CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id cf2011_p109
id cf2011_p109
authors Abdelmohsen, Sherif; Lee Jinkook, Eastman Chuck
year 2011
title Automated Cost Analysis of Concept Design BIM Models
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 403-418.
summary AUTOMATED COST ANALYSIS OF CONCEPT DESIGN BIM MODELS Interoperability: BIM models and cost models This paper introduces the automated cost analysis developed for the General Services Administration (GSA) and the analysis results of a case study involving a concept design courthouse BIM model. The purpose of this study is to investigate interoperability issues related to integrating design and analysis tools; specifically BIM models and cost models. Previous efforts to generate cost estimates from BIM models have focused on developing two necessary but disjoint processes: 1) extracting accurate quantity take off data from BIM models, and 2) manipulating cost analysis results to provide informative feedback. Some recent efforts involve developing detailed definitions, enhanced IFC-based formats and in-house standards for assemblies that encompass building models (e.g. US Corps of Engineers). Some commercial applications enhance the level of detail associated to BIM objects with assembly descriptions to produce lightweight BIM models that can be used by different applications for various purposes (e.g. Autodesk for design review, Navisworks for scheduling, Innovaya for visual estimating, etc.). This study suggests the integration of design and analysis tools by means of managing all building data in one shared repository accessible to multiple domains in the AEC industry (Eastman, 1999; Eastman et al., 2008; authors, 2010). Our approach aims at providing an integrated platform that incorporates a quantity take off extraction method from IFC models, a cost analysis model, and a comprehensive cost reporting scheme, using the Solibri Model Checker (SMC) development environment. Approach As part of the effort to improve the performance of federal buildings, GSA evaluates concept design alternatives based on their compliance with specific requirements, including cost analysis. Two basic challenges emerge in the process of automating cost analysis for BIM models: 1) At this early concept design stage, only minimal information is available to produce a reliable analysis, such as space names and areas, and building gross area, 2) design alternatives share a lot of programmatic requirements such as location, functional spaces and other data. It is thus crucial to integrate other factors that contribute to substantial cost differences such as perimeter, and exterior wall and roof areas. These are extracted from BIM models using IFC data and input through XML into the Parametric Cost Engineering System (PACES, 2010) software to generate cost analysis reports. PACES uses this limited dataset at a conceptual stage and RSMeans (2010) data to infer cost assemblies at different levels of detail. Functionalities Cost model import module The cost model import module has three main functionalities: generating the input dataset necessary for the cost model, performing a semantic mapping between building type specific names and name aggregation structures in PACES known as functional space areas (FSAs), and managing cost data external to the BIM model, such as location and construction duration. The module computes building data such as footprint, gross area, perimeter, external wall and roof area and building space areas. This data is generated through SMC in the form of an XML file and imported into PACES. Reporting module The reporting module uses the cost report generated by PACES to develop a comprehensive report in the form of an excel spreadsheet. This report consists of a systems-elemental estimate that shows the main systems of the building in terms of UniFormat categories, escalation, markups, overhead and conditions, a UniFormat Level III report, and a cost breakdown that provides a summary of material, equipment, labor and total costs. Building parameters are integrated in the report to provide insight on the variations among design alternatives.
keywords building information modeling, interoperability, cost analysis, IFC
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ijac20086405
id ijac20086405
authors Ahlquist, Sean; Fleischmann, Moritz
year 2008
title Elemental Methods for Integrated Architectures: Experimentation with Design Processes for Cable Net Structures
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 6 - no. 4, 453-475
summary Tension active systems are compelling architectural structures having an intimate connection between structural performance and the arrangement of material. The direct flow of structural forces through the material makes these systems attractive and unique from an aesthetic point of view, but they are a challenge to develop from a design and an engineering perspective. Traditional methods for solving such structural systems rely on both analog modeling techniques and the use of highly advanced engineering software. The complexity and laborious nature of both processes presents a challenge for iterating through design variations. To experiment with the spacemaking capabilities of tension active systems, it is necessary to design methods that can actively couple the digital simulation with the analog methods for building the physical structure. What we propose is a designer-authored process that digitally simulates the behaviors of tension active systems using simple geometric components related to material and structural performance, activated and varied through elemental techniques of scripting. The logics for manufacturing and assembly are to be embedded in the digital generation of form. The intention is to transform what is a highly engineered system into an architectural system where investigation is as much about the determination of space and environment as it is about the arrangement of structure and material.
series journal
last changed 2009/03/03 06:48

_id acadia08_448
id acadia08_448
authors Alfaris, Anas; Riccardo Merello
year 2008
title The Generative Multi-Performance Design System
source Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation, [Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) / ISBN 978-0-9789463-4-0] Minneapolis 16-19 October 2008, 448-457
summary This paper proposes a framework for an integrated computational design system. This design system builds on the strengths inherent in both generative synthesis models and multi-performance analysis and optimization. Four main design mechanisms and their mathematical models are discussed and their integration proposed. The process of building the design system begins by a top-down decomposition of a design concept. The different disciplines involved are decomposed into modules that simulate the respective design mechanisms. Subsequently through a bottom-up approach, the design modules are connected into a data flow network that includes clusters and subsystems. This network forms the Generative Multi-Performance Design System. This integrated system acts as a holistic structured functional unit that searches the design space for satisfactory solutions. The proposed design system is domain independent. Its potential will be demonstrated through a pilot project in which a multi-performance space planning problem is considered. The results are then discussed and analyzed.
keywords Analysis; Behavior; Generative; Optimization; Performance
series ACADIA
type normal paper
last changed 2009/02/26 07:47

_id sigradi2016_450
id sigradi2016_450
authors Araujo, André L.; Celani, Gabriela
year 2016
title Exploring Weaire-Phelan through Cellular Automata: A proposal for a structural variance-producing engine
source SIGraDi 2016 [Proceedings of the 20th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-956-7051-86-1] Argentina, Buenos Aires 9 - 11 November 2016, pp.710-714
summary Complex forms and structures have always been highly valued in architecture, even much before the development of computers. Many architects and engineers have strived to develop structures that look very complex but at the same time are relatively simple to understand, calculate and build. A good example of this approach is the Beijing National Aquatics Centre design for the 2008 Olympic Games, also known as the Water Cube. This paper presents a proposal for a structural variance-producing engine using cellular automata (CA) techniques to produce complex structures based on Weaire-Phelan geometry. In other words, this research evaluates how generative and parametric design can be integrated with structural performance in order to enhance design flexibility and control in different stages of the design process. The method we propose was built in three groups of procedures: 1) we developed a method to generate several fits for the two Weaire-Phelan polyhedrons using CA computation techniques; 2) through the finite elements method, we codify the structural analysis outcomes to use them as inputs for the CA algorithm; 3) evaluation: we propose a framework to compare how the final outcomes deviate for the good solutions in terms of structural performance and rationalization of components. We are interested in knowing how the combination of the procedures could contribute to produce complex structures that are at the same time certain rational. The system developed allows the structural analysis of structured automatically generated by a generative system. However, some efficient solutions from the structural performance point of view do not necessarily represent a rational solution from the feasibility aspects.
keywords Structural design; Complex structures; Bottom-up design approach
series SIGraDi
last changed 2017/06/21 12:18

_id acadia08_364
id acadia08_364
authors Bonwetsch, Tobias; Ralph Baertschi ;Silvan Oesterle
year 2008
title Adding Performance Criteria to Digital Fabrication: Room-Acoustical Information of Diffuse Respondent Panels
source Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation, [Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) / ISBN 978-0-9789463-4-0] Minneapolis 16-19 October 2008, 364-369
summary In this research project we explore the defined design and application of digitally fabricated wall panels for room-acoustical architectural interventions. In Particular, we investigate the room-acoustical criteria applying to everyday used spaces. We present a digital design and fabrication process developed to create non-standardised panels and two case studies which apply this process on the acoustical improvement of a specific room situation. Our aim is to find correlations between digitally fabricated surface structures and sound- aesthetical characteristics, in order to utilise these for the architectural design.
keywords Acoustics; Digital Fabrication; Evaluation; Material; Robotics
series ACADIA
last changed 2009/02/26 07:39

_id ascaad2016_027
id ascaad2016_027
authors Cocho-Bermejo, Ana
year 2016
title Time in Adaptable Architecture - Deployable emergency intelligent membrane
source Parametricism Vs. Materialism: Evolution of Digital Technologies for Development [8th ASCAAD Conference Proceedings ISBN 978-0-9955691-0-2] London (United Kingdom) 7-8 November 2016, pp. 249-258
summary The term "Parametricism" widespread mainly by Patrick Schumacher (Schumacher, 2008) is worthy of study. Developing the concept of Human Oriented Parametric Architecture, the need of implementing time as the lost parameter in current adaptive design techniques will be discussed. Morphogenetic processes ideas will be discussed through the principle of an adaptable membrane as a case study. A model implementing a unique Arduino[i] on the façade will control its patterns performance through an Artificial Neural Network that will understand the kind of scenario the building is in, activating a Genetic Algorithm that will optimize the insulation performance of the ETFE pillows. The system will work with a global behavior for façade pattern performance and with a local one for each pillow, giving the option of individual sun-shading control. Machine learning implementation will give the façade the possibility to learn from the efficacy of its decisions through time, eliminating the need of a general on-off behavior.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2017/05/25 11:31

_id acadia08_126
id acadia08_126
authors Cook+Fox Architects
year 2008
title The Generation of a Smart Cloud
source Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation, [Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) / ISBN 978-0-9789463-4-0] Minneapolis 16-19 October 2008, 126-133
summary This paper presents the process by which Cook+Fox Architects responded to a design challenge that was part metaphorical and part practical. The project involved providing an environmental response to the natural world existing almost 800 feet above the ground, on the second-highest occupiable floor of New York City’s second-tallest building. Environmentally-responsive features at the Bank of America Tower at One Bryant Park are expected to make it the first LEED-Platinum high-rise in the world. The fiftieth floor was conceived as a headquarters for the fashion designer Elie Tahari, the south facing portion of the floorplate was to house a highly adaptable showroom that needed to be adaptable to complement and enhance each season’s particular aesthetics. Additionally, the ceiling in the showroom space needed to allow for optimized height in an environment where structural, mechanical, electrical and sprinkler systems were all designed to be concealed. A combination of numerous computer-aided design scripts took into account various input variables and finally led to the generation of a Smart Cloud.
keywords Analysis; Behavior; Generative; Optimization; Performance
series ACADIA
last changed 2009/02/26 07:39

_id ddss2008-47
id ddss2008-47
authors Den Otter, Ad F. and H.J. Pels
year 2008
title Rivalry between the collective use of IT tools and working methods of design teams Comparison of research outcomes
source H.J.P. Timmermans, B. de Vries (eds.) 2008, Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, ISBN 978-90-6814-173-3, University of Technology Eindhoven, published on CD
summary Nowadays a high variety of IT tools is available for communication purposes in design processes on individual and group level. Despite this, the exchange and sharing of design documents collectively in design and engineering teams might be limited mainly, due to habits, preferences, working methods and rivalry between the collective use of IT tools in such product development. Changes in habits and preferences for collective use of IT tools might be realized by training and management power. However, adoption of collectively to be used tools, like project websites, is depending heavenly on the attractiveness for users in daily work. Based on empirical research outcomes it is indicated that rivalry between collective used tools and differences in working methods of users might be main barriers for attractiveness of these tools in daily work. Applying a framework for analyzing and categorizing of the frequency of use of IT tools for team communication, the authors explain the appearance of rivalry between tools, limiting the effectiveness in daily work and not affecting team communication and performance. By comparison of working methods in different sectors authors explain the necessity of changes in working methods in design and engineering in the building & construction industry on organizational and inter-organizational level for successful adoption of collectively to be used IT tools in team communication.
keywords Rivalry between IT tools, collective use, team communication, team performance, working habits, preferences, working methods, 2nd order of change
series DDSS
last changed 2008/09/01 15:06

_id caadria2008_62_session6a_510
id caadria2008_62_session6a_510
authors Diniz, Nancy
year 2008
title Body tailored space: Configuring Space through Embodiment
source CAADRIA 2008 [Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Chiang Mai (Thailand) 9-12 April 2008, pp. 510-517
summary With this project I propose that embodiment can be more emphasized and better supported in space-design frameworks. This paper presents background on several theories of embodiment since the beginning of the twentieth century to recent developments of the concept in tangible and social computing and anticipate that this reveals pathways for designing new embodiment framework systems for architecture. I suggest that architecture and interactive computing can share a common theoretical foundation in embodied interaction. The main thesis is for designers to use the body as an interface to understand how the interaction between a person and his/her surroundings arises and how our embodiment reveals other rich spatial qualities during the conception phase of design. This paper proposes a conceptual framework for embodied interaction based on the creation of real-time systems in order to instigate a framework for interactive processes that can help designers understand architecture phenomena and the performance of space. I present a design experiment on embodied performance space entitled “Body Tailored Space” where the boundaries of the human body are metaphorically extended into surrounding membranes.
keywords Embodiment; embodied interaction; interactive architecture; phenomenology; second order cybernetics
series CAADRIA
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id ascaad2012_003
id ascaad2012_003
authors Elseragy, Ahmed
year 2012
title Creative Design Between Representation and Simulation
source CAAD | INNOVATION | PRACTICE [6th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2012 / ISBN 978-99958-2-063-3], Manama (Kingdom of Bahrain), 21-23 February 2012, pp. 11-12
summary Milestone figures of architecture all have their different views on what comes first, form or function. They also vary in their definitions of creativity. Apparently, creativity is very strongly related to ideas and how they can be generated. It is also correlated with the process of thinking and developing. Creative products, whether architectural or otherwise, and whether tangible or intangible, are originated from ‘good ideas’ (Elnokaly, Elseragy and Alsaadani, 2008). On one hand, not any idea, or any good idea, can be considered creative but, on the other hand, any creative result can be traced back to a good idea that initiated it in the beginning (Goldschmit and Tatsa, 2005). Creativity in literature, music and other forms of art is immeasurable and unbounded by constraints of physical reality. Musicians, painters and sculptors do not create within tight restrictions. They create what becomes their own mind’s intellectual property, and viewers or listeners are free to interpret these creations from whichever angle they choose. However, this is not the case with architects, whose creations and creative products are always bound with different physical constraints that may be related to the building location, social and cultural values related to the context, environmental performance and energy efficiency, and many more (Elnokaly, Elseragy and Alsaadani, 2008). Remarkably, over the last three decades computers have dominated in almost all areas of design, taking over the burden of repetitive tasks so that the designers and students can focus on the act of creation. Computer aided design has been used for a long time as a tool of drafting, however in this last decade this tool of representation is being replaced by simulation in different areas such as simulation of form, function and environment. Thus, the crafting of objects is moving towards the generation of forms and integrated systems through designer-authored computational processes. The emergence and adoption of computational technologies has significantly changed design and design education beyond the replacement of drawing boards with computers or pens and paper with computer-aided design (CAD) computer-aided engineering (CAE) applications. This paper highlights the influence of the evolving transformation from Computer Aided Design (CAD) to Computational Design (CD) and how this presents a profound shift in creative design thinking and education. Computational-based design and simulation represent new tools that encourage designers and artists to continue progression of novel modes of design thinking and creativity for the 21st century designers. Today computational design calls for new ideas that will transcend conventional boundaries and support creative insights through design and into design. However, it is still believed that in architecture education one should not replace the design process and creative thinking at early stages by software tools that shape both process and final product which may become a limitation for creative designs to adapt to the decisions and metaphors chosen by the simulation tool. This paper explores the development of Computer Aided Design (CAD) to Computational Design (CD) Tools and their impact on contemporary design education and creative design.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2012/05/15 18:46

_id acadia08_072
id acadia08_072
authors Frumar, Jerome
year 2008
title An Energy Centric Approach to Architecture: Abstracting the material to co-rationalize design and performance
source Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation, [Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) / ISBN 978-0-9789463-4-0] Minneapolis 16-19 October 2008, 72-81
summary This paper begins by exploring matter as an aggregated system of energy transactions and modulations. With this in mind, it examines the notion of energy driven form finding as a design methodology that can simultaneously negotiate physical, environmental and fabrication considerations. The digital workspace enables this notion of form finding to re-establish itself in the world of architecture through a range of analytic tools that algorithmically encode real world physics. Simulating the spatial and energetic characteristics of reality enables virtual “form generation models that recognize the laws of physics and are able to create ‘minimum’ surfaces for compression, bending [and] tension” (Cook 2004). The language of energy, common in engineering and materials science, enables a renewed trans-disciplinary dialogue that addresses significant historic disjunctions such as the professional divide between architects and engineers. Design becomes a science of exploring abstracted energy states to discover a suitable resonance with which to tune the built environment. ¶ A case study of one particular method of energy driven form finding is presented. Bi-directional Evolutionary Structural Optimization (BESO) is a generative engineering technique developed at RMIT University. It appropriates natural growth strategies to determine optimum forms that respond to structural criteria by reorganizing their topology. This dynamic topology response enables structural optimization to become an integrated component of design exploration. A sequence of investigations illustrates the flexibility and trans-disciplinary benefits of this approach. Using BESO as a tool for design rather than purely for structural optimization fuses the creative approach of the architect with the pragmatic approach of the engineer, enabling outcomes that neither profession could develop in isolation. The BESO case study alludes to future design processes that will facilitate a coherent unfolding of design logic comparable to morphogenesis.
keywords Energy; Form-Finding; Morphogenesis; Optimization; Structure
series ACADIA
last changed 2009/02/26 07:39

_id acadia08_182
id acadia08_182
authors Gibson, Michael; Kevin R. Klinger; Joshua Vermillion
year 2008
title Constructing Information: Towards a Feedback Ecology in Digital Design and Fabrication
source Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation, [Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) / ISBN 978-0-9789463-4-0] Minneapolis 16-19 October 2008, 182-191
summary As strategies evolve using digital means to navigate design in architecture, critical process-based approaches are essential to the discourse. The often complex integration of design, analysis, and fabrication through digital technologies is wholly reliant upon a process-basis necessitating the use of a design feedback loop, which reinforces critical decision-making and challenges the notions of how we produce, visualize, and analyze information in the service of production and assembly. Central to this process-based approach is the effective and innovative integration of information and the interrogation of material based explorations in the making of architecture. This fabrication ‘ecology’ forces designers to engage complexity and accept the unpredictability of emergent systems. It also exposes the process of working to critique and refine feedback loops in light of complex tools, methods, materials, site, and performance considerations. In total, strategies for engaging this ‘ecology’ are essential to accentuate our present understanding of environmental design and theory in relation to digital processes for design and fabrication. ¶ This paper recounts a design/fabrication seminar entitled “Constructing Information” in which architecture students examined an environmental design problem by way of the design feedback loop, where their efforts in applying digital design and fabrication methods were driven explicitly by material and site realities and where their work was executed, installed, and critically explored in situ. These projections raise important questions about how information, complexity, and context overlay and merge, and underscore the critical potential of visual, spatial, and material effects as part of a fabrication-oriented design process.
keywords Digital Fabrication; Ecology; Environment; Feedback; Performance
series ACADIA
last changed 2009/02/26 07:39

_id ddss2008-11
id ddss2008-11
authors Gohnai, Y.; A. Ohgai and K. Watanabe
year 2008
title A simulation model development of firefightingactivity by community residents against coseismic firespread using multi-agent systemAs a support tool for community-based disaster preventionplanning
source H.J.P. Timmermans, B. de Vries (eds.) 2008, Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, ISBN 978-90-6814-173-3, University of Technology Eindhoven, published on CD
summary This paper attempted to develop a simulation model of residents’ firefighting activity against coseismic fire spread using multi-agent system. The developed model was applied to a case study area. In the application, the simulations were carried out to the existing area and eleven cases of the assumption (virtual conditions) of the area where are implemented various non-physical and physical measures. As a result, the measures with only physical and haphazard multitude of measures did not show a remarked effect of disaster prevention performance. And, it is confirmed that the model can visually, dynamically and quantitatively output results. From these outputs, the possibility of contribution for enhancing residents’ awareness and drafting a plan of disaster prevention was confirmed. However, there are still some problems to be solved for the practical use of the model.
keywords Community-based Planning for Disaster Prevention, Planning Support System, Fire Spread Simulation, Firefighting simulation, Multi-agent system, Cellular Automata
series DDSS
last changed 2008/09/01 15:06

_id ddss2008-20
id ddss2008-20
authors Holanda, Frederico de; Valério Medeiros and Ana Paula Barros
year 2008
title Integration through city space-formUsing space syntax, traffic modelling and geoprocessing tools forevaluating new urban developments
source H.J.P. Timmermans, B. de Vries (eds.) 2008, Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, ISBN 978-90-6814-173-3, University of Technology Eindhoven, published on CD
summary New boroughs are continuously being built in Brasilia, Brazil’s Capital City. The paper deals with the performance of such boroughs concerning sociospatial segregation. A comparison is made between two proposals for a new borough to the West of the North Wing of the Pilot Plan, which was originally designed by Lucio Costa. The first proposal was made by a wellknown architectural studio in Brasilia and is beginning to be implemented. The second proposal is an exercise made by undergraduate students from the School of Architecture of the University of Brasilia, under the supervision of one the authors of the paper. The two proposals present very different performances. In the first case, the borough is set apart from the immediate urban surroundings; there is no direct connection between inner roads and the main arteries that surround the site. In the second case, the students have proposed a scheme that connects the interior areas of the borough to the vicinity; we hardly know where the new borough begins vis-à-vis the neighbouring areas. We argue that there are serious traffic implications in the first case, as well as sociological implications. We deal with traffic modelling, space syntax techniques and geoprocessing tools to prove so. Furthermore, we will show how the building types are as well socially inadequate, for they will imply homogeneous social layers among the inhabitants – namely exclusively high-middle class living in the new area.
keywords Space syntax, traffic modelling, urban expansion, urban design
series DDSS
last changed 2008/09/01 15:06

_id ecaade2008_091
id ecaade2008_091
authors Holzer, Dominik
year 2008
title Let’s get Physical
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 125-132
summary This paper presents an approach for familiarizing architecture students with concepts of environmental performance in the early design stages. A design studio was run at the University of Technology Sydney by Leena Thomas and the author where students were applying building performance analysis to inform their design process from the very beginning of the semester. Students were using parametric design and evolutionary structural optimization in conjunction with environmental performance optimization. Michael Hensel and Defne Sunguroglu (Ocean North) joined the studio at half time for a workshop to investigate how processes occurring in nature can be mapped to inform the morphological design process. In spite the multitude of challenges put to the students during the semester in regard to their design methodology and techniques, they were able to produce highly performative and aesthetically pleasing design outcomes.
keywords environmental design, structural optimization, parametric design, design education, morphologic design exploration
series eCAADe
last changed 2008/09/09 13:55

_id cdc2008_017
id cdc2008_017
authors Holzer, Dominik
year 2008
title Embracing the Post-digital
source First International Conference on Critical Digital: What Matters(s)? - 18-19 April 2008, Harvard University Graduate School of Design, Cambridge (USA), pp. 17-22
summary This paper discusses ways for designers to reconnect their design methodologies with the process of making. The paper takes a critical standpoint on the way architects have integrated digital tools and computational processes in their design over the past three to four decades. By scrutinising the support designers can derive from their virtual design-space it is debated in how far this may be complemented by sensory information-feedback from the physical design-space. A studio-based design project is used to illustrate how students have approached this issue to address aspects of building performance in a post-digital way. Moving between digital and physical models without difficulty, the students were able to study the effects geometrical changes on sustainability-performance in real time.
last changed 2009/01/07 07:05

_id cf2011_p108
id cf2011_p108
authors Iordanova, Ivanka; Forgues Daniel, Chiocchio François
year 2011
title Creation of an Evolutive Conceptual Know-how Framework for Integrative Building Design
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 435-450.
summary Low productivity of the building sector today is attributed to the fragmentation of tasks, disciplines and responsibilities, as well as to the resistance to adopt integrative work processes and digital means. The increased complexity of architectural projects and the aroused social consciousness for sustainable environment calls for integrative design collaboration. Thus, there is need for a Conceptual Framework combining work processes, technological means and policy aspects. According to the literature, integrative multidisciplinary design is a strategy resulting in high performance buildings nurturing sustainable way of living (Reed et al. 2009, Krygiel & Nies 2008). Responding to the increased technological complexity of our built environment, as well as to the objective of meeting multiple criteria of quality, both necessitating multidisciplinary collaboration during design, Building Information Modeling (BIM) is seen as a powerful means for fostering quality, augmenting productivity and decreasing loss in construction. Based on recent research, we can propose that a sustainable building can be designed through an integrative design process (IDP) which is best supported by BIM. However, our ongoing research program and consultations with advanced practitioners underscore a number of limitations. For example, a large portion of the interviewed professionals and construction stakeholders do not necessarily see a link between sustainable building, integrative design process and BIM, while in our opinion, their joint use augments the power of each of these approaches taken separately. Thus, there is an urgent necessity for the definition of an IDP-BIM framework, which could guide the building industry to sustainable results and better productivity. This paper defines such a framework, whose theoretical background lays on studies in social learning (activity theory and situated action theories). These theories suggest that learning and knowledge generation occurs mainly within a social process defined as an activity. This corresponds to the context in which the IDP-BIM framework will be used, its final objective being the transformation of building design practices. The proposed IDP-BIM framework is based on previous research and developments. Thus, firstly, IDP process was well formalized in the Roadmap for the Integrated Design Process‚ (Reed et al.) which is widely used as a guideline for collaborative integrative design by innovating practices in USA and Canada. Secondly, the National Building Information Modeling Standard (NBIMS) of the USA is putting an enormous effort in creating a BIM standard, Succar (2008) recently proposed a conceptual framework for BIM, but BIM ontology is still under development (Gursel et al 2009). Thirdly, an iterative design process bound to gating reviews (inspired from software development processes) was found to be successful in the context of multidisciplinary design studios (reported in our previous papers). The feedback from this study allowed for modifications and adjustments included in the present proposal. The gating process assures the good quality of the project and its compliance to the client's requirements. The challenge of this research is to map the above mentioned approaches, processes and technologies into the design process, thus creating an integrated framework supporting and nurturing sustainable design. The IDP-BIM framework can be represented by a multidimensional matrix linked to a semantic network knowledge database: - the axes of the matrix being the project timeline, the design process actors and building stakeholders (architect, engineers, client, contractor, environmental biologist, etc.), or different aspects of building performance (environmental, functional, social, interior environment quality, cost, etc.); and - the knowledge database providing multiple layers of semantic support in terms of process, domain knowledge, technology and workflow at a given moment of the project and for a given actor or building aspect. The IDP-BIM framework is created as an evolutive digital environment for know-how and will have an established protocol for regular updates. The paper will firstly present the state of the art in IDP and BIM. Secondly, it will expose the methodology used for the definition of the Framework, followed by a description of its structure, contents and digital implementation. Then, some scenarios for the use of the Framework will be shown as validation.
keywords integrated design process, BIM, multidisciplinary design, conceptual framework
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cdc2008_245
id cdc2008_245
authors Kim, Simon and Mariana Ibanez
year 2008
title Tempus Fugit: Transitions and Performance in Activated Architecture
source First International Conference on Critical Digital: What Matters(s)? - 18-19 April 2008, Harvard University Graduate School of Design, Cambridge (USA), pp. 245-251
summary Meaning in architecture has isotropic instances of realization, one that can unfold during the design process and one that can be layered onto the artifact of the building; its components and forms constitute a communication flow that emerges from an abstract form of description to its physicality. The internal cognition of this condition situates the subject as the third element, one that identifies the meaning from the extant building to its proxy meaning. In this manner, narrative and aesthetics perform the actualizations (the spatial and physical sequences) so that the occupant may understand its implications.1 Architecture is thus a one-directional flow of information (the building is an inert object from which meaning is derived, its physicality is static). Even in process-driven design, the synthesis of the many and the ordered, is evident in the materiality of the architectural manifestation; the building, although presented as a result of process cannot be separated from the reading of the generative operations. 2 Rather than continue in this manner of constructing meaning from an extensive coding (joining a concept to an object) or the instantiation (producing one from a larger field of possibilities) from a version, we suggest a dialectic that is bi-directional, or even multinodal, that is, continually self-renewing in meaning and material configuration with the active participation of the occupant. This representation is one that is time-based.
last changed 2009/01/07 07:05

_id cdc2008_149
id cdc2008_149
authors Kolarevic, Branko
year 2008
title Post-Digital Architecture: Towards Integrative Design
source First International Conference on Critical Digital: What Matters(s)? - 18-19 April 2008, Harvard University Graduate School of Design, Cambridge (USA), pp. 149-156
summary In this paper, an alternative vision of integrated design is proposed that is more open, fluid, pliable, and opportunistic in its search of collaborative alliances and agendas. This alternative approach is referred to as integrative design, in which methods, processes, and techniques are discovered, appropriated, adapted, and altered from “elsewhere,” and often “digitally” pursued. The designers who engage design as a broadly integrative endeavor fluidly navigate across different disciplinary territories, and deploy algorithmic thinking, biomimicry, computation, digital fabrication, material exploration, and/or performance analyses to discover and create a process, technique, or a product that is qualitatively new.
last changed 2009/01/07 07:05

_id acadia08_332
id acadia08_332
authors Marin, Philippe; Jean-Claude Bignon ;Hervé Lequay
year 2008
title A Genetic Algorithm for Use in Creative Design Processes
source Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation, [Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) / ISBN 978-0-9789463-4-0] Minneapolis 16-19 October 2008, 332-339
summary This paper deals with natural growth mechanisms applied to architectural design processes. We implement a genetic algorithm as part of a digital tool to be used in the creative design process. This evolutionary process is evaluated by means of environmental parameters, passive solar qualities and the designer’s individual requirements. A morphogenetic process is put forward, based on a “metamorphosis strategy”.
keywords Algorithm; Analysis; Environment; Genetic; Performance
series ACADIA
last changed 2009/02/26 07:39

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