’s understanding over the different semantic possibilities involved in the exploration of forms and shapes in two or three dimensions. The method allowed the development of both syntactic and semantic aspects of visual reasoning, enhancing the students’ visual repertoire. This constitutes an important strategy in the building of the cognitive abilities used in the architectural design process.
keywords Symmetry, Cognition, Computing, Visual reasoning, Design teaching
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id ecaade2008_186
id ecaade2008_186
authors Bourdakis, Vassilis
year 2008
title Low Tech Approach to 3D Urban Modeling
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 959-964
summary Over the last decade various examples of urban 3D models have been created employing various techniques for data collection and model building. The problems faced are well documented, issues of accuracy, complexity and utility of the models has also been addressed. This paper presents a low tech approach to accurate city modeling focusing on engineering applications, browsing/experiencing applications as well as multi-layering time based analyses, historical info overlaying for use in interactive real time applications (museum exhibitions, research projects for behavioral patterns of users in 3D urban environments, marketing, tourism, etc). The pros and cons of the proposed methodology are analyzed and ways forward suggested.
keywords Urban modeling, photogrammetric techniques, 3D modeling
series eCAADe
last changed 2008/09/09 13:55

_id sigradi2008_199
id sigradi2008_199
authors Castañe, Dora
year 2008
title Rosario, views on the integral revitalization of a cultural heritage [Rosario, Miradas sobre la Revitalización Integral de un Patrimonio Cultural]
source SIGraDi 2008 - [Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] La Habana - Cuba 1-5 December 2008
summary This work shows the study of the methods and techniques for the development of a virtual vision VRML 3D included in an "Digitally-integrated knowledge base" with interactive interphases of a significantly revitalized fragment of a central area of the city of Rosario, Province of Santa Fé, Argentina, that includes an emblematic heritage for the Argentineans: the National Monument to the Flag. Digital models that partly allow the development of a hypothesis of integration between the digitized information and information technology—new digital proximity— to the effects of being able to investigate the generation of multimedia database that includes three-dimensional and dynamic models of the mentioned type, in this case, urban, architectonic, and cultural heritage. Different views and research on heritage have been developing. Nevertheless, the use of these new 3D non-immersive technologies and inter-phases are opening a new field of vision and understanding of the subject.
keywords Heritage, Urban-architectural planning, virtual reality
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:48

_id ecaade2008_158
id ecaade2008_158
authors Kaga, Atsuko; Sugawara, Shihomi
year 2008
title Research on the Visualization for Analyzing City Changes
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 939-944
summary To perceive such changes of city space visually, a three-dimensional (3D) city space model is effective. The use of buildings in a city space is complex, reflecting the number of stories, and the number of stories in many cases. Furthermore, environmental parameters, such as opening a shop developed for conditions of the location, the existence of a building which is easy to divert to some other purpose, a managerial layer, and the whole country, is closely related to city change. A city change can be analyzed from various perspectives if such information can also be accumulated and displayed. If it is expressed in two dimensions, it will be restricted, but if expressed in 3D, the use situation of city space can be grasped quickly. Commercial 3D GIS software is useful for visualizing such a 3D city space model while referring to attribute information. However, such software is expensive and its use is restricted. For this study, highly extensible 3D modeling software is used to develop a technique for visualizing city spaces using its attribute information. Then the developed script is applied to an actual city model in Japan.
keywords City Analysis, Urban design, 3D-model, City Visualization
series eCAADe
last changed 2008/09/09 13:55

_id caadria2012_046
id caadria2012_046
authors Lertsithichai, Surapong
year 2012
title Building Thailand's tallest Ganesh: CAD/CAM integration in conventional metal fabrication
source Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Chennai 25-28 April 2012, pp. 337–346
summary Ganesh (Ganesa or Ganesha) is a Hindi god well known for his distinguishable elephant head and widely revered as the god of success or remover of obstacles. Patrons in Thailand have worshipped Ganesh and respected him by means of erecting statues of Ganesh in various poses and sizes throughout the country. In late 2008, the people of Chacheongsao, a province located East of Bangkok, decided to create Thailand’s tallest standing Ganesh statue made with bronze reaching heights up to 39 meters and situated on the Bangpakong river bank overseeing the city and its people. The author and design team was approached by representatives from Chacheongsao and commissioned to advise the process from conception to construction. The challenge started with seeking appropriate computer-aided design and manufacturing technologies and innovative processes to guide the design team throughout the production. The 0.60-meter bronze cast sculpture of the Ganesh was scanned using a 3D optical scanner to generate a solid model of the statue. A surface model was then extracted from the 3D model to firstly determine the most efficient structural support within the statue and secondly to generate surface strips for the foundry to create actual bronze casts. The construction of the project began early 2009 and the statue has since been erected from its base to currently its head. During construction, the author and design team has encountered several problems translating pixels to parts. Several errors have occurred during the mould and cast production process as well as construction errors on site causing mismatches of the structure and surface, misalignments, and protruding structural supports and joints. The lessons learned from this project is documented and analysed with hopes to create a more effective process for future projects with similar requirements.
keywords CAD/CAM; 3D scanner; CNC milling; metal fabrication
series CAADRIA
last changed 2012/05/29 07:34

_id acadia08_134
id acadia08_134
authors Peters, Brady
year 2008
title Copenhagen Elephant House: A Case Study of Digital Design Processes
source Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation, [Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) / ISBN 978-0-9789463-4-0] Minneapolis 16-19 October 2008, 134-141
summary This paper outlines the digital design processes involved in the design and construction of the new Elephant House at Copenhagen Zoo. Early design concepts for the canopy were tested using physical sketch models. The geometric complexity of these early physical models led to the involvement of the Specialist Modelling Group and the use of the computer to digitally sketch 3D CAD models. After many studies, the complex form of the canopies was rationalised using torus geometry. A computer program was written to generate the canopy glazing and structure. This parametric system was developed to be a design tool, and was developed by an architectural designer working with the team. Through its use the team were able to explore more design options, and alter the design farther along in the design process; however, this generative tool was created largely as a CAD efficiency tool. Another series of computer programs were written to generate and populate a shading system based on environmental analysis. Unlike the computer program that generated the structure and glazing, this program was not developed to make the generation of complex geometric structures more efficient, but developed to explore computational approaches that would have been impossible without the computer. Most of the canopy’s design was communicated to fabricator through a geometry method statement, a method that has been proven to be effective in the past. The project completed in June 2008.
keywords Complex Geometry; Computation; Design; Generative; Sustainability
series ACADIA
last changed 2009/02/26 07:39

_id stellingwerff02_paper_eaea2007
id stellingwerff02_paper_eaea2007
authors Stellingwerff, Martijn
year 2008
title Googlized Contextual Design
source Proceedings of the 8th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference
summary Over the past decade, the topic of city modelling has been extensively discussed in focus-groups during meetings of the EAEA and eCAADe conferences, amongst others. Many attempts have been made to specify what information should be included, how the relevant information should be represented and how the models should be viewed and considered. Digital and physical models for urban representation share particular, similar properties, but also have distinct advantages. Digital models qualify for adaptability and ability to be shared in both a-synchronous and synchronous ways. Physical scale models excel in tangibility, directness and the ways in which they can be shared in a ‘natural’ way. Recent studies have focused on mixing the advantages of both types of representational models. Digital models can be made ‘physical’ by means of a 3D colour printer or other Rapid Prototyping techniques. Physical models can be augmented by projecting different digital data and images on them. Furthermore all kinds of post-production media can be used to refine, represent and share the model image.
keywords Contextual Design, Web 2.0, Geotagging, Virtual Context
series EAEA
last changed 2008/04/29 18:46

_id acadia08_308
id acadia08_308
authors Berrier, Seth; Gary Meyer; Clement Shimizu
year 2008
title Creating Metallic Color Sequences for an Architectural Wall
source Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation, [Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) / ISBN 978-0-9789463-4-0] Minneapolis 16-19 October 2008, 308-315
summary A metallic paint scheme for an architectural wall is created using computer aided color appearance design techniques. New computer graphic hardware that allows real-time rendering of complex reflectance functions is employed to produce photo-realistic images of the metallic paint applied to the surface of the wall. An interpolation scheme is developed that permits one and two dimensional metallic shade sequences to be determined between individual bricks in a single row of the wall and between the complete rows of bricks that compose the wall. Paint formulation software, originally developed for auto refinish applications, is used to determine the paint mixtures necessary to realize the metallic colors in the design. A prototype of the wall is constructed and exhibited in a museum gallery.
keywords Color; Design; Environment; Perception; System
series ACADIA
last changed 2009/02/26 07:39

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