CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 485

_id cf2011_p109
id cf2011_p109
authors Abdelmohsen, Sherif; Lee Jinkook, Eastman Chuck
year 2011
title Automated Cost Analysis of Concept Design BIM Models
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 403-418.
summary AUTOMATED COST ANALYSIS OF CONCEPT DESIGN BIM MODELS Interoperability: BIM models and cost models This paper introduces the automated cost analysis developed for the General Services Administration (GSA) and the analysis results of a case study involving a concept design courthouse BIM model. The purpose of this study is to investigate interoperability issues related to integrating design and analysis tools; specifically BIM models and cost models. Previous efforts to generate cost estimates from BIM models have focused on developing two necessary but disjoint processes: 1) extracting accurate quantity take off data from BIM models, and 2) manipulating cost analysis results to provide informative feedback. Some recent efforts involve developing detailed definitions, enhanced IFC-based formats and in-house standards for assemblies that encompass building models (e.g. US Corps of Engineers). Some commercial applications enhance the level of detail associated to BIM objects with assembly descriptions to produce lightweight BIM models that can be used by different applications for various purposes (e.g. Autodesk for design review, Navisworks for scheduling, Innovaya for visual estimating, etc.). This study suggests the integration of design and analysis tools by means of managing all building data in one shared repository accessible to multiple domains in the AEC industry (Eastman, 1999; Eastman et al., 2008; authors, 2010). Our approach aims at providing an integrated platform that incorporates a quantity take off extraction method from IFC models, a cost analysis model, and a comprehensive cost reporting scheme, using the Solibri Model Checker (SMC) development environment. Approach As part of the effort to improve the performance of federal buildings, GSA evaluates concept design alternatives based on their compliance with specific requirements, including cost analysis. Two basic challenges emerge in the process of automating cost analysis for BIM models: 1) At this early concept design stage, only minimal information is available to produce a reliable analysis, such as space names and areas, and building gross area, 2) design alternatives share a lot of programmatic requirements such as location, functional spaces and other data. It is thus crucial to integrate other factors that contribute to substantial cost differences such as perimeter, and exterior wall and roof areas. These are extracted from BIM models using IFC data and input through XML into the Parametric Cost Engineering System (PACES, 2010) software to generate cost analysis reports. PACES uses this limited dataset at a conceptual stage and RSMeans (2010) data to infer cost assemblies at different levels of detail. Functionalities Cost model import module The cost model import module has three main functionalities: generating the input dataset necessary for the cost model, performing a semantic mapping between building type specific names and name aggregation structures in PACES known as functional space areas (FSAs), and managing cost data external to the BIM model, such as location and construction duration. The module computes building data such as footprint, gross area, perimeter, external wall and roof area and building space areas. This data is generated through SMC in the form of an XML file and imported into PACES. Reporting module The reporting module uses the cost report generated by PACES to develop a comprehensive report in the form of an excel spreadsheet. This report consists of a systems-elemental estimate that shows the main systems of the building in terms of UniFormat categories, escalation, markups, overhead and conditions, a UniFormat Level III report, and a cost breakdown that provides a summary of material, equipment, labor and total costs. Building parameters are integrated in the report to provide insight on the variations among design alternatives.
keywords building information modeling, interoperability, cost analysis, IFC
series CAAD Futures
email sherif.morad@gatech.edu
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ijac20086405
id ijac20086405
authors Ahlquist, Sean; Fleischmann, Moritz
year 2008
title Elemental Methods for Integrated Architectures: Experimentation with Design Processes for Cable Net Structures
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 6 - no. 4, 453-475
summary Tension active systems are compelling architectural structures having an intimate connection between structural performance and the arrangement of material. The direct flow of structural forces through the material makes these systems attractive and unique from an aesthetic point of view, but they are a challenge to develop from a design and an engineering perspective. Traditional methods for solving such structural systems rely on both analog modeling techniques and the use of highly advanced engineering software. The complexity and laborious nature of both processes presents a challenge for iterating through design variations. To experiment with the spacemaking capabilities of tension active systems, it is necessary to design methods that can actively couple the digital simulation with the analog methods for building the physical structure. What we propose is a designer-authored process that digitally simulates the behaviors of tension active systems using simple geometric components related to material and structural performance, activated and varied through elemental techniques of scripting. The logics for manufacturing and assembly are to be embedded in the digital generation of form. The intention is to transform what is a highly engineered system into an architectural system where investigation is as much about the determination of space and environment as it is about the arrangement of structure and material.
series journal
last changed 2009/03/03 06:48

_id sigradi2008_175
id sigradi2008_175
authors Knight, Terry; Larry Sass, Kenfield Griffith, Ayodh Vasant Kamath
year 2008
title Visual-Physical Grammars
source SIGraDi 2008 - [Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] La Habana - Cuba 1-5 December 2008
summary This paper introduces new visual-physical design grammars for the design and manufacture of building assembly systems that provide visually rich, culturally resonant design variations for housing. The building systems are intended to be tailored for particular cultures and communities by incorporating vernacular, decorative design into the assembly design. Two complementary areas of computational design research are brought together in this work: shape grammars and digital fabrication. The visual or graphic aspects of the research are explored through shape grammars. The physical design and manufacturing aspects are explored through advanced digital design and fabrication technologies and, in particular, build on recent work on mono-material assemblies with interlocking components that can be fabricated with CNC machines and assembled easily by hand on-site (Sass, 2007). This paper describes the initial, proof-of-concept stage of this work: the development of an automated, visual-physical grammar for an assembly system based on a vernacular language of Greek meander designs. A shape grammar for the two-dimensional Greek meander language (Knight, 1986) was translated into a three-dimensional assembly system. The components of the system are uniquely designed, concrete “meander bricks” (Figure 1). The components have integrated alignment features so that they can be easily fitted and locked together manually without binding materials. Components interlock horizontally to form courses, and courses interlock vertically in different ways to produce a visual variety of meander walls. The assembly components were prototyped at desktop scale with a layered manufacturing machine to test their appearance after assembly and their potential for design variations (Figure 2). Components were then evaluated as full-scale concrete objects for satisfaction of physical constraints related to concrete forming and component strength. The automated grammar (computer program) for this system generates assembly design variations with complete CAD/CAM data for fabrication of components formed from layered, CNC cut molds. Using the grammar, a full-scale mockup of a corner wall section was constructed to assess the structural, material, and aesthetic feasibility of the system, as well as ease of assembly. The results of this study demonstrate clearly the potentials for embedding visual properties in structural systems. They provide the foundations for further work on assembly systems for complete houses and other small-scale structures, and grammars to generate them. In the long-term, this research will lead to new solutions for economical, easily manufactured housing which is especially critical in developing countries and for post-disaster environments. These new housing solutions will not only provide shelter but will also support important cultural values through the integration of familiar visual design features. The use of inexpensive, portable digital design and fabrication technologies will allow local communities to be active, cooperative participants in the design and construction of their homes. Beyond the specific context of housing, visual-physical grammars have the potential to positively impact design and manufacture of designed artifacts at many scales, and in many domains, particularly for artifacts where visual aesthetics need to be considered jointly with physical or material requirements and design customization or variation is important.
keywords Shape grammar, digital fabrication, building assembly, mass customization, housing
series SIGRADI
email tknight@mit.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:54

_id acadia08_272
id acadia08_272
authors Perez, Santiago R.
year 2008
title Crafting Complexity: Material / Procedure / Form
source Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation, [Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) / ISBN 978-0-9789463-4-0] Minneapolis 16-19 October 2008, 272-277
summary What is the role of Craft, in understanding Bio-Computational Forms & Systems? What is the relation between self-organizing systems & material-component assemblages? ¶ This paper will explore the relationship between material craft, procedure and form, in relation to complex, self-organizing assemblies. A comparison will be made, between (hand) crafted assemblies, guided by physical constraints and procedural methodologies, and digitally mediated fabrication, guided by recursion and algorithmic generative methodologies. ¶ An attempt will be made to connect various scales of making, in terms of module or unit of assembly, both at the micro-scale of biological structures, and the macro-scale of man-made systems. The goal of this essay is to question the relation between physically crafted component assemblies, as a means for exploring adaptive, complex, self-organizing systems, and bio-computational paradigms as a source of adaptive strategies for making.
keywords Adaptation; Complexity; Craft; Material; Play
series ACADIA
last changed 2009/02/26 07:39

_id acadia11_242
id acadia11_242
authors Braumann, Johannes; Brell-Cokcan, Sigrid
year 2011
title Parametric Robot Control: Integrated CAD/CAM for Architectural Design
source ACADIA 11: Integration through Computation [Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA)] [ISBN 978-1-6136-4595-6] Banff (Alberta) 13-16 October, 2011, pp. 242-251
summary Robots are gaining popularity in architecture. Snøhetta has recently purchased their own industrial robot, becoming one of the first architectural offices to adopt robot technology. As more and more architects are exposed to robotic fabrication, the need for easy interoperability, integration into architectural design tools and general accessibility will increase. Architects are discovering that industrial robots are much more than kinematic machines for stacking bricks, welding or milling - they are highly multifunctional and can be used for a huge variety of tasks. However, industry standard software does not provide easy solutions for allowing direct robot control right from CAAD (Computer Aided Architectural Design) systems. In this paper we will discuss existing methods of programming industrial robots, published architectural results (Gramazio and Kohler 2008) and the design of a new user interface that allows intuitive control of parametric designs and customized robotic mass production, by integrating CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing) functions into CAAD.
keywords robot programming; parametric design; mass customization; grasshopper component design; fabrication; robot milling; digital architecture
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email johannes@robotsinarchitecture.com
last changed 2011/10/06 04:05

_id cdc2008_377
id cdc2008_377
authors Conrad, Erik
year 2008
title Rethinking the Space of Intelligent Environments
source First International Conference on Critical Digital: What Matters(s)? - 18-19 April 2008, Harvard University Graduate School of Design, Cambridge (USA), pp. 377-382
summary Technologies are not mere exterior aids but interior changes of consciousness that shape the way the world is experienced. As we enter the age of ubiquitous computing, where computers are worn, carried or embedded into the environment, we must be careful that the ideology the technology embodies is not blindly incorporated into the environment as well. As disciplines, engineering and computer science make implicit assumptions about the world that conflict with traditional modes of cultural production. Space is commonly understood to be the void left behind when no objects are present. Unfortunately, once we see space in this way, we are unable to understand the role it plays in our everyday experience. In this paper, I argue that with the realization of the vision of ubiquitous computing, the fields of computer science and engineering reify the dominance of abstract space in real space. A new approach to the design of computing systems is necessary to reembody space. The social nature of the interface allows us to situate it within Henrí Lefebvre’s notions of space, providing new tools for thinking about how computing practice engages space as well as opening avenues to rematerialize the environment through embodied interaction.
email erik.conrad@peripheralfocus.net
last changed 2009/01/07 07:05

_id ddss2008-47
id ddss2008-47
authors Den Otter, Ad F. and H.J. Pels
year 2008
title Rivalry between the collective use of IT tools and working methods of design teams Comparison of research outcomes
source H.J.P. Timmermans, B. de Vries (eds.) 2008, Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, ISBN 978-90-6814-173-3, University of Technology Eindhoven, published on CD
summary Nowadays a high variety of IT tools is available for communication purposes in design processes on individual and group level. Despite this, the exchange and sharing of design documents collectively in design and engineering teams might be limited mainly, due to habits, preferences, working methods and rivalry between the collective use of IT tools in such product development. Changes in habits and preferences for collective use of IT tools might be realized by training and management power. However, adoption of collectively to be used tools, like project websites, is depending heavenly on the attractiveness for users in daily work. Based on empirical research outcomes it is indicated that rivalry between collective used tools and differences in working methods of users might be main barriers for attractiveness of these tools in daily work. Applying a framework for analyzing and categorizing of the frequency of use of IT tools for team communication, the authors explain the appearance of rivalry between tools, limiting the effectiveness in daily work and not affecting team communication and performance. By comparison of working methods in different sectors authors explain the necessity of changes in working methods in design and engineering in the building & construction industry on organizational and inter-organizational level for successful adoption of collectively to be used IT tools in team communication.
keywords Rivalry between IT tools, collective use, team communication, team performance, working habits, preferences, working methods, 2nd order of change
series DDSS
last changed 2008/09/01 15:06

_id acadia08_300
id acadia08_300
authors Doumpioti, Christina
year 2008
title Adaptive Growth of Fibre Composite Structures
source Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation, [Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) / ISBN 978-0-9789463-4-0] Minneapolis 16-19 October 2008, 300-307
summary The core idea of this research is the incorporation of the morphogenetic principles found in natural systems in the generation of fibre-composite structures by exploiting, at the maximum, the intrinsic performative capacities of the material system in use. The intention is the integration of form, material, structure and program into a multi-performative system that will satisfy simultaneously several, even conflicting objectives, in order to achieve an optimal compromise. This process involves the combination and implementation of concepts and methods based on precedent studies in the field of biomimetics, as well as form-finding digital and physical experiments that inform a coherent design methodology, leading to a structural system able to be fabricated using cutting-edge technology.
keywords Adaptation; Composite; Fiber; Integrative; Morphogenesis
series ACADIA
last changed 2009/02/26 07:39

_id ecaade2008_086
id ecaade2008_086
authors Elsen, Catherine; Juchmes, Roland; Kubicki, Sylvain; Leclercq, Pierre
year 2008
title DCDS – Distant Collaborative Design Studio
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 325-332
summary This paper introduces new supporting tools in the field of distant collaborative design, namely DCDS and CRTI-weB. These prototypes respectively support: the early stages of design, through the support of the crucial initial step of free-hand sketches shared in real-time, and the asynchronous collaborative activities. The main goal of this paper is to propose the use of these innovative tools as an efficient and realistic way of managing long distance collaboration, to effectively serve the designers’ needs. This proposition is analyzed and addressed through a real-size experiment featuring 30 architecture and architectural-engineering students, working together in real-time at different locations (Belgium and France). This experiment and the necessary survey open up interesting fields of investigation, such as the relevance of the proposed services in supporting distant collaborative design in architecture and the benefit this represents for students to merge the IT aspects and the design studio. The methodology and the replicability are analyzed to increase the level and quality of formation of our students and, finally, a criticism of the tools confirms a benefit for the developing teams.
keywords Distant collaborative design, sketch support systems, asynchronous collaborative activities
series eCAADe
email catherine.elsen@ulg.ac.be, r.juchmes@ulg.ac.be, pierre.leclercq@ulg.ac.be, sylvain.kubicki@tudor.lu
last changed 2008/09/09 13:55

_id ascaad2012_003
id ascaad2012_003
authors Elseragy, Ahmed
year 2012
title Creative Design Between Representation and Simulation
source CAAD | INNOVATION | PRACTICE [6th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2012 / ISBN 978-99958-2-063-3], Manama (Kingdom of Bahrain), 21-23 February 2012, pp. 11-12
summary Milestone figures of architecture all have their different views on what comes first, form or function. They also vary in their definitions of creativity. Apparently, creativity is very strongly related to ideas and how they can be generated. It is also correlated with the process of thinking and developing. Creative products, whether architectural or otherwise, and whether tangible or intangible, are originated from ‘good ideas’ (Elnokaly, Elseragy and Alsaadani, 2008). On one hand, not any idea, or any good idea, can be considered creative but, on the other hand, any creative result can be traced back to a good idea that initiated it in the beginning (Goldschmit and Tatsa, 2005). Creativity in literature, music and other forms of art is immeasurable and unbounded by constraints of physical reality. Musicians, painters and sculptors do not create within tight restrictions. They create what becomes their own mind’s intellectual property, and viewers or listeners are free to interpret these creations from whichever angle they choose. However, this is not the case with architects, whose creations and creative products are always bound with different physical constraints that may be related to the building location, social and cultural values related to the context, environmental performance and energy efficiency, and many more (Elnokaly, Elseragy and Alsaadani, 2008). Remarkably, over the last three decades computers have dominated in almost all areas of design, taking over the burden of repetitive tasks so that the designers and students can focus on the act of creation. Computer aided design has been used for a long time as a tool of drafting, however in this last decade this tool of representation is being replaced by simulation in different areas such as simulation of form, function and environment. Thus, the crafting of objects is moving towards the generation of forms and integrated systems through designer-authored computational processes. The emergence and adoption of computational technologies has significantly changed design and design education beyond the replacement of drawing boards with computers or pens and paper with computer-aided design (CAD) computer-aided engineering (CAE) applications. This paper highlights the influence of the evolving transformation from Computer Aided Design (CAD) to Computational Design (CD) and how this presents a profound shift in creative design thinking and education. Computational-based design and simulation represent new tools that encourage designers and artists to continue progression of novel modes of design thinking and creativity for the 21st century designers. Today computational design calls for new ideas that will transcend conventional boundaries and support creative insights through design and into design. However, it is still believed that in architecture education one should not replace the design process and creative thinking at early stages by software tools that shape both process and final product which may become a limitation for creative designs to adapt to the decisions and metaphors chosen by the simulation tool. This paper explores the development of Computer Aided Design (CAD) to Computational Design (CD) Tools and their impact on contemporary design education and creative design.
series ASCAAD
email ahmed.elseragy@aast.edu
more http://www.ascaad.org/conference/2012/papers/ascaad2012_003.pdf
last changed 2012/05/15 18:46

_id ecaade2008_192
id ecaade2008_192
authors Fioravanti, Antonio
year 2008
title An e-Learning Environment to Enhance Quality in Collaborative Design
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 829-836
summary The research project is aimed at enhancing the overall quality of buildings through a suitable exercise of design collaboration, and a delocalized cross-disciplinary learning for university students in the faculties of Architecture and Engineering. The research defines methods, techniques and ICT programs to provide education in the culture and exercise of collaboration for future professionals and technicians who operate in the field of the design and construction of complex building systems.
keywords Collaborative Design, e-learning, knowledge bases, ontologies, multi-agent system
series eCAADe
email antonio.fioravanti@uniroma1.it
last changed 2008/09/09 13:55

_id ddss2008-20
id ddss2008-20
authors Holanda, Frederico de; Valério Medeiros and Ana Paula Barros
year 2008
title Integration through city space-formUsing space syntax, traffic modelling and geoprocessing tools forevaluating new urban developments
source H.J.P. Timmermans, B. de Vries (eds.) 2008, Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, ISBN 978-90-6814-173-3, University of Technology Eindhoven, published on CD
summary New boroughs are continuously being built in Brasilia, Brazil’s Capital City. The paper deals with the performance of such boroughs concerning sociospatial segregation. A comparison is made between two proposals for a new borough to the West of the North Wing of the Pilot Plan, which was originally designed by Lucio Costa. The first proposal was made by a wellknown architectural studio in Brasilia and is beginning to be implemented. The second proposal is an exercise made by undergraduate students from the School of Architecture of the University of Brasilia, under the supervision of one the authors of the paper. The two proposals present very different performances. In the first case, the borough is set apart from the immediate urban surroundings; there is no direct connection between inner roads and the main arteries that surround the site. In the second case, the students have proposed a scheme that connects the interior areas of the borough to the vicinity; we hardly know where the new borough begins vis-à-vis the neighbouring areas. We argue that there are serious traffic implications in the first case, as well as sociological implications. We deal with traffic modelling, space syntax techniques and geoprocessing tools to prove so. Furthermore, we will show how the building types are as well socially inadequate, for they will imply homogeneous social layers among the inhabitants – namely exclusively high-middle class living in the new area.
keywords Space syntax, traffic modelling, urban expansion, urban design
series DDSS
last changed 2008/09/01 15:06

_id cdc2008_181
id cdc2008_181
authors Kaijima, Sawako and Panagiotis Michalatos
year 2008
title Simplexity, the programming craft and architecture production
source First International Conference on Critical Digital: What Matters(s)? - 18-19 April 2008, Harvard University Graduate School of Design, Cambridge (USA), pp. 181-194
summary In resent years, digital design tools have become prevalent in the design community and their capabilities to manipulate geometry have grown into a trend among architects to generate complex forms. Working as computational design consultant in an engineering firm, between architecture and engineering we often come across the problems generated by a superficial use of digital tools in both disciplines and the incapacity of the current system to cope with their byproducts. Here we will discuss the problems we see with the current system and the opportunities opened by digital design tools. Two guiding concepts are simplexity [the desire to fine tune and build a system that yields a solution to a specific design problem by collapsing its inherent complexity] and defamiliarization [a side effect of having to represent things as numbers]. They can both affect the designer as an individual who chooses to engage with digital media as well as the production system in which he/she is embedded since he/she will have to find new channels of communication with other parties. To demonstrate our strategy and the obstacles faced we will examine our involvement in the development of a computational design solution for a small house designed by Future Systems architects.
email sawako@akt-uk.com
last changed 2009/01/07 07:05

_id ecaade2008_178
id ecaade2008_178
authors Kolarevic, Branko
year 2008
title Architecture in the Post-Digital Age: Towards Integrative Design
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 653-658
summary For many, integration within the building industry is an inevitable outcome as architecture, engineering, and construction enter a ‘post-digital’ age. This paper argues that the challenge is to avoid closed systems of integration and to keep integrative tendencies as open as possible, conceptually and operationally. An alternative vision of integrated design is proposed that is more open, fluid, pliable, and opportunistic in its search of collaborative alliances and agendas. This alternative approach is referred to as integrative design, in which methods, processes, and techniques are discovered, appropriated, adapted, and altered from ‘elsewhere’, and often ‘digitally’ pursued.
keywords Integrated design, integrative design
series eCAADe
email branko.kolarevic@ucalgary.ca
last changed 2008/09/09 13:55

_id ijac20086402
id ijac20086402
authors Larsen, Knut Einar; Schindler, Christoph
year 2008
title From Concept to Reality: Digital Systems in Architectural Design and Fabrication
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 6 - no. 4, 397-413
summary One of the challenges for today's architectural designers is the establishment of continuous digital processes between design and fabrication. To achieve this, designers need to acquire knowledge about the production and the methods and tools involved. Two case studies organized at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) on digital timber fabrication investigate the new field of collaboration between architectural designers and fabricators. The studies demonstrate the design potential of acquiring insights into the fabricators' software and digital production machinery and reflect contemporary fabrication technology in formal expression. We identified two different approaches to formal exploration that we defined as "sophistication of the detail" and "variation of the element".
series journal
last changed 2009/03/03 06:48

_id ddss2008-39
id ddss2008-39
authors Meshitsuka, Yusuke and Yoshitsugu Aoki
year 2008
title Stochastic Transition of Fire-prevention Performanceof Urban Area
source H.J.P. Timmermans, B. de Vries (eds.) 2008, Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, ISBN 978-90-6814-173-3, University of Technology Eindhoven, published on CD
summary The aim of this study is to analyze the tendency of building renewal in order to understand the fire prevention performance of the Tokyo metropolitan area. To this end, firstly, the Tokyo metropolitan area was divided into small areas of 250,000 square meters, and the following stochastic transition matrix of each small area was estimated, 1. Stochastic matrix of state transition between the building use types, 2. Stochastic matrix of state transition between the structures of buildings. Secondly, the converged state of each small area was estimated with a Markov chain model. Finally, small areas where fire prevention performance will change for the better/constant/worse were pointed out from their converged states. The results suggest that in small areas where percentage of housing and commerce are increasing, the fire prevention performance will become worse.
keywords Urban Earthquake Disaster Mitigation, Earthquake Fire, Stochastic Transition Matrix
series DDSS
last changed 2008/09/01 15:06

_id acadia08_324
id acadia08_324
authors Narahara, Taro
year 2008
title New Methodologies in Architectural Design inspired by Self-Organization
source Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation, [Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) / ISBN 978-0-9789463-4-0] Minneapolis 16-19 October 2008, 324-331
summary This paper introduces a potential application of construction systems seen in biological systems to overcome various shortcomings in human architecture. Unlike human constructions, some social insects can produce habitable structures with simple rules without predetermined blueprints or central leaders to gain more adaptability. Active application of logics from self-organizing systems can possibly enhance our conventional centralized methods by designing artificial distributed systems. A conceptual case study is presented that involves a notion of the collective construction.
keywords Algorithm; Construction; Flocking; Genetic; Self-Organization
series ACADIA
last changed 2009/02/26 07:39

_id sigradi2008_166
id sigradi2008_166
authors Papanikolaou, Dimitris
year 2008
title Digital Fabrication Production System Theory: Towards an Integrated Environment for Design and Production of Assemblies
source SIGraDi 2008 - [Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] La Habana - Cuba 1-5 December 2008
summary A Digital Fabrication Production System (DFPS) is a concept describing a set of processes, tools, and resources that will be able to produce an artifact according to a design, fast, cheap, and easy, independently of location. A DFPS project is a complex assembly of custom parts that is delivered by a network of fabrication and assembly processes. This network is called the value chain. The workflow concept of a DFPS is the following: begin design process with a custom geometric form; decompose it into constructible parts; send the part files for fabrication to various locations; transport all parts at the construction site at the right time; finally, assemble the final artifact. Conceptually it means that based on a well structured value chain we could build anything we want, at anyplace, at controllable cost and quality. The goals of a DFPS are the following: custom shapes, controllable lead time, controllable quality, controllable cost, easiness of fabrication, and easiness of assembly. Simply stated this means to build any form, anywhere, accurately, cheap, fast, and easy. Unfortunately, the reality with current Digital Fabrication (DF) projects is rather disappointing: They take more time than what was planned, they get more expensive than what was expected, they involve great risk and uncertainty, and finally they are too complex to plan, understand, and manage. Moreover, most of these problems are discovered during production when it is already late for correction. However, there is currently no systematic approach to evaluate difficulty of production of DF projects in Architecture. Most of current risk assessment methods are based on experience gathered from previous similar cases. But it is the premise of mass customization that projects can be radically different. Assembly incompatibilities are currently addressed by building physical mockups. But physical mockups cause a significant loss in both time and cost. All these problems suggest that an introduction of a DFPS for mass customization in architecture needs first an integrated theory of assembly and management control. Evaluating feasibility of a DF project has two main problems: first, how to evaluate assemblability of the design; second, how to evaluate performance of the value chain. Assemblability is a system’s structure problem, while performance is a system’s dynamics problem. Structure of systems has been studied in the field of Systems Engineering by Network Analysis methods such as the Design Structure Matrix (DSM) (Steward 1981), and the liaison graph (Whitney 2004), while dynamics of systems have been studied by System Dynamics (Forrester 1961). Can we define a formal method to evaluate the difficulty of production of an artifact if we know the artifact’s design and the production system’s structure? This paper formulates Attribute Process Methodology (APM); a method for assessing feasibility of a DFPS project that combines Network Analysis to evaluate assemblability of the design with System Dynamics to evaluate performance of the value chain.
keywords Digital Fabrication, Production System, System Dynamics, Network Analysis, Assembly
series SIGRADI
email dimp@mit.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:57

_id acadia08_054
id acadia08_054
authors Sabin, Jenny E.; Peter Lloyd Jones
year 2008
title Nonlinear Systems Biology and Design: Surface Design
source Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation, [Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) / ISBN 978-0-9789463-4-0] Minneapolis 16-19 October 2008, 54-65
summary The intent of this paper is to jointly investigate fundamental processes in living systems, their potential application in the novel design of responsive surfaces and spatial structures, and their applicability in biomedicine. Through the investigation of organotypic biological models designed to recapitulate breast tissue homeostasis and cancer, parallel models work to unfold the parametric logic of these biological and responsive membrane and scaffold structures, thereby revealing their deep interior logics. The result is an abstract surface architecture capable of responding dynamically to both environment (context) and to deeper interior programmed systems.
keywords Algorithm; Biology; Material; Morphogenesis; Nonlinear
series ACADIA
last changed 2009/02/26 07:39

_id acadia08_376
id acadia08_376
authors Silver, Mike
year 2008
title The Most Important Airplane In The History Of Architecture
source Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation, [Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) / ISBN 978-0-9789463-4-0] Minneapolis 16-19 October 2008, 376-381
summary Composite structures consist of high strength carbon threads held together in a matrix of epoxy resin or thermoplastics. Surfaces made from these materials are typically 10 times lighter and 1.5 times stronger than aluminum. Both simple and highly contoured shapes possessing extreme strength can be produced using a computer controlled fiber placement machine (FPM). These incredibly thin, corrosion resistant membranes require little or no supplemental support to manage loads and enclose space. The computer’s ability to determine the precise location of each fiber strand in a fiber placed part also facilitates unprecedented control of its aesthetic and functional properties. Fiber placement technology integrates building components that would normally be separated into clearly distinct systems. Here ornament, structure and cladding are collapsed into one material process. This paper explores the architectural potential of a technology normally reserved for aerospace applications through research conducted in close collaboration with fiber placement engineers at Automated Dynamics in Schenectady, New York (ADC).
keywords Composite; Digital Fabrication; Fiber; Skin; Structure
series ACADIA
last changed 2009/02/26 07:39

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