CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id cf2011_p109
id cf2011_p109
authors Abdelmohsen, Sherif; Lee Jinkook, Eastman Chuck
year 2011
title Automated Cost Analysis of Concept Design BIM Models
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 403-418.
summary AUTOMATED COST ANALYSIS OF CONCEPT DESIGN BIM MODELS Interoperability: BIM models and cost models This paper introduces the automated cost analysis developed for the General Services Administration (GSA) and the analysis results of a case study involving a concept design courthouse BIM model. The purpose of this study is to investigate interoperability issues related to integrating design and analysis tools; specifically BIM models and cost models. Previous efforts to generate cost estimates from BIM models have focused on developing two necessary but disjoint processes: 1) extracting accurate quantity take off data from BIM models, and 2) manipulating cost analysis results to provide informative feedback. Some recent efforts involve developing detailed definitions, enhanced IFC-based formats and in-house standards for assemblies that encompass building models (e.g. US Corps of Engineers). Some commercial applications enhance the level of detail associated to BIM objects with assembly descriptions to produce lightweight BIM models that can be used by different applications for various purposes (e.g. Autodesk for design review, Navisworks for scheduling, Innovaya for visual estimating, etc.). This study suggests the integration of design and analysis tools by means of managing all building data in one shared repository accessible to multiple domains in the AEC industry (Eastman, 1999; Eastman et al., 2008; authors, 2010). Our approach aims at providing an integrated platform that incorporates a quantity take off extraction method from IFC models, a cost analysis model, and a comprehensive cost reporting scheme, using the Solibri Model Checker (SMC) development environment. Approach As part of the effort to improve the performance of federal buildings, GSA evaluates concept design alternatives based on their compliance with specific requirements, including cost analysis. Two basic challenges emerge in the process of automating cost analysis for BIM models: 1) At this early concept design stage, only minimal information is available to produce a reliable analysis, such as space names and areas, and building gross area, 2) design alternatives share a lot of programmatic requirements such as location, functional spaces and other data. It is thus crucial to integrate other factors that contribute to substantial cost differences such as perimeter, and exterior wall and roof areas. These are extracted from BIM models using IFC data and input through XML into the Parametric Cost Engineering System (PACES, 2010) software to generate cost analysis reports. PACES uses this limited dataset at a conceptual stage and RSMeans (2010) data to infer cost assemblies at different levels of detail. Functionalities Cost model import module The cost model import module has three main functionalities: generating the input dataset necessary for the cost model, performing a semantic mapping between building type specific names and name aggregation structures in PACES known as functional space areas (FSAs), and managing cost data external to the BIM model, such as location and construction duration. The module computes building data such as footprint, gross area, perimeter, external wall and roof area and building space areas. This data is generated through SMC in the form of an XML file and imported into PACES. Reporting module The reporting module uses the cost report generated by PACES to develop a comprehensive report in the form of an excel spreadsheet. This report consists of a systems-elemental estimate that shows the main systems of the building in terms of UniFormat categories, escalation, markups, overhead and conditions, a UniFormat Level III report, and a cost breakdown that provides a summary of material, equipment, labor and total costs. Building parameters are integrated in the report to provide insight on the variations among design alternatives.
keywords building information modeling, interoperability, cost analysis, IFC
series CAAD Futures
email sherif.morad@gatech.edu
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p060
id cf2011_p060
authors Sheward, Hugo; Eastman Charles
year 2011
title Preliminary Concept Design (PCD) Tools for Laboratory Buildings, Automated Design Optimization and Assessment Embedded in Building Information Modeling (BIM) Tools.
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 451-476.
summary The design of laboratory buildings entails the implementation of a variety of design constraints such as building codes; design guidelines and technical requirements. The application of these requires from designers the derivation of data not explicitly available at early stages of design, at the same time there is no precise methodology to control the consistency, and accuracy of their application. Many of these constraints deal with providing secure environmental conditions for the activities inside laboratories and their repercussions both for the building occupants and population in general, these constraints mandate a strict control over the building’s Mechanical Equipment (MEP), in particular the Heating Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system. Due to the importance of these laboratory designers are expected to assess their designs not only according spatial relationships, but also design variables such as HVAC efficiency, air pressure hierarchies, operational costs, and the possible implications of their design decisions in the biological safety of the facility. At this point in time, there are no practical methods for making these assessments, without having constant interaction with HVAC specialists. The assessment of laboratory design variables, particularly those technical in nature, such as dimensioning of ducts or energy consumption are usually performed at late stages of design. They are performed by domain experts using data manually extracted from design information, with the addition of domain specific knowledge, the evaluation is done mostly through manual calculations or building simulations. In traditional practices most expert evaluations are performed once the architectural design have been completed, the turn around of the evaluation might take hours or days depending on the methods used by the engineer, therefore reducing the possibility for design alternatives evaluation. The results of these evaluations will give clues about sizing of the HVAC equipment, and might generate the need for design reformulations, causing higher development costs and time delays. Several efforts in the development of computational tools for automated design evaluation such as wheel chair accessibility (Han, Law, Latombe, Kunz, 2002) security and circulation (Eastman, 2009), and construction codes (ww.Corenet.gov.sg) have demonstrated the capabilities of rule or parameter based building assessment; several computer applications capable of supporting HVAC engineers in system designing for late concept or design development exist, but little has been done to assess the capabilities of computer applications to support laboratory design during architectural Preliminary Concept Design(PCD) (Trcka, Hensen, 2010). Developments in CAD technologies such as Building Information Modeling (BIM) have opened doors to formal explorations in generative design using rule based or parametric modeling [7]. BIM represents buildings as a collection of objects with their own geometry, attributes, and relations. BIM also allows for the definition of objects parametrically including their relation to other model objects. BIM has enabled the development of automated rule based building evaluation (Eastman, 2009). Most of contemporary BIM applications contemplate in their default user interfaces access to design constraints and object attribute manipulations. Some even allow for the application of rules over these. Such capabilities make BIM viable platforms for automation of design data derivation and for the implementation of generative based design assessment. In this paper we analyze the possibilities provided by contemporary BIM for implementing generative based design assessment in laboratory buildings. In this schema, domain specific knowledge is embedded in to the BIM system as to make explicit design metrics that can help designers and engineers to assess the performance of design alternatives. The implementation of generative design assessments during PCD can help designers and engineers to identify design issues early in the process, reducing the number of revisions and reconfigurations in later stages of design. And generally improving design performance.
keywords Heating ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC), Building Information Models (BIM), Generative Design Assessment
series CAAD Futures
email hshewardga3@gatech.edu
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id acadia10_88
id acadia10_88
authors Steinfeld, Kyle; Bhiwapurkar, Pravin; Dyson, Anna; Vollen, Jason
year 2010
title Situated Bioclimatic Information Design: a new approach to the processing and visualization of climate data
source ACADIA 10: LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture [Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-1-4507-3471-4] New York 21-24 October, 2010), pp. 88-96
summary Currently, most approaches to graphic evaluative frameworks (GEFs) for the early-stage evaluation of bioclimatic design strategies adopt a design-tool metaphor, wherein a battery of analytical routines is performed by a software tool based upon a standardized weather file from which a stock set of graphic material is produced. In seeking to evaluate a broad range of climates and to address a wide variety of passive design strategies, existing climate visualization and evaluation tools position themselves far outside of the context of a situated design problem. Remaining agnostic to the particularities of site, program, tectonic system, and material behavior these tools become, by definition, generic. As a consequence, while such design-tools can be effective in evaluating particular relationships between environmental resource, demand profile, and built-system, they maintain a potential to be rendered ineffective in any outlying cases not specifically anticipated by their authors . Situated Bioclimatic Information Design (SBID) presents an alternative approach that targets a class of design strategies prominent among these outlying cases: those highly responsive to negotiation between the continually fluctuating resources within microclimates and the fluctuating demand profile of the building program. Using a custom-built weather data parser a number of diagrams and data visualizations have been produced under this approach. These visualizations are not only useful in and of themselves for aligning design strategies to specific contexts, but they also illustrate the foundations of a larger theoretical framework for the processing and visualization of climatic data for effective utilization of bioclimatic flows.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email steink@rpi.edu
last changed 2010/11/10 06:27

_id cf2011_p127
id cf2011_p127
authors Benros, Deborah; Granadeiro Vasco, Duarte Jose, Knight Terry
year 2011
title Integrated Design and Building System for the Provision of Customized Housing: the Case of Post-Earthquake Haiti
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 247-264.
summary The paper proposes integrated design and building systems for the provision of sustainable customized housing. It advances previous work by applying a methodology to generate these systems from vernacular precedents. The methodology is based on the use of shape grammars to derive and encode a contemporary system from the precedents. The combined set of rules can be applied to generate housing solutions tailored to specific user and site contexts. The provision of housing to shelter the population affected by the 2010 Haiti earthquake illustrates the application of the methodology. A computer implementation is currently under development in C# using the BIM platform provided by Revit. The world experiences a sharp increase in population and a strong urbanization process. These phenomena call for the development of effective means to solve the resulting housing deficit. The response of the informal sector to the problem, which relies mainly on handcrafted processes, has resulted in an increase of urban slums in many of the big cities, which lack sanitary and spatial conditions. The formal sector has produced monotonous environments based on the idea of mass production that one size fits all, which fails to meet individual and cultural needs. We propose an alternative approach in which mass customization is used to produce planed environments that possess qualities found in historical settlements. Mass customization, a new paradigm emerging due to the technological developments of the last decades, combines the economy of scale of mass production and the aesthetics and functional qualities of customization. Mass customization of housing is defined as the provision of houses that respond to the context in which they are built. The conceptual model for the mass customization of housing used departs from the idea of a housing type, which is the combined result of three systems (Habraken, 1988) -- spatial, building system, and stylistic -- and it includes a design system, a production system, and a computer system (Duarte, 2001). In previous work, this conceptual model was tested by developing a computer system for existing design and building systems (Benr__s and Duarte, 2009). The current work advances it by developing new and original design, building, and computer systems for a particular context. The urgent need to build fast in the aftermath of catastrophes quite often overrides any cultural concerns. As a result, the shelters provided in such circumstances are indistinct and impersonal. However, taking individual and cultural aspects into account might lead to a better identification of the population with their new environment, thereby minimizing the rupture caused in their lives. As the methodology to develop new housing systems is based on the idea of architectural precedents, choosing existing vernacular housing as a precedent permits the incorporation of cultural aspects and facilitates an identification of people with the new housing. In the Haiti case study, we chose as a precedent a housetype called “gingerbread houses”, which includes a wide range of houses from wealthy to very humble ones. Although the proposed design system was inspired by these houses, it was decided to adopt a contemporary take. The methodology to devise the new type was based on two ideas: precedents and transformations in design. In architecture, the use of precedents provides designers with typical solutions for particular problems and it constitutes a departing point for a new design. In our case, the precedent is an existing housetype. It has been shown (Duarte, 2001) that a particular housetype can be encoded by a shape grammar (Stiny, 1980) forming a design system. Studies in shape grammars have shown that the evolution of one style into another can be described as the transformation of one shape grammar into another (Knight, 1994). The used methodology departs takes off from these ideas and it comprises the following steps (Duarte, 2008): (1) Selection of precedents, (2) Derivation of an archetype; (3) Listing of rules; (4) Derivation of designs; (5) Cataloguing of solutions; (6) Derivation of tailored solution.
keywords Mass customization, Housing, Building system, Sustainable construction, Life cycle energy consumption, Shape grammar
series CAAD Futures
email deborahbenros@gmail.com
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ascaad2010_279
id ascaad2010_279
authors Celani, G.; L. Medrano; J. Spinelli
year 2010
title Unicamp 2030
source CAAD - Cities - Sustainability [5th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2010 / ISBN 978-1-907349-02-7], Fez (Morocco), 19-21 October 2010, pp. 279-286
summary The state university of Campinas, Unicamp, is a public university in upstate São Paulo, Brazil, ranked the second best in the country. It was founded in 1966, and its main campus started to be built in 1967, in the suburbs of Campinas, nowadays a two-million people city. The area of the campus is almost 3 million square meters (300 hectares), with a total built area of 522.000 m2 and a population of 40 thousand people - 30 thousand students, 2 thousand faculty members and almost 8 thousand staff members. The campus’ gross population density is 133 people per hectare. Less than 6% of the total campus area is presently occupied. The design of Unicamp's campus is based on concepts that were typical of the modern movement, with reminiscences of corbusian urbanism, in which preference is given to cars and buildings are spread apart on the territory, with little concern to the circulation of pedestrians. The standard building type that has been built on campus since the 1970's is based on non-recyclable materials, and has a poor thermal performance. Unicamp is expected to double its number of students by the year 2030. The campus density is thus expected to grow from 600 people per hectare to almost 1,000 people per hectare. The need to construct new buildings is seen as an opportunity to correct certain characteristics of the campus that are now seen as mistakes, according to sustainability principles. This paper describes a set of proposals targeting the increase of the campus' density in a sustainable way. The plan also aims at increasing the quality of life on campus and diminishing its impact on the environment. The main targets are: - Reducing the average temperature by 2oC; - Reducing the average displacement time by 15 minutes; - Increasing the campus' density by 100%; - Reducing the CO2 emissions by 50%. // In order to achieve these goals, the following actions have been proposed: Developing a new standard building for the university, incorporating sustainability issues, such as the use of renewable and/or recyclable materials, the installation of rainwater storage tanks, the use of natural ventilation for cooling, sitting the buildings in such a way to decrease thermal gain, and other issues that are required for sustainable buildings' international certifications. To assess the performance of the new standard building, different simulation software were used, such as CFD for checking ventilation, light simulation software to assess energy consumption, and so on. 1. Filling up under-utilized urban areas in the campus with new buildings, to make better use of unused infrastructure and decrease the distance between buildings. 2. Proposing new bicycle paths in and outside campus, and proposing changes in the existing bicycle path to improve its safety. 3. Developing a landscape design plan that aims at creating shaded pedestrian and bicycle passageways.
series ASCAAD
email medrano@fec.unicamp.br
last changed 2011/03/01 06:36

_id caadria2010_034
id caadria2010_034
authors Chung, Daniel Hii Jun and Malone-Lee Lai Choo
year 2010
title Computational fluid dynamics for efficient urban design
source Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Hong Kong 7-10 April 2010, pp. 357-366
summary Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a method of solving and analysing problems that involved fluid flows. In the field of architecture, urban design and urban planning, CFD is useful for the analysis of ventilation and airflow in the built environment, especially in very dense cities. This paper will look into the possibility of making CFD more accessible to the general design and planning field. A simulation is done on a urban design proposal to quickly see how air flow behaves around it. From there, it looks into the future where technology will make CFD simulation more easily adopted and the possibilities of integrating the ventilation analysis with other environmental analysis results into the urban design arena.
keywords Computational fluid dynamics; sustainability; high density; urban design; airflow
series CAADRIA
email sdedhjc@nus.edu.sg
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id caadria2010_027
id caadria2010_027
authors Fernando, Ruwan; Robin Drogemuller, Flora Dilys Salim and Jane Burry
year 2010
title Patterns, heuristics for architectural design support: making use of evolutionary modelling in design
source Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Hong Kong 7-10 April 2010, pp. 283-292
summary Software used by architectural and industrial designers has shifted from becoming a tool for drafting, towards use in verification, simulation, project management and remote project sharing. In more advanced models, design parameters for the designed object can be adjusted so that a family of variations can be produced rapidly. With the advances in computer aided design (CAD) technology, design options can now be generated and analyzed in real time. However the use of digital tools to support design as an activity is still at an early stage and has largely been limited in functionality with regard to the design process. To date, major CAD vendors have not developed an integrated tool that is able to leverage specialised design knowledge from various discipline domains (known as expert knowledge systems) as well as to support the creation of design alternatives that satisfy different forms of constraints. We propose that evolutionary computing and machine learning be linked with parametric design techniques in order to monitor a designer’s cognition and intent based on their design history. This will lead to results that impact future work on design support systems which are capable of supporting implicit constraint and problem definition for wicked problems that are difficult to quantify.
keywords Design support; heuristics; generative modelling; parametric modelling; evolutionary computation
series CAADRIA
email r1fernando@qut.edu.au
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id cf2011_p035
id cf2011_p035
authors Langenhan, Christoph; Weber Markus, Petzold Frank, Liwicki Marcus, Dengel Andreas
year 2011
title Sketch-based Methods for Researching Building Layouts through the Semantic Fingerprint of Architecture
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 85-102.
summary The paper focuses on the early stages of the design process where the architect needs assistance in finding reference projects and describes different aspects of a concept for retrieving previous design solutions with similar layout characteristics. Such references are typically used to see how others have solved a similar architectural problem or simply for inspiration. Current electronic search methods use textual information rather than graphical information. The configuration of space and the relations between rooms are hard to represent using keywords, in fact transforming these spatial configurations into verbally expressed typologies tends to result in unclear and often imprecise descriptions of architecture. Nowadays, modern IT-technologies lead to fundamental changes during the process of designing buildings. Digital representations of architecture require suitable approaches to the storage, indexing and management of information as well as adequate retrieval methods. Traditionally planning information is represented in the form of floor plans, elevations, sections and textual descriptions. State of the art digital representations include renderings, computer aided design (CAD) and semantic information like Building Information Modelling (BIM) including 2D and 3D file formats such as Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) (IAI, 2010). In the paper, we examine the development of IT-technologies in the area of case-based reasoning (Richter et al., 2007) to provide a sketch-based submission and retrieval system for publishing and researching building layouts including their manipulation and subsequent use. The user interface focuses on specifying space and their relations by drawing them. This query style supports the spatial thinking approach that architects use, who often have a visual representation in mind without being able to provide an accurate description of the spatial configuration. The semantic fingerprint proposed by (Langenhan, 2008) is a description and query language for creating an index of floor plans to store meta-data about architecture, which can be used as signature for retrieving reference projects. The functional spaces, such as living room or kitchen and the relation among on another, are used to create a fingerprint. Furthermore, we propose a visual sketch-based interface (Weber et al., 2010) based on the Touch&Write paradigm (Liwicki et al., 2010) for the submission and the retrieval phase. During the submission process the architect is sketching the space-boundaries, space relations and functional coherence's. Using state of the art document analysis techniques, the architects are supported offering an automatic detection of room boundaries and their physical relations. During the retrieval the application will interpret the sketches of the architect and find reference projects based on a similarity based search utilizing the semantic fingerprint. By recommending reference projects, architects will be able to reuse collective experience which match the current requirements. The way of performing a search using a sketch as a query is a new way of thinking and working. The retrieval of 3D models based on a sketched shape are already realized in several domains. We already propose a step further, using the semantics of a spatial configuration. Observing the design process of buildings reveals that the initial design phase serves as the foundation for the quality of the later outcome. The sketch-based approach to access valuable information using the semantic fingerprint enables the user to digitally capture knowledge about architecture, to recover and reuse it in common-sense. Furthermore, automatically analysed fingerprints can put forward both commonly used as well as best practice projects. It will be possible to rate architecture according to the fingerprint of a building.
keywords new media, case-based reasoning, ontology, semantic building design, sketch-based, knowledge management
series CAAD Futures
email langenhan@tum.de
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ecaade2010_056
id ecaade2010_056
authors Oezener, Ozan Oender; Farias, Francisco; Haliburton, James; Clayton, Mark J.
year 2010
title Illuminating the Design: Incorporation of natural lighting analyses in the design studio using BIM
source FUTURE CITIES [28th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-9-6] ETH Zurich (Switzerland) 15-18 September 2010, pp.493-498
summary The growing demand for sustainable architectural design motivates the integration of BIM technologies and novel design processes into architectural education. This paper presents the results from a set of educational case studies for the incorporation of BIM-based daylighting simulations and analyses into the design studio. With a carefully devised studio setting and the participation of interdisciplinary consultants, the experimental case studies simulated an integrated design process based on rapid information exchange and collaborative decision making. The implemented method enables students to use BIM models and daylighting simulations as significant sources of design information for performance-based architectural design.
wos WOS:000340629400053
keywords BIM; daylighting simulations; Collaborative design; Integration
series eCAADe
email ozener@itu.edu.tr
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id caadria2010_030
id caadria2010_030
authors Toth, Bianca; Robin Drogemuller and John Frazer
year 2010
title Information dependencies between architects and services engineers for early design evaluation: a framework for an energy design tool for architects
source Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Hong Kong 7-10 April 2010, pp. 313-222
summary Effective strategies for the design of efficient and environmentally sensitive buildings require a close collaboration between architects and engineers in the design of the building shell and environmental control systems at the outset of projects. However, it is often not practical for engineers to be involved early on in the design process. It is therefore essential that architects be able to perform preliminary energy analyses to evaluate their proposed designs prior to the major building characteristics becoming fixed. Subsequently, a need exists for a simplified energy design tool for architects. This paper discusses the limitations of existing analysis software in supporting early design explorations and proposes a framework for the development of a tool that provides decision support by permitting architects to quickly assess the performance of design alternatives.
keywords Performance-based design; energy simulation; decision support; design process; information dependencies
series CAADRIA
email bianca.toth@qut.edu.au
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id caadria2013_135
id caadria2013_135
authors Williams, Nick; Daniel Davis, Brady Peters, Alexander Peña De León,  Jane Burry and Mark Burry
year 2013
title FabPOD: An Open Design-to-Fabrication System
source Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2013) / Singapore 15-18 May 2013, pp. 251-260
summary Digital workflows from the design to the production of buildings have received significant recent attention in architectural research. The need for both integrated systems for design collaboration (Boeykens and Neuckermans, 2006) and clear and flexible communication flows for non-standard fabrication outcomes have been identified as fundamental (Scheurer, 2010). This paper reports on the development of a digital “design system” for the design and prototyping of an acoustic enclosure for meetings in a large open work environment, theFabPod. The aim was to keep this system open for temporal flexibility in as many aspects of the finalisation of the design as possible. The system provides novel examples of both integrated collaboration and clear communication flow.  (1) Acoustics is included as a design driver in early stages through the connection of digital simulation tools with design models. (2) Bi-directional information flows and clear modularisation of workflow underpins the system from design through to fabrication and assembly of the enclosure. Following the completion and evaluation of the FabPod prototype, the openness of the system will be tested through its application in subsequent design and prototyping iterations. Design development will respond to performance testing through user engagement methods and acoustic measurement.  
wos WOS:000351496100025
keywords Digital workflow, Prototyping, Acoustic simulation, Collaborative design 
series CAADRIA
email nicholas.williams@rmit.edu.au
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ijac20108306
id ijac20108306
authors Peters, Brady
year 2010
title Acoustic Performance as a Design Driver: Sound Simulation and Parametric Modeling using SmartGeometry
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 8 - no. 3, pp. 337-358
summary Acoustic performance is an inevitable part of architectural design. Our sonic experience is modified by the geometry and material choices of the designer. Acoustic performance must be understood both on the level of material performance and also at the level of the entire composition. With new parametric and scripting tools performance driven design is possible. Parametric design and scripting tools can be used to explore not only singular objectives, but gradient conditions. Acoustic performance is often thought of in terms of singular performance criteria. This research suggested acoustic design can be understood in terms of gradients and multiple performance parameters. Simulation and modeling techniques for computational acoustic prediction now allow architects to more fully engage with the phenomenon of sound and digital models can be studied to produce data, visualizations, animations, and auralizations of acoustic performance. SmartGeometry has promoted design methods and educational potentials of a performance-driven approach to architectural design through parametric modeling and scripting. The SmartGeometry workshops have provided links between engineering and architecture, analysis and design; they have provided parametric and scripting tools that can provide both a common platform, links between platforms, but importantly an intellectual platform where these ideas can mix. These workshops and conferences have inspired two projects that both used acoustic performance as a design driver. The Smithsonian Institution Courtyard Enclosure and the Manufacturing Parametric Acoustic Surfaces (MPAS) installation at SmartGeometry 2010 are presented as examples of projects that used sound simulation parametric modeling to create acoustically performance driven architecture.
series journal
last changed 2019/05/24 07:55

_id ascaad2010_241
id ascaad2010_241
authors Aboreeda, Faten; Dina Taha
year 2010
title Using Case-Based Reasoning to Aid Sustainable Design
source CAAD - Cities - Sustainability [5th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2010 / ISBN 978-1-907349-02-7], Fez (Morocco), 19-21 October 2010, pp. 241-246
summary Since so far there exists only one planet, sustainable design is considered the (ethical) future in all fields of design. Although both architecture and construction are being considered major emitters of green house gases, a wise design not only can lead to minimizing this impact but it can also lead to restoring and regenerating the environment to a sustainable state. This paper presents an on-going research that aims at simplifying the elements and facilitating the process of sustainable design by using case-based reasoning. This is achieved through learning from past experiences; both good and bad ones, by providing a database application with a process-friendly interface which divides the main pillars of sustainable design into categories. Each building contains different stories related to different sustainable related issues. Each story can be repeated in /linked to many buildings. By providing designers with those past experiences, it is believed that deeper-studied designs can be more easily developed. Also a deeper analysis and understanding can be further implemented and produced with less effort for experienced and non-experienced architects in sustainable design. This would also decrease the consumption of time during the design process and encourage even more designers to integrate the sustainability concept into more designs. This research discusses the influence of sustainable design within the architectural domain, and suggests a computer application that aids architects during the preliminary design processes.
series ASCAAD
email fatenaboreeda@gmail.com
last changed 2011/03/01 06:36

_id ijac20108403
id ijac20108403
authors Aksamija, Ajla; Ivanka Iordanova
year 2010
title Computational Environments with Multimodal Representations of Architectural Design Knowledge
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 8 - no. 4, p. 439
summary This article discusses interaction between multimodal representations of architectural design knowledge, particularly focusing on relating explicit and implicit types of information. The aim of the presented research is to develop a computational environment that combines several modes of representation, including and integrating different forms of architectural design knowledge. Development of an interactive digital-models library and ontological model of architectural design factors are discussed, which are complementary in nature. In a time when BIM software is seen as embodiment of domain knowledge and the future medium of architectural design, this paper presents an interaction between ontological representation of architectural design knowledge and its embodiment in interactive models, thus focusing on the process of design and design space exploration. In the digital environments that we propose, representation of different formats of knowledge, such as visual, linguistic or numeric, are integrated with relational and procedural information, design rules, and characteristics. Interactive search and query based on contextual constraints, and parametric variation of the model based on the information received from ontology are the underlying drivers for design exploration and development.
series journal
last changed 2019/05/24 07:55

_id ecaade2010_022
id ecaade2010_022
authors Al-kazzaz, Dhuha; Bridges, Alan; Chase, Scott
year 2010
title Shape Grammars for Innovative Hybrid Typological Design
source FUTURE CITIES [28th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-9-6] ETH Zurich (Switzerland) 15-18 September 2010, pp.187-195
summary This paper describes a new methodology of deriving innovative hybrid designs using shape grammars of heterogeneous designs. The method is detailed within three phases of shape grammars: analysis, synthesis and evaluation. In the analysis phase, the research suggests that original rules of each design component are grouped in subclass rule sets to facilitate rule choices. Additionally, adding new hybrid rules to original rules expands the options available to the grammar user. In the synthesis phase, the research adopts state labels and markers to drive the design generation. The former is implemented with a user guide grammar to ensure hybridity in the generated design, while the latter aims to ensure feasible designs. Lastly evaluation criteria are added to measure the degree of innovation of the hybrid designs. This paper describes the derivation of hybrid minaret designs from a corpus of heterogeneous traditional minaret designs.
wos WOS:000340629400020
keywords Shape grammar; Parallel grammar; Hybrid design; Typology
series eCAADe
email dhuha.abdul-aziz@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ascaad2010_213
id ascaad2010_213
authors Babsail, Mohammad; Mahjoub Elnimeiri
year 2010
title A Computer Process for Investigating Wind Power Production in Building Integrated Wind Turbines
source CAAD - Cities - Sustainability [5th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2010 / ISBN 978-1-907349-02-7], Fez (Morocco), 19-21 October 2010, pp. 213-220
summary This paper reports on the computer process to be used in an ongoing research to investigate the effect of architectural parameters of tall buildings on the incorporation of wind turbines. The process combines a generative modeling tool (Grasshopper) and a performance based CFD tool (Virtualwind). The process is demonstrated on three typical tall building plan configurations. The wind speed was simulated at certain locations to demonstrate the ability of tall buildings to enhance the wind speed and thus maximize the energy produced by wind turbines located between twin towers. The process to predict wind power production is lastly listed.
series ASCAAD
email mbabsail@iit.edu
last changed 2011/03/01 06:36

_id acadia10_313
id acadia10_313
authors Banda, Pablo
year 2010
title Parametric Propagation of Acoustical Absorbers
source ACADIA 10: LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture [Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-1-4507-3471-4] New York 21-24 October, 2010), pp. 313-319
summary The following paper deals with a performance-driven morphogenetic design task to improve the conditions of room acoustics, using as a case study the material laboratory of the School of Architecture at Federico Santa Maria University of Technology. Combining contemporary Parametric Modeling techniques and a Performance- Based approach, an automatic generative system was produced. This system generated a modular acoustic ceiling based on Helmholtz Resonators. To satisfy sound absorption requirements, acoustic knowledge was embedded within the system. It iterates through a series of design sub-tasks from Acoustic Simulation to Digital Fabrication, searching for a suitable design solution. The internal algorithmic complexity of the design process has been explored through this case study. Although it is focused on an acoustic component, the proposed design methodology can influence other experiences in Parametric Design.
keywords Parametric Modeling, Sound Absorption & Acoustic Knowledge, Performance-Based Design, Design Task, Scripting, Digital Fabrication, Custom Tools, Honeycomb.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email pablo.banda.p@hotmail.com
last changed 2010/12/07 13:27

_id ecaade2010_084
id ecaade2010_084
authors Beirao, Jose; Mendes, Gelly; Duarte, Jose; Stouffs, Rudi
year 2010
title Implementing a Generative Urban Design Model: Grammar-based design patterns for urban design
source FUTURE CITIES [28th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-9-6] ETH Zurich (Switzerland) 15-18 September 2010, pp.265-274
summary This paper shows the first results of a prototype implementation of a generative urban design tool. This implementation will form part of a design support tool for a GIS based platform defined to formulate, generate and evaluate urban designs. These three goals, formulation, generation and evaluation are integrated by connecting three modules developed individually for each goal. In this paper we focus on the implementation of the generation module showing a prototype developed on the Integrated Development Environment (IDE) of AutoCAD Civil 3D. This implementation attempts to encode the design moves of the urban planner into design patterns supported on grammar formalisms which allow for design synthesis and design exploration in the field of urban design.
wos WOS:000340629400028
keywords Shape grammars; Design patterns; Generative urban design; CAD
series eCAADe
email J.N.Beirao@tudelft.nl
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id cf2011_p157
id cf2011_p157
authors Boton, Conrad; Kubicki Sylvain, Halin Gilles
year 2011
title Understanding Pre-Construction Simulation Activities to Adapt Visualization in 4D CAD Collaborative Tools
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 477-492.
summary Increasing productivity and efficiency is an important issue in the AEC field. This area is mainly characterized by fragmentation, heterogeneous teams with low lifetimes and many uncertainties. 4D CAD is one of the greatest innovations in recent years. It consists in linking a 3D model of the building with the works planning in order to simulate the construction evolution over time. 4D CAD can fill several needs from design to project management through constructivity analysis and tasks planning (Tommelein 2003). The literature shows that several applications have been proposed to improve the 4D CAD use (Chau et al. 2004; Lu et al. 2007; Seok & al. 2009). In addition, studies have shown the real impact of 4D CAD use in construction projects (Staub-French & Khanzode 2007; Dawood & Sika 2007). More recently, Mahalingam et al. (2010) showed that the collaborative use of 4D CAD is particularly useful during the pre-construction phase for comparing the constructability of working methods, for visually identifying conflicts and clashes (overlaps), and as visual tool for practitioners to discuss and to plan project progress. So the advantage of the 4D CAD collaborative use is demonstrated. Moreover, several studies have been conducted both in the scientific community and in the industrial world to improve it (Zhou et al. 2009; Kang et al. 2007). But an important need that remains in collaborative 4D CAD use in construction projects is about the adaptation of visualization to the users business needs. Indeed, construction projects have very specific characteristics (fragmentation, variable team, different roles from one project to another). Moreover, in the AEC field several visualization techniques can represent the same concept and actors choose one or another of these techniques according to their specific needs related to the task they have to perform. For example, the tasks planning may be represented by a Gantt chart or by a PERT network and the building elements can be depicted with a 3D model or a 2D plan. The classical view (3D + Gantt) proposed to all practitioners in the available 4D tools seems therefore not suiting the needs of all. So, our research is based on the hypothesis that adapting the visualization to individual business needs could significantly improve the collaboration. This work relies on previous ones and aim to develop a method 1) to choose the best suited views for performed tasks and 2) to compose adapted multiple views for each actor, that we call “business views”. We propose a 4 steps-method to compose business views. The first step identifies the users’ business needs, defining the individual practices performed by each actor, identifying his business tasks and his information needs. The second step identifies the visualization needs related to the identified business needs. For this purpose, the user’s interactions and visualization tasks are described. This enables choosing the most appropriate visualization techniques for each need (step 3). At this step, it is important to describe the visualization techniques and to be able to compare them. Therefore, we proposed a business view metamodel. The final step (step 4) selects the adapted views, defines the coordination mechanisms and the interaction principles in order to compose coordinated visualizations. A final step consists in a validation work to ensure that the composed views really match to the described business needs. This paper presents the latest version of the method and especially presents our latest works about its first and second steps. These include making more generic the business tasks description in order to be applicable within most of construction projects and enabling to make correspondence with visualization tasks.
keywords Pre-construction, Simulation, 4D CAD, Collaboration, Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Human-Computer Interface, Information visualization, Business view, Model driven engineering
series CAAD Futures
email conrad.boton@tudor.lu
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p135
id cf2011_p135
authors Chen Rui, Irene; Schnabel Marc Aurel
year 2011
title Multi-touch - the future of design interaction
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 557-572.
summary The next major revolution for design is to bring the natural user interaction into design activities. Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) brought a new approach that was more effective compared to their conventional predecessors. In recent years, Natural User Interfaces (NUI) have advanced user experiences and multi-touch and gesture technologies provide new opportunities for a variety of potential uses in design. Much attention has been paid to leverage in the design of interactive interfaces. The mouse input and desktop screen metaphors limit the information sharing for multiple users and also delayed the direct interaction for communication between each other. This paper proposes the innovative method by integrating game engine ‘Unity3D’ with multi-touch tangible interfaces. Unity3D provides a game development tool as part of its application package that has been designed to let users to focus on creating new games. However, it does not limit the usage of area to design additional game scenarios since the benefits of Unity3D is allowing users to build 3D environments with its customizable and easy to use editor, graphical pipelines to openGL (http://unity3d.com/, 2010 ). It creates Virtual Reality (VR) environments which can simulates places in the real world, as well as the virtual environments helping architects and designers to vividly represent their design concepts through 3D visualizations, and interactive media installations in a detailed multi-sensory experience. Stereoscopic displays advanced their spatial ability while solving issues to design e.g. urban spaces. The paper presents how a multi-touch tabletop can be used for these design collaboration and communication tasks. By using natural gestures, designers can now communicate and share their ideas by manipulating the same reference simultaneously using their own input simultaneously. Further studies showed that 3Dl forms are perceived and understood more readily through haptic and proprioceptive perception of tangible representations than through visual representation alone (Gillet et al, 2005). Based on the authors’ framework presented at the last CAADFutures, the benefits of integrating 3D visualization and tactile sensory can be illustrated in this platform (Chen and Wang, 2009), For instance, more than one designer can manipulate the 3D geometry objects on tabletop directly and can communicate successfully their ideas freely without having to waiting for the next person response. It made the work more effective which increases the overall efficiency. Designers can also collect the real-time data by any change they make instantly. The possibilities of Uniy3D make designing very flexible and fun, it is deeply engaging and expressive. Furthermore, the unity3D is revolutionizing the game development industry, its breakthrough development platform for creating highly interactive 3D content on the web (http://unity3d.com/ , 2010) or similar to the interface of modern multimedia devices such as the iPhone, therefore it allows the designers to work remotely in a collaborative way to integrate the design process by using the individual mobile devices while interacting design in a common platform. In design activities, people create an external representation of a domain, often of their own ideas and understanding. This platform helps learners to make their ideas concrete and explicit, and once externalized, subsequently they reflect upon their work how well it sits the real situation. The paper demonstrates how this tabletop innovatively replaces the typical desktop metaphor. In summary, the paper addresses two major issues through samples of collaborative design: firstly presenting aspects of learners’ interactions with physical objects, whereby tangible interfaces enables them constructing expressive representations passively (Marshall, 2007), while focussing on other tasks; and secondly showing how this novel design tool allows designers to actively create constructions that might not be possible with conventional media.
keywords Multi-touch tabletop, Tangible User Interface
series CAAD Futures
email rui.chen@sydney.edu.au
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

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