CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id cf2011_p060
id cf2011_p060
authors Sheward, Hugo; Eastman Charles
year 2011
title Preliminary Concept Design (PCD) Tools for Laboratory Buildings, Automated Design Optimization and Assessment Embedded in Building Information Modeling (BIM) Tools.
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 451-476.
summary The design of laboratory buildings entails the implementation of a variety of design constraints such as building codes; design guidelines and technical requirements. The application of these requires from designers the derivation of data not explicitly available at early stages of design, at the same time there is no precise methodology to control the consistency, and accuracy of their application. Many of these constraints deal with providing secure environmental conditions for the activities inside laboratories and their repercussions both for the building occupants and population in general, these constraints mandate a strict control over the building’s Mechanical Equipment (MEP), in particular the Heating Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system. Due to the importance of these laboratory designers are expected to assess their designs not only according spatial relationships, but also design variables such as HVAC efficiency, air pressure hierarchies, operational costs, and the possible implications of their design decisions in the biological safety of the facility. At this point in time, there are no practical methods for making these assessments, without having constant interaction with HVAC specialists. The assessment of laboratory design variables, particularly those technical in nature, such as dimensioning of ducts or energy consumption are usually performed at late stages of design. They are performed by domain experts using data manually extracted from design information, with the addition of domain specific knowledge, the evaluation is done mostly through manual calculations or building simulations. In traditional practices most expert evaluations are performed once the architectural design have been completed, the turn around of the evaluation might take hours or days depending on the methods used by the engineer, therefore reducing the possibility for design alternatives evaluation. The results of these evaluations will give clues about sizing of the HVAC equipment, and might generate the need for design reformulations, causing higher development costs and time delays. Several efforts in the development of computational tools for automated design evaluation such as wheel chair accessibility (Han, Law, Latombe, Kunz, 2002) security and circulation (Eastman, 2009), and construction codes ( have demonstrated the capabilities of rule or parameter based building assessment; several computer applications capable of supporting HVAC engineers in system designing for late concept or design development exist, but little has been done to assess the capabilities of computer applications to support laboratory design during architectural Preliminary Concept Design(PCD) (Trcka, Hensen, 2010). Developments in CAD technologies such as Building Information Modeling (BIM) have opened doors to formal explorations in generative design using rule based or parametric modeling [7]. BIM represents buildings as a collection of objects with their own geometry, attributes, and relations. BIM also allows for the definition of objects parametrically including their relation to other model objects. BIM has enabled the development of automated rule based building evaluation (Eastman, 2009). Most of contemporary BIM applications contemplate in their default user interfaces access to design constraints and object attribute manipulations. Some even allow for the application of rules over these. Such capabilities make BIM viable platforms for automation of design data derivation and for the implementation of generative based design assessment. In this paper we analyze the possibilities provided by contemporary BIM for implementing generative based design assessment in laboratory buildings. In this schema, domain specific knowledge is embedded in to the BIM system as to make explicit design metrics that can help designers and engineers to assess the performance of design alternatives. The implementation of generative design assessments during PCD can help designers and engineers to identify design issues early in the process, reducing the number of revisions and reconfigurations in later stages of design. And generally improving design performance.
keywords Heating ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC), Building Information Models (BIM), Generative Design Assessment
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id acadia09_130
id acadia09_130
authors Kimpian, Judit; Mason, Josh; Coenders, Jeroen; Jestico, Dan; Watts, Steve
year 2009
title Sustainably Tall: Investment, Energy, Life Cycle
source ACADIA 09: reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow [Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-9842705-0-7] Chicago (Illinois) 22-25 October, 2009), pp. 130-143
summary The purpose of this project is to provide an interactive platform for clients and design teams to evaluate the consequences of shape, form, and briefing decisions on the energy use, embodied energy, and capital / life-cycle cost of a tall building early in the design process. The Tall Building Simulation (TBS) model is the result of a collaborative partnership between Aedas, Arup, Hilson Moran (HM), and Davis Langdon (DL). It is estimated that most decisions determining the sustainability of a project are made in the first 1 percent of a project’s program, whereas the majority of the information required for sustainability assessment is not usually available or examined until after the concept stage. By this time, most solutions would need design or briefing changes that are too costly to implement. Using the TBS model, architects, engineers, and clients can simultaneously explore the impact of typical technical and design decisions on a tall building’s energy footprint and its dynamic relationship to cost at the briefing stage.
keywords Design evaluation, environmental impact, energy, simulation
series ACADIA
type Normal paper
last changed 2009/11/26 16:44

_id cf2009_501
id cf2009_501
authors Li, Yongzhi; Lertlakkhanakul, Jumphon; Lee, Seongki and Choi, Jinwon
year 2009
title Design with space syntax analysis based on building information model: Towards an interactive application of building information model in early design process
source T. Tidafi and T. Dorta (eds) Joining Languages, Cultures and Visions: CAADFutures 2009, PUM, 2009, pp. 501- 514
summary This paper introduces a new framework to enable user-friendly space syntax analysis during the initial design stage. It assists designers, without in-depth knowledge on space syntax, to evaluate and compare design outcomes rapidly. The framework is realized by integration between space syntax and building information model in which space topology is autonomously retrieved. A BIM modeler so called ‘ArchiSpace’ has been developed to demonstrate the applicability of the framework to design practice. Our experiment shows that designers can use the modeler to analyze their design alternatives instantly at any moment during the initial design stage. Therefore, users can generate and evaluate their design alternatives simultaneously without distraction and tedious work on the space syntax analysis in detail.
keywords Space syntax, building information modeling, evidence based design, space topology
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2009/06/08 18:53

_id caadria2009_111
id caadria2009_111
authors Biswas, Tajin; Ramesh Krishnamurti and Tsung-Hsien Wang
year 2009
title Framework for Sustainable Building Design
source Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Yunlin (Taiwan) 22-25 April 2009, pp. 43-52
summary For sustainable building design, computational tools, mostly in the form of simulations, are employed to determine loads and to predict systems performance typically in terms of energy use. Currently, sustainability, in the building domain, is judged by a rating system. Design choices are validated, by measuring against one. The objective of the framework is to provide a general approach to processing the informational needs of any rating system, by identifying, categorizing and organizing relevant data requirements. Aspects of sustainability that designers deal with intuitively will have a structured guideline and gauge as one selects a rating system of choice.
keywords Sustainable design: rating system; framework; building information model
series CAADRIA
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id ascaad2009_samir_foura
id ascaad2009_samir_foura
authors Foura, Samir and Samira Debache
year 2009
title Thermal Simulation In Residential Building Within Computer Aided Architectural Design: Integrated model
source Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content [4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2009) / ISBN 978-99901-06-77-0], Manama (Kingdom of Bahrain), 11-12 May 2009, pp. 235-243
summary Nowadays, the architectural profession is seeking a better energy saving in the design of buildings. The fear of energy shortage in the very near future, together with the rapid rise in energy prices, put pressure on researchers on this field to develop buildings with more efficient heating systems and energy systems. This work is concerned mainly with the development of a software program analyzing comfort in buildings integrated in CAD architectural systems. The problem of presenting the computer with information concerning the building itself has been overcome through integration of thermal analysis with the building capabilities of CAD system. Mainly, such experience concerns the rules for calculating heat loss and heat gain of buildings in Algeria, The program has been developed in order to demonstrate the importance of the innovation of the computer aided-architectural-design field (CAAD) in the technology of buildings such as the three dimensional modeling offering environmental thermal analysis. CAAD is an integrated architectural design system which can be used to carry out many tasks such as working drawings, perspectives and thermal studies, etc., all from the same data. Results are obtained in tabular form or in graphical output on the visual display. The principle of this program is that all input data should be readily available to the designer at the early stages of the design before the user starts to run the integrated model. Particular attention is given to the analysis of thermal aspects including solar radiation gains. Average monthly energy requirement predictions have been estimated depending on the building design aspect. So, this integrated model (CAAD and simulation comfort) is supposed to help architects to decide on the best options for improving the design of buildings. Some of these options may be included at the early design stages analysis. Indications may also be given on how to improve the design. The model stored on CAAD system provides a valuable data base for all sort analytical programs to be integrated into the system. The amount of time and expertise required to use complex analytical methods in architectural practice can be successfully overcome by integration with CAAD system.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2009/06/30 06:12

_id ecaade2009_055
id ecaade2009_055
authors Gholipour, Vida; Bignon, Jean-Claude; Guimaraes, Laure Morel
year 2009
title Eco-Models: Modeling of a Digital Tool to Design Sustainable Buildings
source Computation: The New Realm of Architectural Design [27th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-8-9] Istanbul (Turkey) 16-19 September 2009, pp. 551-558
summary The demand for up-to-date information and design ‘tools’ to help architects design more sustainable buildings is rapidly expanding. This demand has led to use various ecological assessment tools as support tools for the design process. The absence of adequate tools, which contribute to early stages, as well as the additional costs of tardy modifications, has led us to propose an eco-design support tool. This tool is based on a methodology named “Eco-Model (EM) Method” that focuses on the ecological approaches of a building. This method proposes to consider environmental friendly solutions from the first sketches by proposing a number of micro-solutions, called here Eco-Model or “EM”. Subsequently, the study presents the first contour of software based on an EM approach. Thus, the various actors of the design team will be able to browse the useful information for their green projects and so collaborate to optimize the building design.
wos WOS:000334282200066
keywords Eco-Models, sustainable buildings, design support
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id sigradi2009_1060
id sigradi2009_1060
authors Ribeiro, Julio Tollendal; Neander Furtado Silva; Ecilamar Maciel Lima
year 2009
title Building Information Modeling" como instrumento de projetos aeroportuários [Building Information Modeling as an instrument for designing airports]
source SIGraDi 2009 - Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, Sao Paulo, Brazil, November 16-18, 2009
summary Building Information Modeling may have obvious implications in the process of architectural design and construction at the present stage of technological development. However, BIM has rarely been really assessed and its benefits are often described in generic terms. In this paper we describe an experiment in which such benefits are identified from a comparison between two design processes of the same airport building, one run in a conventional way and the other in a BIM-based approach. The practical advantages of BIM to airport design were remarkable.
keywords Airport Design; BIM; Benefits; Design Performance
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id c25d
id c25d
authors Shady Attia, Liliana Beltrán, André De Herde and Jan Hensen
year 2009
title Architect Friendly: A Comparison of Ten Different Building Performance Simulation Tools
source IBPSA
summary Performance Simulation tools BPS is available internationally. The users of those tools are mainly researchers, physicists and experts who value empirical validation, analytical verification and calibration of uncertainty as defined by e.g. BESTEST. However, literature and comparative surveys indicate that most architects who use BPS tools in design practice are much more concerned with the (1) Usability and Information Management (UIM) of interface and (2) the Integration of Intelligent design Knowledge-Base (IIKB). Those two issues are the main factors for identifying a building simulation program as “Architect Friendly”. Now, with the advancement of BPS tools and the recent announcements of direct links between BIM or non-BIM modeling tools and BPS tools it is important to compare the existing programs. Based on an online survey, this paper presents the results of comparing ten major BPS tools. The following programs are compared: ECOTECT, HEED, Energy 10, Design Builder, eQUEST, DOE-2, Green Building Studio, IES VE, Energy Plus and Energy Plus-SketchUp Plugin (OpenStudio). With 249 valid responses, the survey ranked the tools in three classes and revealed that architects seek the IIKB above the UIM of the interface. Finally, the paper summarizes the key findings and underlines the major requirements for future improvement and development of BPS tools, mainly from an architectural perspective.
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2011/05/24 05:44

_id cf2011_p127
id cf2011_p127
authors Benros, Deborah; Granadeiro Vasco, Duarte Jose, Knight Terry
year 2011
title Integrated Design and Building System for the Provision of Customized Housing: the Case of Post-Earthquake Haiti
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 247-264.
summary The paper proposes integrated design and building systems for the provision of sustainable customized housing. It advances previous work by applying a methodology to generate these systems from vernacular precedents. The methodology is based on the use of shape grammars to derive and encode a contemporary system from the precedents. The combined set of rules can be applied to generate housing solutions tailored to specific user and site contexts. The provision of housing to shelter the population affected by the 2010 Haiti earthquake illustrates the application of the methodology. A computer implementation is currently under development in C# using the BIM platform provided by Revit. The world experiences a sharp increase in population and a strong urbanization process. These phenomena call for the development of effective means to solve the resulting housing deficit. The response of the informal sector to the problem, which relies mainly on handcrafted processes, has resulted in an increase of urban slums in many of the big cities, which lack sanitary and spatial conditions. The formal sector has produced monotonous environments based on the idea of mass production that one size fits all, which fails to meet individual and cultural needs. We propose an alternative approach in which mass customization is used to produce planed environments that possess qualities found in historical settlements. Mass customization, a new paradigm emerging due to the technological developments of the last decades, combines the economy of scale of mass production and the aesthetics and functional qualities of customization. Mass customization of housing is defined as the provision of houses that respond to the context in which they are built. The conceptual model for the mass customization of housing used departs from the idea of a housing type, which is the combined result of three systems (Habraken, 1988) -- spatial, building system, and stylistic -- and it includes a design system, a production system, and a computer system (Duarte, 2001). In previous work, this conceptual model was tested by developing a computer system for existing design and building systems (Benr__s and Duarte, 2009). The current work advances it by developing new and original design, building, and computer systems for a particular context. The urgent need to build fast in the aftermath of catastrophes quite often overrides any cultural concerns. As a result, the shelters provided in such circumstances are indistinct and impersonal. However, taking individual and cultural aspects into account might lead to a better identification of the population with their new environment, thereby minimizing the rupture caused in their lives. As the methodology to develop new housing systems is based on the idea of architectural precedents, choosing existing vernacular housing as a precedent permits the incorporation of cultural aspects and facilitates an identification of people with the new housing. In the Haiti case study, we chose as a precedent a housetype called “gingerbread houses”, which includes a wide range of houses from wealthy to very humble ones. Although the proposed design system was inspired by these houses, it was decided to adopt a contemporary take. The methodology to devise the new type was based on two ideas: precedents and transformations in design. In architecture, the use of precedents provides designers with typical solutions for particular problems and it constitutes a departing point for a new design. In our case, the precedent is an existing housetype. It has been shown (Duarte, 2001) that a particular housetype can be encoded by a shape grammar (Stiny, 1980) forming a design system. Studies in shape grammars have shown that the evolution of one style into another can be described as the transformation of one shape grammar into another (Knight, 1994). The used methodology departs takes off from these ideas and it comprises the following steps (Duarte, 2008): (1) Selection of precedents, (2) Derivation of an archetype; (3) Listing of rules; (4) Derivation of designs; (5) Cataloguing of solutions; (6) Derivation of tailored solution.
keywords Mass customization, Housing, Building system, Sustainable construction, Life cycle energy consumption, Shape grammar
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ijac20097408
id ijac20097408
authors Biloria, Nimish; Valentina Sumini
year 2009
title Performative Building Skin Systems: A Morphogenomic Approach Towards Developing Real-Time Adaptive Building Skin Systems
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 7 - no. 4, 643-676
summary Morphogenomics, a relatively new research area, involves understanding the role played by information regulation in the emergence of diverse natural and artificially generated morphologies. Performative building skin systems as a bottom-up parametric formation of context aware interdependent, ubiquitously communicating components leading to the development of continually performative systems is one of the multi-scalar derivations of the aforementioned Morphogenomic understanding. The agenda of adaptations for these building skins specifically corresponds to three domains of adaptation: structural, behavioral and physiological adaptations resulting in kinetic adaptability, energy generation, conservation, transport and usage principles as well as material property based changes per component. The developed skins adapt in real time via operating upon ubiquitous communication and data-regulation protocols for sensing and processing contextual information. Computational processes and information technology based tools and techniques such as parametric design, real-time simulation using game design software, environmental information mapping, sensing and actuating systems coupled with inbuilt control systems as well as manufacturing physical models in collaboration with praxis form a vital part of these skin systems. These experiments and analysis based on developing intrinsic inter-dependencies between contextual data, structure and material logistics thus lay the foundation for a new era of continually performing, self powering, real-time adaptive intelligent building skin systems.
series journal
last changed 2010/09/06 06:02

_id cf2011_p157
id cf2011_p157
authors Boton, Conrad; Kubicki Sylvain, Halin Gilles
year 2011
title Understanding Pre-Construction Simulation Activities to Adapt Visualization in 4D CAD Collaborative Tools
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 477-492.
summary Increasing productivity and efficiency is an important issue in the AEC field. This area is mainly characterized by fragmentation, heterogeneous teams with low lifetimes and many uncertainties. 4D CAD is one of the greatest innovations in recent years. It consists in linking a 3D model of the building with the works planning in order to simulate the construction evolution over time. 4D CAD can fill several needs from design to project management through constructivity analysis and tasks planning (Tommelein 2003). The literature shows that several applications have been proposed to improve the 4D CAD use (Chau et al. 2004; Lu et al. 2007; Seok & al. 2009). In addition, studies have shown the real impact of 4D CAD use in construction projects (Staub-French & Khanzode 2007; Dawood & Sika 2007). More recently, Mahalingam et al. (2010) showed that the collaborative use of 4D CAD is particularly useful during the pre-construction phase for comparing the constructability of working methods, for visually identifying conflicts and clashes (overlaps), and as visual tool for practitioners to discuss and to plan project progress. So the advantage of the 4D CAD collaborative use is demonstrated. Moreover, several studies have been conducted both in the scientific community and in the industrial world to improve it (Zhou et al. 2009; Kang et al. 2007). But an important need that remains in collaborative 4D CAD use in construction projects is about the adaptation of visualization to the users business needs. Indeed, construction projects have very specific characteristics (fragmentation, variable team, different roles from one project to another). Moreover, in the AEC field several visualization techniques can represent the same concept and actors choose one or another of these techniques according to their specific needs related to the task they have to perform. For example, the tasks planning may be represented by a Gantt chart or by a PERT network and the building elements can be depicted with a 3D model or a 2D plan. The classical view (3D + Gantt) proposed to all practitioners in the available 4D tools seems therefore not suiting the needs of all. So, our research is based on the hypothesis that adapting the visualization to individual business needs could significantly improve the collaboration. This work relies on previous ones and aim to develop a method 1) to choose the best suited views for performed tasks and 2) to compose adapted multiple views for each actor, that we call “business views”. We propose a 4 steps-method to compose business views. The first step identifies the users’ business needs, defining the individual practices performed by each actor, identifying his business tasks and his information needs. The second step identifies the visualization needs related to the identified business needs. For this purpose, the user’s interactions and visualization tasks are described. This enables choosing the most appropriate visualization techniques for each need (step 3). At this step, it is important to describe the visualization techniques and to be able to compare them. Therefore, we proposed a business view metamodel. The final step (step 4) selects the adapted views, defines the coordination mechanisms and the interaction principles in order to compose coordinated visualizations. A final step consists in a validation work to ensure that the composed views really match to the described business needs. This paper presents the latest version of the method and especially presents our latest works about its first and second steps. These include making more generic the business tasks description in order to be applicable within most of construction projects and enabling to make correspondence with visualization tasks.
keywords Pre-construction, Simulation, 4D CAD, Collaboration, Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Human-Computer Interface, Information visualization, Business view, Model driven engineering
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ecaade2009_161
id ecaade2009_161
authors Carrara, Gianfranco; Fioravanti, Antonio; Loffreda, Gianluigi; Trento, Armando
year 2009
title An Ontology-based Knowledge Representation Model for Cross-Disciplinary Building Design: A General Template
source Computation: The New Realm of Architectural Design [27th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-8-9] Istanbul (Turkey) 16-19 September 2009, pp. 367-374
summary Process/product complexity is at present an unavoidable component of present building design approach that affects building product’s quality. To overcome this problem, effective collaboration is required among all the actors involved in the design process. Data and information exchange is not sufficient to guarantee mutual understanding; to support effective collaboration among actors; it is required a proper knowledge formalization and management. This paper reports on an innovative structure for knowledge modeling in cross-disciplinary building design, that has been formalized in a general template. The proposed Knowledge Model has been, at present, implemented by means of available ontology editors and is going to be used into teaching courses to check its efficiency in collaborative building design classes.
wos WOS:000334282200044
keywords Building design, collaboration, knowledge modeling, knowledge management
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id cf2009_487
id cf2009_487
authors Gursel, Ipek; Sariyildiz, Sevil; Stouffs, Rudi and Akin, Ömer
year 2009
title Contextual ontology support as external knowledge representation for building information modelling
source T. Tidafi and T. Dorta (eds) Joining Languages, Cultures and Visions: CAADFutures 2009, PUM, 2009, pp. 487- 500
summary There is an increasing awareness of formal ontologies in knowledge-intense problem domains in the AEC industry. This paper analyzes the general use of ontologies, points to the importance of context-dependent ontology descriptions in AEC, and describes the use and management of multiple (external) ontologies as knowledge management tools within a complex information model of a building performance assessment tool CLIP (Computational support for Lifecycle Integral Performance assessment), previously developed by the authors. The paper provides a discussion of our approach, analysis of the benefits and limitations of external ontologies, suggestions for further development and research areas for the integration of multiple AEC knowledge representations.
keywords Building lifecycle performance assessment, knowledge modeling, contextual ontologies, product models
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2009/06/08 18:53

_id cf2011_p108
id cf2011_p108
authors Iordanova, Ivanka; Forgues Daniel, Chiocchio François
year 2011
title Creation of an Evolutive Conceptual Know-how Framework for Integrative Building Design
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 435-450.
summary Low productivity of the building sector today is attributed to the fragmentation of tasks, disciplines and responsibilities, as well as to the resistance to adopt integrative work processes and digital means. The increased complexity of architectural projects and the aroused social consciousness for sustainable environment calls for integrative design collaboration. Thus, there is need for a Conceptual Framework combining work processes, technological means and policy aspects. According to the literature, integrative multidisciplinary design is a strategy resulting in high performance buildings nurturing sustainable way of living (Reed et al. 2009, Krygiel & Nies 2008). Responding to the increased technological complexity of our built environment, as well as to the objective of meeting multiple criteria of quality, both necessitating multidisciplinary collaboration during design, Building Information Modeling (BIM) is seen as a powerful means for fostering quality, augmenting productivity and decreasing loss in construction. Based on recent research, we can propose that a sustainable building can be designed through an integrative design process (IDP) which is best supported by BIM. However, our ongoing research program and consultations with advanced practitioners underscore a number of limitations. For example, a large portion of the interviewed professionals and construction stakeholders do not necessarily see a link between sustainable building, integrative design process and BIM, while in our opinion, their joint use augments the power of each of these approaches taken separately. Thus, there is an urgent necessity for the definition of an IDP-BIM framework, which could guide the building industry to sustainable results and better productivity. This paper defines such a framework, whose theoretical background lays on studies in social learning (activity theory and situated action theories). These theories suggest that learning and knowledge generation occurs mainly within a social process defined as an activity. This corresponds to the context in which the IDP-BIM framework will be used, its final objective being the transformation of building design practices. The proposed IDP-BIM framework is based on previous research and developments. Thus, firstly, IDP process was well formalized in the Roadmap for the Integrated Design Process‚ (Reed et al.) which is widely used as a guideline for collaborative integrative design by innovating practices in USA and Canada. Secondly, the National Building Information Modeling Standard (NBIMS) of the USA is putting an enormous effort in creating a BIM standard, Succar (2008) recently proposed a conceptual framework for BIM, but BIM ontology is still under development (Gursel et al 2009). Thirdly, an iterative design process bound to gating reviews (inspired from software development processes) was found to be successful in the context of multidisciplinary design studios (reported in our previous papers). The feedback from this study allowed for modifications and adjustments included in the present proposal. The gating process assures the good quality of the project and its compliance to the client's requirements. The challenge of this research is to map the above mentioned approaches, processes and technologies into the design process, thus creating an integrated framework supporting and nurturing sustainable design. The IDP-BIM framework can be represented by a multidimensional matrix linked to a semantic network knowledge database: - the axes of the matrix being the project timeline, the design process actors and building stakeholders (architect, engineers, client, contractor, environmental biologist, etc.), or different aspects of building performance (environmental, functional, social, interior environment quality, cost, etc.); and - the knowledge database providing multiple layers of semantic support in terms of process, domain knowledge, technology and workflow at a given moment of the project and for a given actor or building aspect. The IDP-BIM framework is created as an evolutive digital environment for know-how and will have an established protocol for regular updates. The paper will firstly present the state of the art in IDP and BIM. Secondly, it will expose the methodology used for the definition of the Framework, followed by a description of its structure, contents and digital implementation. Then, some scenarios for the use of the Framework will be shown as validation.
keywords integrated design process, BIM, multidisciplinary design, conceptual framework
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id sigradi2009_669
id sigradi2009_669
authors Jacobi, Martina Maldaner; Jan Halatsch; Antje Kunze; Gerhard Schmitt; Benamy Turkienicz
year 2009
title A grammar-based system for the participatory design of urban structures [A grammar-based system for the participatory design of urban structures ]
source SIGraDi 2009 - Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, Sao Paulo, Brazil, November 16-18, 2009
summary We propose a three-step participatory design cycle for the early urban design phase that can be integrated into the digital design chain. Step one involves a visualization method that is implemented as an interactive card-based interview technique for the collaborative requirement specification of urban designs. In step two these specifications are a) translated into simplified GIS data and then b) implemented into a grammar-based system together with the corresponding design regulations. The final outcome is a generative and iterative urban model, which includes buildings, building blocks, transportation networks and open spaces that visually communicates spatial impacts of urban design proposals.
keywords City modeling; participatory design; shape grammars; urban planning
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:53

_id ascaad2009_bhzad_sidawi
id ascaad2009_bhzad_sidawi
authors Sidawi, Bhzad
year 2009
title The Consideration of Lifelong Owner’s and Property’s Characteristics in Nd Cad System: The case of affordable housing in kingdom of Saudi Arabia
source Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content [4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2009) / ISBN 978-99901-06-77-0], Manama (Kingdom of Bahrain), 11-12 May 2009, pp. 191-204
summary Residential property value is affected by several factors during its useful time. . These factors include people’s lifestyles, traditions and culture, and the way they live and interact with the built environment. The property characteristics such as its location, building quality, adaptability, and energy efficiency would also have an impact on the property value. On the other hand, the nD CAD research that emerged in the late 1990s proposed endless dimensions of CAD modelling that would incorporate the building regulations’ requirements, basic user needs and client requirements. However, there is a need to implement lifelong parameters that would have significant effect on the property value in 3D models during the early stages of design. This can be done through a knowledge base integrated into a 3D model and links the lifelong property’s and the user’s characteristics with the property’s value. A survey was carried out on banks and Real Estate Development Fund (REDF) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to find out the level of impact of lifelong users and property characteristics on the property’s value. The results of the survey showed a number of lifelong property and user driven parameters that may have major impact on the property’s value. The implementation of lifelong parameters in nD CAD models would have a number of benefits. It would provide the decision makers such as banks and investors with a tool to assess the level of impact of possible lifelong factors on the property value and consider alternative schemes. Designers would use it during the early stages of design to produce optimum design solutions that provide an adequate product that is evaluated regarding its lifelong value to the end users. Eventually it would provide a comfortable environment that is tailored to the user’s needs and aspirations, while reserving the property’s lifelong value.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2009/06/30 06:12

_id acadia13_109
id acadia13_109
authors Thün, Geoffrey; Velikov, Kathy
year 2013
title Adaptation as a Framework for Reconsidering High-Performance Residential Design: A Case Study
source ACADIA 13: Adaptive Architecture [Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-1-926724-22-5] Cambridge 24-26 October, 2013), pp. 109-118
summary This paper outlines an approach to adaptive residential design explored through recent research and an executed prototype, the North House project (2007-2009), undertaken through an interdisciplinary collaboration of researchers and students from the University of Waterloo, Ryerson University and Simon Fraser University in concert with professional and industry partners. This project aimed to develop a framework for the delivery of adaptive detached residential buildings capable of net-zero energy performance in the temperate climate zone, or the near north. Within this project, the term “adaptive” is developed across several tracts of conceptualization and execution including site and climatically derived models for building material composition and envelope ratios, environmentally-responsive kinetic envelope components, intelligent HVAC controls and interactive interface design aimed at producing co-evolutionary behaviors between building systems and inhabitants. A provisional definition of adaptive architecture is outlined to address this range of considerations that calls into question the stable image of domestic architecture and its relationship to energy and contemporary assumptions regarding sustainable design. This paper also outlines computational approaches to design optimization, distributed building systems integration and the human-controls interfaces applicable to the home’s ecology of physical and information technologies.
keywords next generation technology, responsive buildings, high performance envelopes, sensing and feedback, passive and active systems, energy modeling, user interface
series ACADIA
type Normal Paper
last changed 2014/01/11 08:13

_id 1042
id 1042
authors Tsai, J J-H and Gero JS
year 2009
title Unified Energy-Based Qualitative Representation for Building Analysis
source in J McDonnell and P Lloyd (eds), About: Designing. Analysing Design Meetings, CRC Press, pp. 213-229.
summary Currently, when designers develop a building design project, different representations are used for different building subsystems, such as spatial system, electrical system, lighting system, hydraulic system and HVAC. These representations are mainly used in the final design documentation stage. This book presents a qualitative approach to the development of a unified energy-based representation for building analysis called qualitative Archi Bond Graphs (QABGs). QABGs integrate different representations in the architectural domain into a unified representation. They can be applied in the conceptual, intermediate, and final building design stages. Combining graphical representations and qualitative equations, QABGs are applicable for building simulation and analysis for building dynamics in the space-people system and the building energy systems, and for energy interactions between the space-people system and the building energy systems.
series book
type normal paper
last changed 2009/09/11 16:22

_id ecaade2009_keynote2
id ecaade2009_keynote2
authors Whitehead, Hugh
year 2009
title Social Experiments in Design Technology
source Computation: The New Realm of Architectural Design [27th eCAADe Conference] Istanbul (Turkey) 16-19 September 2009
summary The delivery of a successful project demands high levels of collaboration across an expanded design team, which now includes consultants, fabricators and contractors as well as architects and engineers. The pace of development in design technology has been very rapid during the last few years and there are now many software products which offer high levels of sophistication. Most provide associative and parametric modelling strategies, which can be further enhanced and extended by the use of scripting languages. Designers are becoming tool-builders while fabricators are becoming digital craftsmen. With the advent of fast efficient drawing extraction the industry is at last making determined steps towards a model-driven process. However there is no integrated platform which supports the free exchange of ideas, combined with the evaluation of performance, experimentation with production techniques and the evolution of project-specific workflows. In education the design schools have been quick to recognise the potential of the new design technology. This has led to a rapid expansion in course curricula that now offer many new specialisations, most of which also need to be under-pinned by a good grounding in descriptive geometry, mathematics and physics. The architect as a generalist, who coordinates the work of specialists, is being challenged by an increasing breadth of technical studies that require more than just a superficial depth of understanding. In practice the gulf is widening even more rapidly. New graduates, who often have spectacular expertise in modelling and fluency in scripting languages, do not yet have the design and construction experience necessary to direct their efforts to best effect. On the other hand people running project teams do not have the technical background to understand the potential of the skills and resources that are available. Today there is no longer the continuity that used to derive from apprenticeship. As we experiment we find that tools based on new ideas and techniques can radically change workflow – but fear of the unknown can provoke resistance. So the problems we face in harnessing the new technology are as much social and cultural as they are technical. The presentation will focus on developing attitudes towards tool-building with the aim of integrating design, analysis and production. This is part of a continual and quite gradual process, which requires the ability to play interpretive roles that help to bring about cultural change. Examples will be shown from the work of the Specialist Modelling Group at Foster+Partners who now have tenyears experience in deploying design technology in an environment where research is intensely project driven.
series eCAADe
type keynote paper
last changed 2009/09/19 14:56

_id ecaade2009_139
id ecaade2009_139
authors Knight, Michael; Dokonal, Wolfgang
year 2009
title State of Affairs - Digital Architectural Design in Europe: A Look into into Education and Practice – Snapshot and Outlook
source Computation: The New Realm of Architectural Design [27th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-8-9] Istanbul (Turkey) 16-19 September 2009, pp. 191-196
summary This paper updates a research project that tries to take a snapshot on the use of computers in the average architectural firms in two European countries. Our main interest is to see whether the digital design methods are starting to have an impact in these offices. First results of this research using an online web questionnaire have been presented at the eCAADe 2007 conference in Frankfurt and have been updated and presented at the Sigradi 2008 conference in Havana. At the moment we are working with additional interviews and we are preparing a rerun of the questionnaire to have an idea about the current developments. This paper is still based mainly on the findings we presented at the Sigradi conference to bring this information to the eCAADe community as well. We will be presenting the results of the new questionnaire in Istanbul.
wos WOS:000334282200023
keywords Digital design, early stage design
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

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