CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 377

_id sigradi2016_450
id sigradi2016_450
authors Araujo, André L.; Celani, Gabriela
year 2016
title Exploring Weaire-Phelan through Cellular Automata: A proposal for a structural variance-producing engine
source SIGraDi 2016 [Proceedings of the 20th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-956-7051-86-1] Argentina, Buenos Aires 9 - 11 November 2016, pp.710-714
summary Complex forms and structures have always been highly valued in architecture, even much before the development of computers. Many architects and engineers have strived to develop structures that look very complex but at the same time are relatively simple to understand, calculate and build. A good example of this approach is the Beijing National Aquatics Centre design for the 2008 Olympic Games, also known as the Water Cube. This paper presents a proposal for a structural variance-producing engine using cellular automata (CA) techniques to produce complex structures based on Weaire-Phelan geometry. In other words, this research evaluates how generative and parametric design can be integrated with structural performance in order to enhance design flexibility and control in different stages of the design process. The method we propose was built in three groups of procedures: 1) we developed a method to generate several fits for the two Weaire-Phelan polyhedrons using CA computation techniques; 2) through the finite elements method, we codify the structural analysis outcomes to use them as inputs for the CA algorithm; 3) evaluation: we propose a framework to compare how the final outcomes deviate for the good solutions in terms of structural performance and rationalization of components. We are interested in knowing how the combination of the procedures could contribute to produce complex structures that are at the same time certain rational. The system developed allows the structural analysis of structured automatically generated by a generative system. However, some efficient solutions from the structural performance point of view do not necessarily represent a rational solution from the feasibility aspects.
keywords Structural design; Complex structures; Bottom-up design approach
series SIGraDi
last changed 2017/06/21 12:18

_id caadria2008_77_session7b_635
id caadria2008_77_session7b_635
authors Loemker, Thorsten M.
year 2008
title In-situ Analyses of Buildings by means of Smart Devices and Location Based Services
source CAADRIA 2008 [Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Chiang Mai (Thailand) 9-12 April 2008, pp. 635-641
summary In this research we examined if it might be possible that a client accomplishes an ad-hoc analysis of an existing building with the intention of prospective revitalization. The aim is to give a client who incidentally faces a building the possibility to run an in situ usability simulation. To accomplish this we recommend Location Based Services that can be accessed by common remote sensing devices. These devices should automatically connect to server-based applications, which compare the requirements of the client with the existing building and run remote simulations on concrete further utilization. The newly generated information will then be passed back to the clients’ device. In the paper we address a scenario of a prospective client who visits a city where he hits on an unused building he might be interest in. The client wishes to gain immediate and accurate information if the building is able to meet his demands regarding the space needed for his company. Different techniques investigated, their assets and drawbacks will be described that could accomplish suchlike tasks.
keywords Location Based Services, Smart Environments, Ubiquitous Computing, Optimization
series CAADRIA
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id sigradi2008_098
id sigradi2008_098
authors Barba, Salvatore; Nicola Pasquino
year 2008
title A free SIG for evaluating the compatibility of a landscape and an incinerator [Un SIG libre para la evaluación de la compatibilidad paisajística de un incinerador]
source SIGraDi 2008 - [Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] La Habana - Cuba 1-5 December 2008
summary This research, which is just at its start, has been preliminary concentrated on the localization of a solid waste incinerator in the vicinities of a city - and in particular on finding the necessary data, rather than in the development of a new application.
keywords Medio ambiente, modelos MC, gvSig.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id cdc2008_035
id cdc2008_035
authors Fiamma, Paolo
year 2008
title D.I.G.I.T.A.L. Defining Internal Goals In The Architectural Landscape
source First International Conference on Critical Digital: What Matters(s)? - 18-19 April 2008, Harvard University Graduate School of Design, Cambridge (USA), pp. 35-40
summary The digital factor is a challenge to regain the meaning of Design on Architecture, in addition to evaluating its possible extension and transformations. Digital could be an answer for the actual needs of architectural design: Architecture should be digital because digital is profit. Digital could help to understand architectural design as ""verified conception"" through the concept of computational modelling: Architecture should be digital because digital goes in line and not against design tradition. Digital could enhance the didactic dimension, really important for students: Architecture should be digital because is actual. Digital offers cognitive and ontological value for the design and new skills for the designer: Architecture should be digital because digital is a catalyst of new and creativity. Digital reshapes constructed architecture introducing new aesthetic paradigms: Architecture should be digital because digital is the mental landscape as reference point for the actual theoretical phase of Architecture … There are several answers to the question: “Why Architecture should be digital?”, but without rigor and critical dimension cannot be any digital benefit in architectural landscape, and the main risk could be that the “representation” prevails over ""the fact"".
last changed 2009/01/07 07:05

_id ddss2008-08
id ddss2008-08
authors Koshak, Nabeel A.; Abdullah Fouda
year 2008
title Analyzing Pedestrian Movement in Mataf Using GPSand GIS to Support Space Redesign
source H.J.P. Timmermans, B. de Vries (eds.) 2008, Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, ISBN 978-90-6814-173-3, University of Technology Eindhoven, published on CD
summary Evaluating the use of architectural and urban spaces is an important issue for architects and urban designers who wish to enhance space usability. Space usability is crucial in crowded spaces such as Mataf areas. Millions of people come to the city of Makkah, Saudi Arabia every year to perform Hajj (Islamic Pilgrimage) and Umrah. A cornerstone of Hajj and Umrah spirituals is to perform Tawaf, which is the circumambulation of the Ka'bah in the center of the Holy Mosque in Makkah. The areas of performing Tawaf (called Mataf) become very crowded during Hajj and the last ten days of Ramadan. This paper demonstrates how we utilized Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to analyze pedestrian movement while performing Tawaf. During the Hajj of 1424 H (2004 in the Georgian Calendar), several GPS devices were used to collect pedestrian movement coordinates at specific time intervals. Computer software for tracking analysis is used to visualize and analyze the pattern of pedestrian movement in Tawaf. The software allows users to view temporal data, which can be set up with past time windows for historical data analysis. The findings of this research show levels of service and flow rates throughout different zones and times of Mataf. They indicate the most critical zones and times for Tawaf during Hajj. They also visually demonstrate the track pattern of pedestrian movement at different locations in the Tawaf area. The paper concludes with some redesign recommendations to remove obstacles and facilitate pedestrian movement in Tawaf. The approach described in this paper can be implemented in architectural and urban design space modifications to improve pedestrian movement in open spaces.
keywords Pedestrian movement analysis, GPS, GIS, Hajj, Makkah, Tawaf
series DDSS
last changed 2008/09/01 15:06

_id sigradi2008_166
id sigradi2008_166
authors Papanikolaou, Dimitris
year 2008
title Digital Fabrication Production System Theory: Towards an Integrated Environment for Design and Production of Assemblies
source SIGraDi 2008 - [Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] La Habana - Cuba 1-5 December 2008
summary A Digital Fabrication Production System (DFPS) is a concept describing a set of processes, tools, and resources that will be able to produce an artifact according to a design, fast, cheap, and easy, independently of location. A DFPS project is a complex assembly of custom parts that is delivered by a network of fabrication and assembly processes. This network is called the value chain. The workflow concept of a DFPS is the following: begin design process with a custom geometric form; decompose it into constructible parts; send the part files for fabrication to various locations; transport all parts at the construction site at the right time; finally, assemble the final artifact. Conceptually it means that based on a well structured value chain we could build anything we want, at anyplace, at controllable cost and quality. The goals of a DFPS are the following: custom shapes, controllable lead time, controllable quality, controllable cost, easiness of fabrication, and easiness of assembly. Simply stated this means to build any form, anywhere, accurately, cheap, fast, and easy. Unfortunately, the reality with current Digital Fabrication (DF) projects is rather disappointing: They take more time than what was planned, they get more expensive than what was expected, they involve great risk and uncertainty, and finally they are too complex to plan, understand, and manage. Moreover, most of these problems are discovered during production when it is already late for correction. However, there is currently no systematic approach to evaluate difficulty of production of DF projects in Architecture. Most of current risk assessment methods are based on experience gathered from previous similar cases. But it is the premise of mass customization that projects can be radically different. Assembly incompatibilities are currently addressed by building physical mockups. But physical mockups cause a significant loss in both time and cost. All these problems suggest that an introduction of a DFPS for mass customization in architecture needs first an integrated theory of assembly and management control. Evaluating feasibility of a DF project has two main problems: first, how to evaluate assemblability of the design; second, how to evaluate performance of the value chain. Assemblability is a system’s structure problem, while performance is a system’s dynamics problem. Structure of systems has been studied in the field of Systems Engineering by Network Analysis methods such as the Design Structure Matrix (DSM) (Steward 1981), and the liaison graph (Whitney 2004), while dynamics of systems have been studied by System Dynamics (Forrester 1961). Can we define a formal method to evaluate the difficulty of production of an artifact if we know the artifact’s design and the production system’s structure? This paper formulates Attribute Process Methodology (APM); a method for assessing feasibility of a DFPS project that combines Network Analysis to evaluate assemblability of the design with System Dynamics to evaluate performance of the value chain.
keywords Digital Fabrication, Production System, System Dynamics, Network Analysis, Assembly
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:57

_id ddss2008-12
id ddss2008-12
authors Tabak, V.; B. de Vries, J. Dijkstra
year 2008
title Validating an office simulation model using RFIDtechnology
source H.J.P. Timmermans, B. de Vries (eds.) 2008, Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, ISBN 978-90-6814-173-3, University of Technology Eindhoven, published on CD
summary This paper presents the validation of an office utilisation model for the research project called “User Simulation of Space Utilisation (USSU)”. The result of this research is a system that can be used for analysing and evaluating the space utilisation of a building for any given organisation. A system for building usage simulation that produces data about activities of members of an organisation can substantially improve the relevance and performance of building simulation tools. This is relevant for engineering domains as well as for architects to evaluate the performance of a building design. For a thorough evaluation of the system an experiment was executed for assessing its predictive quality in the context of a real building, organisation and actual human behaviour; this experiment was executed using RFID technology. The result of the experiment was observed data about the space utilisation of the selected organisation. These data were compared with the space utilisation predicted by the USSU system to evaluate the simulation model. The validation of USSU showed that there were no significant differences between the predicated and observed activity behaviour. As a consequence, the output of USSU is considered to be valid.
keywords Office utilisation simulation, building simulation system, validation, RFID, space utilisation
series DDSS
last changed 2008/09/01 15:06

_id acadia08_430
id acadia08_430
authors Wan, Peng-Hui; Ramesh Krishnamurti
year 2008
title A Computational Approach for Evaluating the Facilitation of Wayfinding in Environments
source Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation, [Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) / ISBN 978-0-9789463-4-0] Minneapolis 16-19 October 2008, 430-437
summary In any environment, wayfinding is a kind of spatial problem that people encounter almost daily. Although it has been well documented that environmental cues significantly facilitate wayfinding, there has been little work done to examine the effectiveness of the facilitation. In particular, wayfinding manageability is considered in this paper, and, to this end, a computational approach to its evaluation is proposed. This is illustrated through simulation, employing a quantifiable measure for wayfinding facilitation. The measure is statistically determined from experimental data on certain wayfinding variables.
keywords Algorithm; Analysis; Computation; Design; Environment
series ACADIA
last changed 2009/02/26 07:39

_id acadia08_478
id acadia08_478
authors Yan, Wie
year 2008
title Environment-Behavior Simulation: From CAD to BIM and Beyond
source Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation, [Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) / ISBN 978-0-9789463-4-0] Minneapolis 16-19 October 2008, 478-485
summary This paper describes our research on environment-behavior simulation and focuses on the modeling of built environments using Computer-Aided Design (CAD) and Building Information Modeling (BIM). Our environment-behavior simulation addresses the problem of predicting and evaluating the impacts of built environments on their human inhabitants. We present simulation systems comprising an agent-based virtual user model and building models created with CAD and BIM tools. We compare the use of CAD vs. BIM with two case studies for environment-behavior simulation, and describe the essential parts of modeling buildings for the simulation, including geometry modeling—how the building components are shaped, semantic modeling—what the building components are, and pattern modeling—how the building components are used by users. We conclude that a new extensible and pattern-embedded BIM system will be necessary to facilitate environment-behavior simulation.
keywords Behavior; BIM; Environment; Information; Simulation
series ACADIA
last changed 2009/02/26 07:39

_id sigradi2008_201
id sigradi2008_201
authors Corradi, Eduardo Marotti; Gabriela Celani
year 2008
title O túnel de vento – um exercício de projeto baseado em técnicas de animação [The wind tunnel - an exercise in design based on techniques of animation]
source SIGraDi 2008 - [Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] La Habana - Cuba 1-5 December 2008
summary The objective of the present research was to study the use of animation techniques as a tool for the design process. The study started with a literature review about the different possible applications of animation techniques in architectural design. Four main categories of applications were found: (1) space representation and “walk through”, (2) simulation of articulated elements and kinetic structures, (3) visualization and analysis of functional aspects of the buildings, such as circulation and fire escape, and finally (4) the generation of novel shapes. The second part of the research consisted of a design exercise in which animation techniques were used to generate a shape. For this purpose a wind simulator was used in 3DMAX. Next, Paracloud software was used to automatically generate a rib structure that allowed to produce a scale model of the shape with a laser cutter.
keywords Animation, design process, digital fabrication
series SIGRADI
type normal paper
last changed 2016/03/10 08:49

_id ecaade2008_077
id ecaade2008_077
authors Graf, Robert; Yan, Wei
year 2008
title Automatic Walkthrough Utilizing Building Information Modeling to Facilitate Architectural Visualization
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 555-560
summary This paper presents a new system that supports automatic path planning for walkthrough in building models, using information retrieved from Building Information Modeling (BIM). It can automatically generate a path that explores all or part of the rooms in a building. During a real-time walkthrough, users will be able to follow the path while interactively controlling their viewing angles. That way, users can take guided tours while simultaneously looking around to examine the spaces. We expect the system to be useful in design review because BIM models of design can be easily brought into the system that allows reviewers to start walkthrough immediately and interactively. The significance of the work is that the system has potential applications for visualization of complex building design.
keywords Walkthrough, Building Information Modeling, Visualization
series eCAADe
last changed 2008/09/09 13:55

_id cf2011_p035
id cf2011_p035
authors Langenhan, Christoph; Weber Markus, Petzold Frank, Liwicki Marcus, Dengel Andreas
year 2011
title Sketch-based Methods for Researching Building Layouts through the Semantic Fingerprint of Architecture
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 85-102.
summary The paper focuses on the early stages of the design process where the architect needs assistance in finding reference projects and describes different aspects of a concept for retrieving previous design solutions with similar layout characteristics. Such references are typically used to see how others have solved a similar architectural problem or simply for inspiration. Current electronic search methods use textual information rather than graphical information. The configuration of space and the relations between rooms are hard to represent using keywords, in fact transforming these spatial configurations into verbally expressed typologies tends to result in unclear and often imprecise descriptions of architecture. Nowadays, modern IT-technologies lead to fundamental changes during the process of designing buildings. Digital representations of architecture require suitable approaches to the storage, indexing and management of information as well as adequate retrieval methods. Traditionally planning information is represented in the form of floor plans, elevations, sections and textual descriptions. State of the art digital representations include renderings, computer aided design (CAD) and semantic information like Building Information Modelling (BIM) including 2D and 3D file formats such as Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) (IAI, 2010). In the paper, we examine the development of IT-technologies in the area of case-based reasoning (Richter et al., 2007) to provide a sketch-based submission and retrieval system for publishing and researching building layouts including their manipulation and subsequent use. The user interface focuses on specifying space and their relations by drawing them. This query style supports the spatial thinking approach that architects use, who often have a visual representation in mind without being able to provide an accurate description of the spatial configuration. The semantic fingerprint proposed by (Langenhan, 2008) is a description and query language for creating an index of floor plans to store meta-data about architecture, which can be used as signature for retrieving reference projects. The functional spaces, such as living room or kitchen and the relation among on another, are used to create a fingerprint. Furthermore, we propose a visual sketch-based interface (Weber et al., 2010) based on the Touch&Write paradigm (Liwicki et al., 2010) for the submission and the retrieval phase. During the submission process the architect is sketching the space-boundaries, space relations and functional coherence's. Using state of the art document analysis techniques, the architects are supported offering an automatic detection of room boundaries and their physical relations. During the retrieval the application will interpret the sketches of the architect and find reference projects based on a similarity based search utilizing the semantic fingerprint. By recommending reference projects, architects will be able to reuse collective experience which match the current requirements. The way of performing a search using a sketch as a query is a new way of thinking and working. The retrieval of 3D models based on a sketched shape are already realized in several domains. We already propose a step further, using the semantics of a spatial configuration. Observing the design process of buildings reveals that the initial design phase serves as the foundation for the quality of the later outcome. The sketch-based approach to access valuable information using the semantic fingerprint enables the user to digitally capture knowledge about architecture, to recover and reuse it in common-sense. Furthermore, automatically analysed fingerprints can put forward both commonly used as well as best practice projects. It will be possible to rate architecture according to the fingerprint of a building.
keywords new media, case-based reasoning, ontology, semantic building design, sketch-based, knowledge management
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id sigradi2008_180
id sigradi2008_180
authors Vincent, Charles
year 2008
title Gulliver in the land of Generative Design
source SIGraDi 2008 - [Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] La Habana - Cuba 1-5 December 2008
summary The current trend in architectural design towards architectural computing has been treated both from a philosophical standing point and as an operational systems’ problem, in a quest for explications which could at last break ground for a more broad development and adoption of design tools. As Kostas Terzidis (2007) puts it, the intuitiveness that architects have put on so high a pedestal seems to be the central issue to be dealt with by both views. There seems to be no apparent shortcut toward the reconciliation between traditional practice and new media and most certainly it is not only a problem of interface design, but one of design method clarification and reinterpretation of those methods into computing systems. Furthermore, there’s no doubt left as to whether computing systems can generate such new patterns as to impact our own understanding of architecture. But even if computer algorithms can make possible the exploration of abstract alternatives to an abstract initial idea, as in Mathematica and Processing, the issue of relating abstract and geometric representations of human centered architecture lays in the hands of architects, programmers or, better yet, architect-programmers. What seems now to be the relevant change is that architectural design might escape from the traditional sequence embedded in the need – program – design iterations – solution timeline, substituted by a web of interactions among differing experimental paths, in which even the identification of needs is to be informed by computing. It is interesting to note that the computational approach to architectural design has been praised for the formal fluidity of bubbles and Bezier shapes it entails and for the overcoming of functionalist and serialization typical of modern architecture. That approach betrays a high degree of canonic fascination with the tools of the trade and very little connection to the day to day chores of building design. On the other hand, shall our new tools and toys open up new ways of thinking and designing our built landscape? What educational issues surface if we are to foster wider use of the existing technologies and simultaneously address the need to overtake mass construction? Is mass customization the answer for the dead end modern architecture has led us to? Can we let go the humanist approach begun in Renascence and culminated in Modernism or shall we review that approach in view of algorithmic architecture? Let us step back in time to 1726 when Swift’s ‘Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World by Lemuel Gulliver’ was first published. In Swift’s fierce critic of what seemed to him the most outrageous ideas, he conceived a strange machine devised to automatically write books and poetry, in much the same generative fashion that now, three centuries later, we begin to cherish. “Every one knew how laborious the usual method is of attaining to arts and sciences; whereas by his contrivance, the most ignorant person at a reasonable charge, and with a little bodily labour, may write books in philosophy, poetry, politicks, law, mathematics and theology, without the least assistance from genius or study. He then led me to the frame, about the sides whereof all his pupils stood in ranks. It was twenty foot square, placed in the middle of the room. The superficies was composed of several bits of wood, about the bigness of a dye, but some larger than others. They were all linked together by slender wires. These bits of wood were covered on every square with paper pasted on them; and, on these papers were written all the words of their language in their several moods, tenses, and declensions, but without any order. The professor then desired me to observe, for he was going to set his engine at work. The pupils at his command took each of them hold of an iron handle, whereof there were forty fixed round the edges of the frame; and giving them a sudden turn, the whole disposition of words was entirely changed. He then commanded six and thirty of the lads to read the several lines softly as they appeared upon the frame; and where they found three or four words together that might make part of a sentence, they dictated to the four remaining boys who were scribes. This work was repeated three or four times, and at every turn the engine was so contrived, that the words shifted into new places, as the square bits of wood moved upside down.” (Jonathan Swift, Gulliver’s Travels, A Voyage to Balnibarbi) What astonishing forecast did Swift show in that narrative that, in spite of the underlying incredulity and irony, still clarifies our surprise when faced to what might seem to some of us just an abandonment of all that architects and designers have cherished: creativeness and inventiveness. Yet, we could argue that such a radical shift in paradigm occurred once when master builders left the construction ground and took seat at drafting boards. The whole body of design and construction knowledge was split into what now seem to us just specialties undertaken by more and more isolated professionals. That shift entailed new forms of representation and prediction which now each and all architects take for granted. Also, Cartesian space representation turned out to be the main instrument for professional practice, even if one can argue that it is not more than the unfolding of stone carving techniques that master builders and guilds were so fond of. Enter computing and all its unfolding, i.e. DNA coding, fractal geometry, generative computing, nonlinear dynamics, pattern generation and cellular automata, as a whole new chapter in science, and compare that to conical perspective, descriptive and analytical geometry and calculus, and an image begins to form, delineating a separation between architect and digital designer. In previous works, we have tried approaching the issues regarding architects education in a more consensual way. But it seems now that the whole curricular corpus might be changed as well. The very foundations upon which we prepare future professionals shall change, not only in College, but in High School as well. In this paper, we delve further into the disconnect between current curricula and digital design practices and suggest new disciplinary grounds for a new architectural education.
keywords Educational paradigm; Design teaching; Design methods;
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 09:02

_id cf2011_p109
id cf2011_p109
authors Abdelmohsen, Sherif; Lee Jinkook, Eastman Chuck
year 2011
title Automated Cost Analysis of Concept Design BIM Models
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 403-418.
summary AUTOMATED COST ANALYSIS OF CONCEPT DESIGN BIM MODELS Interoperability: BIM models and cost models This paper introduces the automated cost analysis developed for the General Services Administration (GSA) and the analysis results of a case study involving a concept design courthouse BIM model. The purpose of this study is to investigate interoperability issues related to integrating design and analysis tools; specifically BIM models and cost models. Previous efforts to generate cost estimates from BIM models have focused on developing two necessary but disjoint processes: 1) extracting accurate quantity take off data from BIM models, and 2) manipulating cost analysis results to provide informative feedback. Some recent efforts involve developing detailed definitions, enhanced IFC-based formats and in-house standards for assemblies that encompass building models (e.g. US Corps of Engineers). Some commercial applications enhance the level of detail associated to BIM objects with assembly descriptions to produce lightweight BIM models that can be used by different applications for various purposes (e.g. Autodesk for design review, Navisworks for scheduling, Innovaya for visual estimating, etc.). This study suggests the integration of design and analysis tools by means of managing all building data in one shared repository accessible to multiple domains in the AEC industry (Eastman, 1999; Eastman et al., 2008; authors, 2010). Our approach aims at providing an integrated platform that incorporates a quantity take off extraction method from IFC models, a cost analysis model, and a comprehensive cost reporting scheme, using the Solibri Model Checker (SMC) development environment. Approach As part of the effort to improve the performance of federal buildings, GSA evaluates concept design alternatives based on their compliance with specific requirements, including cost analysis. Two basic challenges emerge in the process of automating cost analysis for BIM models: 1) At this early concept design stage, only minimal information is available to produce a reliable analysis, such as space names and areas, and building gross area, 2) design alternatives share a lot of programmatic requirements such as location, functional spaces and other data. It is thus crucial to integrate other factors that contribute to substantial cost differences such as perimeter, and exterior wall and roof areas. These are extracted from BIM models using IFC data and input through XML into the Parametric Cost Engineering System (PACES, 2010) software to generate cost analysis reports. PACES uses this limited dataset at a conceptual stage and RSMeans (2010) data to infer cost assemblies at different levels of detail. Functionalities Cost model import module The cost model import module has three main functionalities: generating the input dataset necessary for the cost model, performing a semantic mapping between building type specific names and name aggregation structures in PACES known as functional space areas (FSAs), and managing cost data external to the BIM model, such as location and construction duration. The module computes building data such as footprint, gross area, perimeter, external wall and roof area and building space areas. This data is generated through SMC in the form of an XML file and imported into PACES. Reporting module The reporting module uses the cost report generated by PACES to develop a comprehensive report in the form of an excel spreadsheet. This report consists of a systems-elemental estimate that shows the main systems of the building in terms of UniFormat categories, escalation, markups, overhead and conditions, a UniFormat Level III report, and a cost breakdown that provides a summary of material, equipment, labor and total costs. Building parameters are integrated in the report to provide insight on the variations among design alternatives.
keywords building information modeling, interoperability, cost analysis, IFC
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ddss2008-09
id ddss2008-09
authors Bates-Brkljac, N.
year 2008
title Towards client-focused architectural representationsas a facilitator for improved design decision-makingprocess
source H.J.P. Timmermans, B. de Vries (eds.) 2008, Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, ISBN 978-90-6814-173-3, University of Technology Eindhoven, published on CD
summary This paper focuses on architectural representations as a means of communicating design schemes in the process of decision-making. It reports on the study, which investigated people’s responses to different forms of architectural representations. The paper starts with the discussion about participation in decision-making process and the potential benefits of using computer generated representations. Then, it describes the research study and examines results of the investigation. In the final section it is argued that client focused architectural representations are needed to support the exchange of views and discussion amongst different stakeholders in order to reduce the requirement for trained interpretation and encourage the participation in the decision making process.
keywords Architectural representations, Perceived credibility, Design decision making
series DDSS
last changed 2008/09/01 15:06

_id caadria2008_43_session4b_350
id caadria2008_43_session4b_350
authors Chen, Rui; Xiangyu Wang
year 2008
title Tangible Augmented Reality for Design Learning: An Implementation Framework
source CAADRIA 2008 [Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Chiang Mai (Thailand) 9-12 April 2008, pp. 350-356
summary Nowadays, it is becoming more and more popular for teaching and learning to be supported in technology-supported settings. These digital technologies create new instructional methods. Tangible Augmented Reality (AR) technology can construct an innovative and interactive learning space by merging computer-generated learning materials and stimuli of virtuality into a real space. Different cognitive and social-learning processes might be involved with different learning activities that can be potentially supported by different technology modes of tangible AR. This paper discusses an empirical research framework for designing and implementing tangible AR technologies to improve the pedagogical effectiveness of learning processes involved in architectural design education. The research framework includes the theoretical process of applying tangible AR in design learning, the devised experimentations and associated methodology. Issues and benefits of incorporating tangible AR into architectural design learning are also investigated and discussed.
keywords Augmented Reality, architectural design learning, framework, learning theory, tangible interface
series CAADRIA
email {rche0750,}
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id caadria2008_59_session6a_487
id caadria2008_59_session6a_487
authors Chevrier, C.; J.P. Perrin
year 2008
title Interactive parametric modelling: POG a tool the cultural heritage monument 3D reconstruction
source CAADRIA 2008 [Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Chiang Mai (Thailand) 9-12 April 2008, pp. 487-493
summary Historic monument and archaeological site 3D reconstruction is nowadays often required for many applications (scientific and architectural studies, virtual visits for a better understanding of the monument, etc). This task is very time-consuming. Automating the modelling of the most common components could ease this 3D work and produce accurate, consistent and re-usable models. Based upon compound rules of architectural elements but also upon various other data sources such as photographs and 3D laser scans, we have conceived and developed an interactive tool for virtual 3D reconstruction of heritage monuments. It allows a quick modelling and accurate adjustments to the measured data. This tool could be a great help for architects and archaeologists. Research first has began with the study of classical architecture, and has gone on with other architectural styles. Architectural elements are described with parametric data, then generated by our tool. Our main application context was the town of Nancy in France where there are lots of classical architecture buildings which allow us to test our tool. It will be further extended to be applied to other architectural styles and will be combined with photogrammetry methods.
keywords parametric modelling, cultural heritage, 3D model
series CAADRIA
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id 732b
id 732b
authors Dimitris Papanikolaou
year 2008
title From Representation of States to Description of Processes
source Proceedings of 1st International Conference: Critical Digital, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, 2008: 311-318
summary Introduction of digital technologies in architecture has generated a great amount of hesitation and criticism about the role of design and its relation to the artifact. This confusion seems to stem from the dual nature of design as representation of the form and as a description of its production process. Today architects urge to adopt digital tools to explore complex forms often without understanding the complexity of the underlying production techniques. As a consequence, architects have been accused of making designs that they do not know how to build. Why is this happening today? It seems that while technology has progressed, the design strategy has remained the same. This paper will deal with the following question: What matters in design? The paper will reveal fundamental problems, attempt to answer this question, and suggest new directions for design strategies today. The conclusion of this paper is that digital design should also aim to describe process of production rather than solely represent form.
keywords Description, Artifact, Digital, Process, Assembly, Value Chain
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2008/06/16 19:08

_id ascaad2012_003
id ascaad2012_003
authors Elseragy, Ahmed
year 2012
title Creative Design Between Representation and Simulation
source CAAD | INNOVATION | PRACTICE [6th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2012 / ISBN 978-99958-2-063-3], Manama (Kingdom of Bahrain), 21-23 February 2012, pp. 11-12
summary Milestone figures of architecture all have their different views on what comes first, form or function. They also vary in their definitions of creativity. Apparently, creativity is very strongly related to ideas and how they can be generated. It is also correlated with the process of thinking and developing. Creative products, whether architectural or otherwise, and whether tangible or intangible, are originated from ‘good ideas’ (Elnokaly, Elseragy and Alsaadani, 2008). On one hand, not any idea, or any good idea, can be considered creative but, on the other hand, any creative result can be traced back to a good idea that initiated it in the beginning (Goldschmit and Tatsa, 2005). Creativity in literature, music and other forms of art is immeasurable and unbounded by constraints of physical reality. Musicians, painters and sculptors do not create within tight restrictions. They create what becomes their own mind’s intellectual property, and viewers or listeners are free to interpret these creations from whichever angle they choose. However, this is not the case with architects, whose creations and creative products are always bound with different physical constraints that may be related to the building location, social and cultural values related to the context, environmental performance and energy efficiency, and many more (Elnokaly, Elseragy and Alsaadani, 2008). Remarkably, over the last three decades computers have dominated in almost all areas of design, taking over the burden of repetitive tasks so that the designers and students can focus on the act of creation. Computer aided design has been used for a long time as a tool of drafting, however in this last decade this tool of representation is being replaced by simulation in different areas such as simulation of form, function and environment. Thus, the crafting of objects is moving towards the generation of forms and integrated systems through designer-authored computational processes. The emergence and adoption of computational technologies has significantly changed design and design education beyond the replacement of drawing boards with computers or pens and paper with computer-aided design (CAD) computer-aided engineering (CAE) applications. This paper highlights the influence of the evolving transformation from Computer Aided Design (CAD) to Computational Design (CD) and how this presents a profound shift in creative design thinking and education. Computational-based design and simulation represent new tools that encourage designers and artists to continue progression of novel modes of design thinking and creativity for the 21st century designers. Today computational design calls for new ideas that will transcend conventional boundaries and support creative insights through design and into design. However, it is still believed that in architecture education one should not replace the design process and creative thinking at early stages by software tools that shape both process and final product which may become a limitation for creative designs to adapt to the decisions and metaphors chosen by the simulation tool. This paper explores the development of Computer Aided Design (CAD) to Computational Design (CD) Tools and their impact on contemporary design education and creative design.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2012/05/15 18:46

_id sigradi2009_805
id sigradi2009_805
authors Gonçalves Costa, Luís Gustavo; Arivaldo Leão de Amorim
year 2009
title Geração de Ortofotos para Produção de Mapas de Danos [Ortophoto creation for damage map production ]
source SIGraDi 2009 - Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, Sao Paulo, Brazil, November 16-18, 2009
summary The present work integrates the ongoing Master Degree Research Project entitled "Damage Map Representation and Pathology Database (Cronidas) Creation". This paper aims to discuss the search for alternatives in the development of a map of damages to be applied on historical buildings in order to assist preservation and restoration projects. Orthophotos of the facades and of the internal walls of buildings will be produced; once generated, these images are vectorized and transformed in drawings which represent the pathologies, in other words, the damage map. The research the following softwares: PhotoModeler®Pro5 for the generation of the orthophotos, Photoshop®CS3 for image treatment, and AutoCAD®2008 for tracing the relevant areas.
keywords damage map; conservation and restoration project; ortophoto; vectorization; building pathologies
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

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