CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 101 to 120 of 485

_id kozlov02_paper_eaea2007
id kozlov02_paper_eaea2007
authors Kozlo, Dmitri
year 2008
title Topological Method of Construction of Point Surfaces as Physical Models
source Proceedings of the 8th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference
summary The shape of architectural objects in general can be treated as an envelope – a two dimensional surface embedded into three dimensional space. We directly perceive only the surface as a synthesis of sequential “photo snaps” – the two dimensional imprints on a retina – a concave screen inside of our eyes. In 15th century Italian architect and theorist L. B. Alberti claimed that the architecture consists in the outlines and the structure (lineamenta et structura in the original Latin text). The visible shape (outlines) exists only because a directly not perceived structure determines it. Like Alberti, the modern mathematical theories of form distinguish the shape as an exterior surface and the form itself as an internal structure. This subtle difference becomes a very important subject in the relationship between a virtual and a physical model in the studies of architectural endoscopy.
keywords topology, manifold, knots, point surface, physical model
series EAEA
email dmitrykozlov@mtu-net.ru
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea
last changed 2008/04/29 18:46

_id 854e
id 854e
authors Laskari A, Hanna S, Derix C
year 2008
title Urban Identity Through Quantifiable Spatial Attributes: Coherence and dispersion of local identity through the automated comparative analysis of building block plans
source Design Computation Cognition conference 2008
summary This analysis investigates whether and to what degree quantifiable spatial attributes, as expressed in plan representations, can capture elements related to the experience of spatial identity. By combining different methods of shape and spatial analysis it attempts to quantify spatial attributes, predominantly derived from plans, in order to illustrate patterns of interrelations between spaces through an objective automated process. The study focuses on the scale of the urban block as the basic modular unit for the formation of urban configurations and the issue of spatial identity is perceived through consistency and differentiation within and amongst urban neighbourhoods.
keywords urban design, spatial analysis, clustering
series other
type normal paper
email christian.derix@aedas.com
more http://www.springer.com/computer/information+systems+and+applications/book/978-1-4020-8727-1
last changed 2012/09/17 19:30

_id acadia08_192
id acadia08_192
authors Lee, Charles
year 2008
title The Thermal Organism And Architecture
source Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation, [Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) / ISBN 978-0-9789463-4-0] Minneapolis 16-19 October 2008, 192-199
summary Throughout the history of architectural discourse the concept of metabolic function in a building and a buildings relationship to its creators is expressed by keen designers who understand the subtle linkage. Organistic homeostasis is a biological function found in all mammals including humans. The interior generation of heat classifies man as endothermic. Endothermic heat generation allows for a very controlled equilibrium and is a characteristic of more complex organisms. The body has produced highly evolved surface systems to help efficiently manage the flow of heat energy in and out of the body. I suggest building envelopes represent the human being projecting itself outwards in a prosthetic extension of the skin. Inherent in this projection are the same demands of envelope put forth in the body. In my research of anatomy I have found one system that has evolved to help facilitate endothermic heat regulation in mammals at the skin level, which is hair. How does hair transcribe into architecture? An analysis into the function of hair and its adaptable morphologies is studied. Hair is a thermal regulating system, its building equivalent are forms of thermal insulation and radiant barriers. Hairs goal is homeostatic equilibrium which has its architectural counterpoint known as the balance point. Hair is an adjustable system that mitigates between internal and external heat loading which is the goal of a building envelope. In conclusion the paper explores these issues and more in new building systems and design tactics that originate from the function of hair.
keywords Biology; Biomimetics; Design; Environment; Responsive
series ACADIA
last changed 2009/02/26 07:39

_id ecaade2008_174
id ecaade2008_174
authors Liapi , Katherine A.
year 2008
title Spatial Information Visualization Methods for Large Scale Infrastructure Projects
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 617-624
summary For the communication of spatial information with regard to the design and construction of large scale urban infrastructure projects several visualization methods and technologies have been developed. The paper discusses two different trends in relevant technologies: a) those that use visualization to facilitate communication of construction planning information between architects, engineers, contractors, the public and other interested parties, and b) technologies that provide real time information on the conditions on the construction site.
keywords spatial information visualization, real time construction site modeling, construction schedule visualization, motion modeling & vualization
series eCAADe
email kliapi@upatras.gr
last changed 2008/09/09 13:55

_id ecaade2008_203
id ecaade2008_203
authors Matejovská, Dana; Achten, Henri
year 2008
title Five Experiments to Elicit CAAD Work Strategies of Students in Three Levels of Education
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 877-886
summary In order to understand the learning needs of our students, we have defined a series of five small experiments. In each experiment, a subject has to perform a limited task using a CAD system. The experiments are undertaken by subjects from three different groups: pre-university school goers, first year students of architecture, and advanced students of architecture. By comparing the differences between the groups we can identify the following aspects: (1) start level of students, (2) starting work strategies, (3) development of work strategies, and (4) deficiences in work strategies. On this basis, we can develop more specific teaching material that will be better suited to the needs of the students. In this paper we report on the experimental setup, research methodology, and preliminary results.
keywords Learning strategies, experimental research
series eCAADe
type normal paper
email matejdan@fa.cvut.cz, achten@fa.cvut.cz
last changed 2014/04/05 14:41

_id caadria2008_58_session6a_479
id caadria2008_58_session6a_479
authors Matsushima, Shiro; Rie Takenaka, Daisuke Sasaki
year 2008
title Study on Application of Motion Capture to Design Methodology for Generating New Geometry: Coupling Computer and Human Performance Using Motion Capture Technology for New Architectural Form and Space
source CAADRIA 2008 [Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Chiang Mai (Thailand) 9-12 April 2008, pp. 479-486
summary This research aims to develop fundamental design methodologies for human space and product design by motion capture of human activity. It is intended to generate new geometry using a motion capture system as design input device and then to develop it to design interior space and products such as furniture from data extracted from human motion. In order to produce a ubiquitous and comfortable environment, performance modeling focusing on the relationships between space and physical motion is needed. Making an object of complex shape is thought to be a new application of motion capture technology. This research proves that the numeric data of body actions can be transferred and developed to object shapes.
keywords Motion Capture: Inclusive Design; Ergonomics; Design Process; New Geometry
series CAADRIA
email shirom@tutrp.tut.ac.jp, tomat0mato@yahoo.co.jp, mega_house_ylo_oly@yahoo.co.jp
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id ddss2008-39
id ddss2008-39
authors Meshitsuka, Yusuke and Yoshitsugu Aoki
year 2008
title Stochastic Transition of Fire-prevention Performanceof Urban Area
source H.J.P. Timmermans, B. de Vries (eds.) 2008, Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, ISBN 978-90-6814-173-3, University of Technology Eindhoven, published on CD
summary The aim of this study is to analyze the tendency of building renewal in order to understand the fire prevention performance of the Tokyo metropolitan area. To this end, firstly, the Tokyo metropolitan area was divided into small areas of 250,000 square meters, and the following stochastic transition matrix of each small area was estimated, 1. Stochastic matrix of state transition between the building use types, 2. Stochastic matrix of state transition between the structures of buildings. Secondly, the converged state of each small area was estimated with a Markov chain model. Finally, small areas where fire prevention performance will change for the better/constant/worse were pointed out from their converged states. The results suggest that in small areas where percentage of housing and commerce are increasing, the fire prevention performance will become worse.
keywords Urban Earthquake Disaster Mitigation, Earthquake Fire, Stochastic Transition Matrix
series DDSS
last changed 2008/09/01 15:06

_id caadria2008_45_session4b_364
id caadria2008_45_session4b_364
authors Muramoto, Katsuhiko; Sonali Kumar, Michael Jemtrud, Danielle Wiley
year 2008
title Participation, Intersubjectivity, And Presence In a Digitally Mediated Workspace: A Participatory Design Studio between Pennsylvania State University and Carleton University
source CAADRIA 2008 [Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Chiang Mai (Thailand) 9-12 April 2008, pp. 364-370
summary A paradigm shift in the world of architecture brought by the recent developments in visualization and communication technology not only offers us drastically different ways to collaborate, but also questions traditional location dependent collaborations. This new technology offers us new possibilities for a more phenomenologically rich mode of creative activity and participation. The goal of the Participatory Design Studio was to allow architecture students in multiple locations to collaborate in real-time by sharing computational resources, geometric datasets, and multimedia content including high-definition video. The technologies involved in this research include the National LambdaRail (layer 3, PacketNet with 1Gb/s connection) and CA*net 4 (Canadian broadband layer 2 with 10gb/s lightpath connectivity) allowing Standard Definition videoconference, utilization of Deep Computing Visualization, Remote Visual Networking (RVN) and Web Service access and control of the APN devices through the dashboard solution that makes integration seamless to the workflow and transparent to the user.
keywords design: collaboration; tele-presence; visualization; broadband
series CAADRIA
email {kxm15, suk189}@psu.edu, michael.jemtrud@mcgill.ca, dwiley@connect.carleton.ca
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id acadia08_256
id acadia08_256
authors Ostwald, Michael J.; Josephine Vaughan; Stephan Chalup
year 2008
title A Computational Analysis of Fractal Dimensions in the Architecture of Eileen Gray
source Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation, [Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) / ISBN 978-0-9789463-4-0] Minneapolis 16-19 October 2008, 256-263
summary This paper is the first investigation of the fractal dimensions of five of the house designs of Eileen Gray; a prominent architect working mainly in France between 1922 and 1956. In this paper, a computational variation of the “box-counting approach” (used to determine fractal dimension) is applied to a multi-dimensional review of the houses of Gray. As a contemporary of Le Corbusier, Gray is a significant architect for such an analysis. This research is important because it expands the set of examples of early Twentieth Century architects who have been analyzed using the method. This paper provides a computer-assisted mathematical analysis of characteristic visual complexity in five houses designs by Eileen Gray.
keywords Algorithm; Analysis; Computation; Design; Environment
series ACADIA
last changed 2009/02/26 07:39

_id ecaade2008_137
id ecaade2008_137
authors Palmquist, Erik; Shaw, Jonathan
year 2008
title Collaborative City Modeling
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 249-256
summary This paper presents an approach to creating an online real time rendering environment, upon which a large-scale, urban 3D model can be produced as a collaborative effort between initial content creators and outside parties with an interest in simulation and visualization. In 2007, the City of Atlanta, Georgia organized a taskforce to provide recommendations on the future development and mobility along the city’s signature street, Peachtree Street. To aid in the visualization of this area, datasets were converted into low polygon textured 3D models for the entire study area. This content will serve as the foundation of a collaborative effort to complete a high quality real time environment. The process for this project will be described and the means to extend the boundaries, maintain, and collaborate with this content will be proposed.
keywords 3D model, collaborative design, real time, visualization, training
series eCAADe
email palmquist@coa.gatech.edu, jonathan.shaw@coa.gatech.edu
last changed 2008/09/09 13:55

_id caadria2008_47_session5a_383
id caadria2008_47_session5a_383
authors Paulini, Mercedes; Marc Aurel Schnabel
year 2008
title Surfing The City: Towards context-aware mobile exploration
source CAADRIA 2008 [Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Chiang Mai (Thailand) 9-12 April 2008, pp. 383-390
summary This paper describes the rationale for a navigational system that supports context-based exploration of the urban environment. While many navigational tools support wayfinding, they are based on targeted search, requiring the user to have a predetermined destination. Existing applications do not offer navigational mechanisms that base their recommendations on the user’s unique context information. Customised recommendations present the user with relevant routes they may not have discovered on their own. In this paper, a parallel is drawn between wayfinding in the physical world and the virtual, with web surfing acting as a metaphor for a particular style of interaction with the physical environment. Similarly, the framework for this system presents suggested routes to the user according to their unique contextual setting, which is anticipated to allow a more explorative engagement with their physical environment.
keywords Mobile computing; context-awareness; urban interaction
series CAADRIA
email mercedes@arch.usyd.edu.au, marcaurel@usyd.edu.au
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id acadia08_272
id acadia08_272
authors Perez, Santiago R.
year 2008
title Crafting Complexity: Material / Procedure / Form
source Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation, [Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) / ISBN 978-0-9789463-4-0] Minneapolis 16-19 October 2008, 272-277
summary What is the role of Craft, in understanding Bio-Computational Forms & Systems? What is the relation between self-organizing systems & material-component assemblages? ¶ This paper will explore the relationship between material craft, procedure and form, in relation to complex, self-organizing assemblies. A comparison will be made, between (hand) crafted assemblies, guided by physical constraints and procedural methodologies, and digitally mediated fabrication, guided by recursion and algorithmic generative methodologies. ¶ An attempt will be made to connect various scales of making, in terms of module or unit of assembly, both at the micro-scale of biological structures, and the macro-scale of man-made systems. The goal of this essay is to question the relation between physically crafted component assemblies, as a means for exploring adaptive, complex, self-organizing systems, and bio-computational paradigms as a source of adaptive strategies for making.
keywords Adaptation; Complexity; Craft; Material; Play
series ACADIA
last changed 2009/02/26 07:39

_id caadria2008_71_session7a_587
id caadria2008_71_session7a_587
authors Reffat, Rabee M.; Yaman Khaeruzzaman, Emad El-Sebakhy, I Putu Raharja
year 2008
title Interactive Architectural Compositions in 3D Real-Time Virtual Environments
source CAADRIA 2008 [Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Chiang Mai (Thailand) 9-12 April 2008, pp. 587-593
summary This paper presents an interactive computational system for developing architectural compositions within a 3D real-time virtual environment. The features of implemented system within the interface of Activeworlds platform includes (a) providing a set of 3D building objects that are made available within the virtual environment and can be utilized by the user to construct architectural compositions; (b) allowing users to modify both geometrical and non-geometrical properties of these objects; and (c) maintaining interrelationships between these objects using constrain-based rules automated by the developed system in real-time. The developed IAMVE (Interactive Architectural Modeling in Virtual Environments) system provides more flexibility to architectural designers and develops an edge to multi-user real time 3D virtual environments to be better utilized in the context of architectural design
keywords 3D Virtual Environments, 3D Modeling; Architectural Compositions, User Interactivity
series CAADRIA
email rabee@kfupm.edu.sa
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id ddss2008-27
id ddss2008-27
authors Ronald, Nicole; Theo Arentze and Harry Timmermans
year 2008
title Modelling social aspects of travel behaviourA preliminary review
source H.J.P. Timmermans, B. de Vries (eds.) 2008, Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, ISBN 978-90-6814-173-3, University of Technology Eindhoven, published on CD
summary Recent travel forecasting models have focussed strongly upon the fact that travel is derived from the activities in which people participate, such as work, school, shopping, sport, leisure, and social events. Participation in social activities is determined by one's friends and the groups that one is a member of, i.e., their household, their workplace/school, sporting groups, voluntary organisations and clubs. These acquaintances form part of an individual's social network: a representation of the people one interacts with. This paper presents a review of the intersection between social networks and travel behaviour, identifies the key concepts, and discusses how agent-based models could be used to explore the effects of social networks on travel behaviour.
keywords Agent-based models, social networks, travel behaviour
series DDSS
last changed 2008/09/01 15:06

_id acadia08_142
id acadia08_142
authors Sprecher, Aaron; Paul Kalnitz
year 2008
title Degrees and Switches
source Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation, [Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) / ISBN 978-0-9789463-4-0] Minneapolis 16-19 October 2008, 142-151
summary In recent years, evolutionary biology has been the focus of post-Darwinist theories superseding the mere notion of variation with a concept called evolutionary development. The theory of evolutionary development, commonly referred to as evo-devo, follows a series of observations on the nature of organic developments and natural morphologies. Its main contribution rests on an evolutionary model that considers the similarities of genetic material forming organisms and their differences in morphological development due to switching mechanisms between the assigned genes. As observed by the American biologist Sean Carroll, evolution follows regulatory sequences of selector genes that are similar and can be found across various species of insects, plants and animals. ¶ This observation represents a counter-proposal to the old-modern evolutionary theories that looked at processes of adaptation as a function of the emergence of new genes. Evo-devo, on the contrary, recognizes that morphological differences are triggered by recombinatory switches that re-arrange genes in manifold ways to produce numerous characteristics of adaptation. ¶ From a design point of view, evo-devo has tremendous implications because it suggests that generative design protocols may induce sets of similar operations, yet stimulate a wide range of morphologies according to their sequential arrangements and activities. These generative design strategies include, among others, computational methods such as structural shape annealing and object-oriented analysis and design. While these methods are now integrating computing design practices, it is here proposed to review these two computational design methods in the context of three research projects.
keywords Algorithm; Evolution; Genetic; Object-Oriented; Stochastic
series ACADIA
last changed 2009/02/26 07:39

_id ddss2008-12
id ddss2008-12
authors Tabak, V.; B. de Vries, J. Dijkstra
year 2008
title Validating an office simulation model using RFIDtechnology
source H.J.P. Timmermans, B. de Vries (eds.) 2008, Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, ISBN 978-90-6814-173-3, University of Technology Eindhoven, published on CD
summary This paper presents the validation of an office utilisation model for the research project called “User Simulation of Space Utilisation (USSU)”. The result of this research is a system that can be used for analysing and evaluating the space utilisation of a building for any given organisation. A system for building usage simulation that produces data about activities of members of an organisation can substantially improve the relevance and performance of building simulation tools. This is relevant for engineering domains as well as for architects to evaluate the performance of a building design. For a thorough evaluation of the system an experiment was executed for assessing its predictive quality in the context of a real building, organisation and actual human behaviour; this experiment was executed using RFID technology. The result of the experiment was observed data about the space utilisation of the selected organisation. These data were compared with the space utilisation predicted by the USSU system to evaluate the simulation model. The validation of USSU showed that there were no significant differences between the predicated and observed activity behaviour. As a consequence, the output of USSU is considered to be valid.
keywords Office utilisation simulation, building simulation system, validation, RFID, space utilisation
series DDSS
last changed 2008/09/01 15:06

_id caadria2008_31_session3b_251
id caadria2008_31_session3b_251
authors Tantachamroon, Ruht; Acharawan Chutarat
year 2008
title The Cost Effectiveness of Typical Materials in Relation to Indoor Comfort of Passive Cooling Strategies Appropriate for Small One Story House in Chiang Mai, Thailand
source CAADRIA 2008 [Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Chiang Mai (Thailand) 9-12 April 2008, pp. 251-258
summary This study suggests that the appropriate building materials are those most common in a given locale considering simple appropriate natural passive cooling strategies for a typical small one story house to apply toward traditional living. Two different weather conditions, hot-dry and hot-humid, were selected representing seasonal climates. Computer simulations on thermal effect and ventilation were processed by CFD software, FLOVENT 6.1. Ordinary building materials have been chosen to compare relationship between outdoor-indoor temperature differences and their costs. It was found that natural cross ventilation is the best solution for a small one-story house with additional assistance of thermal mass effect. The most effective typical wall and roof materials are the conventional 10cm brick wall and 5mm corrugated fibrous cement roof which give the best performance for comfort at a unit investment cost. Simulated results also showed that the same house with typical horizontal ceiling presents better comfort than non-ceiling case.
keywords Cost effectiveness; Construction materials; Passive cooling; Chiang Mai house; Comfort
series CAADRIA
email tantachr@mail.arc.cmu.ac.th, iacharat@kmutt.ac.th
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id caadria2008_30_session3b_244
id caadria2008_30_session3b_244
authors Tayyar, Bahram
year 2008
title Impacts of ITC technologies on Neighborhoods: Typological Study
source CAADRIA 2008 [Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Chiang Mai (Thailand) 9-12 April 2008, pp. 244-250
summary As the former infrastructures such as roads and electricity deeply transformed qualities of neighbourhoods, the new ITC technologies exert some fundamental changes over them. This paper, which is based on a master by research thesis, explores the newly emerging ITC-based lifestyles to understand the social and spatial impacts that they are seeking or may cause in their living environments. The study is typological and emphasizes on similarities and differences between different neighbourhood types (as physical contexts) and lifestyles (as human contexts).
keywords ITC-based lifestyles, Interview, Neighbourhood Qualities, Qualitative and Quantitative
series CAADRIA
email tayyarb@unimelb.edu.au
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id ecaade2008_111
id ecaade2008_111
authors Theodoros, Dounas
year 2008
title Dynamic Algebras and Grammars
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 429-436
summary The research presented in the paper explores the creation of custom shape grammars with animation tools, either as learning or educational tool or for the purposes of architectural design. Standard shape grammars contain an initial shape or design and one or more transformation rules. The designer just applies the rules in the initial design or has to chose which rule to apply. Dynamic shape grammars on the other hand use animation tools to produce dynamic rules of transformation, or even dynamic – parametric initial shapes on which to apply the rules on. The dynamic state of the rules in our system allows the designer to change the rules during designing without having to abandon a core structural idea or concept. Furthermore the implementation with an animation tool allows the design system to be form-independent and express the underlying structure of an architectural idea with non-graphical connections like parent and child relationships, or other deformation rules.It can be shown that in a computation context dynamic shape grammars are actually groups of standard shape grammars where the grammars in the group share the classification of the transformation rules they contain. The system that we present allows the designer to change between the grammars in one group in a transparent way without expressing the grammar formally but by only manipulating simple objects inside the animation software package.
series eCAADe
email dounas@gmail.com
last changed 2008/09/09 13:55

_id caadria2008_2_session1a_022
id caadria2008_2_session1a_022
authors Theodoros, Dounas; Kotsiopoulos M. Anastasios
year 2008
title Dynamic (Shape) Grammars
source CAADRIA 2008 [Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Chiang Mai (Thailand) 9-12 April 2008, pp. 22-28
summary The research presented in the paper explores the creation of custom shape grammars with animation tools, either as learning or educational tool or for the purposes of architectural design. Standard shape grammars contain an initial shape or design and one or more transformation rules. In a simple scenario the designer just applies the rules in the initial design or in a complicated scenario has to choose which rule to apply. Dynamic shape grammars on the other hand use animation tools to produce dynamic rules of transformation, or even dynamic – parametric initial shapes on which to apply the rules on. The dynamic state of the rules in our system allows the designer to change the rules during designing without having to abandon a core idea or concept. Furthermore the implementation with an animation tool allows the design system to be form-independent and express the underlying structure of an architectural idea with non-graphical connections like parent and child relationships, or other deformation rules. It can be shown that in a computation context dynamic shape grammars are actually groups of standard shape grammars where the grammars in the group share the classification of the transformation rules they contain. The system that we present allows the designer to change between the grammars in one group in a transparent way without expressing the grammar formally but by only manipulating simple objects inside the animation software package. This transparency focuses the effort of the user in simply design and keeping track of the formal declarations of shape grammars while the multiple dynamic grammars remove the obstacle of conforming to a single set of rules. The benefits of this effort can be especially seen in actual architectural design where the focus is in developing a concept idea and not strictly adhering to the rules.
series CAADRIA
email dounas@gmail.com, kotsiop@arch.auh.gr
last changed 2008/05/17 07:16

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