CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id cf2011_p157
id cf2011_p157
authors Boton, Conrad; Kubicki Sylvain, Halin Gilles
year 2011
title Understanding Pre-Construction Simulation Activities to Adapt Visualization in 4D CAD Collaborative Tools
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 477-492.
summary Increasing productivity and efficiency is an important issue in the AEC field. This area is mainly characterized by fragmentation, heterogeneous teams with low lifetimes and many uncertainties. 4D CAD is one of the greatest innovations in recent years. It consists in linking a 3D model of the building with the works planning in order to simulate the construction evolution over time. 4D CAD can fill several needs from design to project management through constructivity analysis and tasks planning (Tommelein 2003). The literature shows that several applications have been proposed to improve the 4D CAD use (Chau et al. 2004; Lu et al. 2007; Seok & al. 2009). In addition, studies have shown the real impact of 4D CAD use in construction projects (Staub-French & Khanzode 2007; Dawood & Sika 2007). More recently, Mahalingam et al. (2010) showed that the collaborative use of 4D CAD is particularly useful during the pre-construction phase for comparing the constructability of working methods, for visually identifying conflicts and clashes (overlaps), and as visual tool for practitioners to discuss and to plan project progress. So the advantage of the 4D CAD collaborative use is demonstrated. Moreover, several studies have been conducted both in the scientific community and in the industrial world to improve it (Zhou et al. 2009; Kang et al. 2007). But an important need that remains in collaborative 4D CAD use in construction projects is about the adaptation of visualization to the users business needs. Indeed, construction projects have very specific characteristics (fragmentation, variable team, different roles from one project to another). Moreover, in the AEC field several visualization techniques can represent the same concept and actors choose one or another of these techniques according to their specific needs related to the task they have to perform. For example, the tasks planning may be represented by a Gantt chart or by a PERT network and the building elements can be depicted with a 3D model or a 2D plan. The classical view (3D + Gantt) proposed to all practitioners in the available 4D tools seems therefore not suiting the needs of all. So, our research is based on the hypothesis that adapting the visualization to individual business needs could significantly improve the collaboration. This work relies on previous ones and aim to develop a method 1) to choose the best suited views for performed tasks and 2) to compose adapted multiple views for each actor, that we call “business views”. We propose a 4 steps-method to compose business views. The first step identifies the users’ business needs, defining the individual practices performed by each actor, identifying his business tasks and his information needs. The second step identifies the visualization needs related to the identified business needs. For this purpose, the user’s interactions and visualization tasks are described. This enables choosing the most appropriate visualization techniques for each need (step 3). At this step, it is important to describe the visualization techniques and to be able to compare them. Therefore, we proposed a business view metamodel. The final step (step 4) selects the adapted views, defines the coordination mechanisms and the interaction principles in order to compose coordinated visualizations. A final step consists in a validation work to ensure that the composed views really match to the described business needs. This paper presents the latest version of the method and especially presents our latest works about its first and second steps. These include making more generic the business tasks description in order to be applicable within most of construction projects and enabling to make correspondence with visualization tasks.
keywords Pre-construction, Simulation, 4D CAD, Collaboration, Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Human-Computer Interface, Information visualization, Business view, Model driven engineering
series CAAD Futures
email conrad.boton@tudor.lu
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id caadria2010_028
id caadria2010_028
authors Chellappa, J. and H.-J. Park
year 2010
title BIM + healthcare: on the view of a primary healthcare renovation project
source Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Hong Kong 7-10 April 2010, pp. 293-302
summary Currently BIM is at the forefront of the building industry. While useful for various building types the definitive nature of healthcare design benefits from the BIM process largely in comparison to other building types. In this paper BIM is employed for phasing the design process of the healthcare project, creating modelling prototypes and making reference to a baseline model in order to increase the overall success of the healthcare design project.
keywords Building information modelling; healthcare; evidence-based design; prototype; baseline model
series CAADRIA
type normal paper
email chellapp@hawaii.edu
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id caadria2010_034
id caadria2010_034
authors Chung, Daniel Hii Jun and Malone-Lee Lai Choo
year 2010
title Computational fluid dynamics for efficient urban design
source Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Hong Kong 7-10 April 2010, pp. 357-366
summary Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a method of solving and analysing problems that involved fluid flows. In the field of architecture, urban design and urban planning, CFD is useful for the analysis of ventilation and airflow in the built environment, especially in very dense cities. This paper will look into the possibility of making CFD more accessible to the general design and planning field. A simulation is done on a urban design proposal to quickly see how air flow behaves around it. From there, it looks into the future where technology will make CFD simulation more easily adopted and the possibilities of integrating the ventilation analysis with other environmental analysis results into the urban design arena.
keywords Computational fluid dynamics; sustainability; high density; urban design; airflow
series CAADRIA
email sdedhjc@nus.edu.sg
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id acadia10_117
id acadia10_117
authors Crotch, Joanna; Mantho, Robert; Horner, Martyn
year 2010
title Social Spatial Genesis: Activity Centered Space Making
source ACADIA 10: LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture [Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-1-4507-3471-4] New York 21-24 October, 2010), pp. 117-124
summary Digital technologies and processes have been used to generate architectural form for over two decades. Recent advances in digital technologies have allowed virtual digital environments to be constructed from physical movement. But can a bridge that connects the physical and virtual realms be developed? Can this, currently arbitrary form making be grounded in human activity and subsequently be integrated in to real time, space, and place. This research asks how space generated from the process of digital morphogenesis can be related to meaning beyond just the creation of form. Existing research asks how new form can be discovered, or what material and structural possibilities can be derived from form, through these morphological processes. The aim of this research project is to complete the loop, physical–virtual–physical, and to connect these digital processes to meaning through human activity. Its aim is to discover the consequences of generated spatial envelopes that are manipulated through digital morphogenesis and related to specific human activity, in the pursuit of possibilities for a digitally generated architecture that is socially engaged. This is not random form finding, wherein architecture tries to imitate biological processes or form, but form finding that is connected to a primary architectural concern, how is the architecture being used by humans.
keywords Social digital morphogenesis, event based, motion capture
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email j.crotch@gsa.ac.uk
last changed 2010/11/10 06:27

_id caadria2010_027
id caadria2010_027
authors Fernando, Ruwan; Robin Drogemuller, Flora Dilys Salim and Jane Burry
year 2010
title Patterns, heuristics for architectural design support: making use of evolutionary modelling in design
source Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Hong Kong 7-10 April 2010, pp. 283-292
summary Software used by architectural and industrial designers has shifted from becoming a tool for drafting, towards use in verification, simulation, project management and remote project sharing. In more advanced models, design parameters for the designed object can be adjusted so that a family of variations can be produced rapidly. With the advances in computer aided design (CAD) technology, design options can now be generated and analyzed in real time. However the use of digital tools to support design as an activity is still at an early stage and has largely been limited in functionality with regard to the design process. To date, major CAD vendors have not developed an integrated tool that is able to leverage specialised design knowledge from various discipline domains (known as expert knowledge systems) as well as to support the creation of design alternatives that satisfy different forms of constraints. We propose that evolutionary computing and machine learning be linked with parametric design techniques in order to monitor a designer’s cognition and intent based on their design history. This will lead to results that impact future work on design support systems which are capable of supporting implicit constraint and problem definition for wicked problems that are difficult to quantify.
keywords Design support; heuristics; generative modelling; parametric modelling; evolutionary computation
series CAADRIA
email r1fernando@qut.edu.au
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id caadria2010_012
id caadria2010_012
authors Gu, Ning; Vishal Singh and Kathryn Merrick
year 2010
title A framework to integrate generative design techniques for enhancing design automation
source Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Hong Kong 7-10 April 2010, pp. 127-136
summary This paper presents and demonstrates a computational framework that facilitates the integration of different generative design techniques to enhance design automation. The framework is based on the evaluation and comparison of four main generative design algorithms. Effectiveness of the framework is demonstrated through an example scenario. Compared to most existing generative design systems that are based on one of the techniques, which often bias the generative design process in a certain direction, new generative design systems by applying the proposed framework will provide the trigger at each stage as demonstrated in the example scenario for the designer to perceive the emergent designs from different viewpoints. This advantage will enhance design generation and automation by assisting the designer in making more informed decisions in understanding and selecting the suitable generative techniques for different design needs.
keywords Generative design systems; shape grammars; L-systems; cellular automata; genetic algorithms
series CAADRIA
email ning.gu@newcastle.edu.au
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id ecaade2010_168
id ecaade2010_168
authors Halatsch, Jan; Caro, Thomas; Moser, Bruno; Schmitt, Gerhard
year 2010
title A Grammar-based Procedural Design Guideline Visualization Diagram for the Development of SVA Masdar
source FUTURE CITIES [28th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-9-6] ETH Zurich (Switzerland) 15-18 September 2010, pp.833-840
summary Nowadays, a large set of involved planning parties are heavily demanded with the definition of holistic in kind requirement specifications for urban planning sites – so called future cities. However, the resulting amountof specifications for a specific building project poses a great challenge to designers and planners especially when it comes to include this information into their design proposals for a sustainable urban development. These design performance criteria are traditionally expressed in textual and numerical planning guidelines and which are making it difficult to establish a comprehensive and holistic view onto the domain itself. Therefore we present in this paper a design guide visualization method to overcome this situation for the evaluation of design specification and urban layouts in a qualitative and quantitative manner.
wos WOS:000340629400089
keywords Sustainable urban patterns; Shape grammars; Design evaluation; Urban planning; Design guide translation
series eCAADe
email halatsch@arch.ethz.ch
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ijac20108302
id ijac20108302
authors Hladik, Pavel; Clive J Lewis
year 2010
title Singapore National Stadium Roof
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 8 - no. 3, pp. 257-278
summary The case study focuses on design of the Singapore National Stadium roof and its architectural and structural constraints. The dialog between performance form generation and aesthetics was challenged through several design iterations and is critically reviewed in this paper. The collaboration of engineers and architects gave a form to this significant building that was slightly changed several times due to various conditions. The complex shape of the dome structure was resolved in one parametric model that could react on aesthetical and structural requirements. The landmark roof structure generated in computer had to be evaluated by designers and presented to decision making bodies.
series journal
last changed 2019/05/24 07:55

_id caadria2010_023
id caadria2010_023
authors Kenzari, Bechir
year 2010
title Fabricating twisted towers
source Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Hong Kong 7-10 April 2010, pp. 239-247
summary The miniature replicas of multi-billion dollar property development projects provide every year a spectacle of the vast imagination of architects and master developers at Cityscape Dubai exhibition. The technical aspect of the model-making industry component is a complex one in that it often engages the modelling of very subtle structures such as twisted towers. One illustration of these is the Infinity Tower in Dubai Marina (designed by SOM). To be completed in 2011, this 330-metre high-rise is composed of 80 floors and is intended to be the world’s tallest high-rise featuring a 90_ twist. Each floor rotates by 1.2 degrees to attain the full 90_ spiral, creating the shape of a helix. The paper discusses the physical modelling of this tower, with a description of both the digital and the constructive parts.
keywords Fabrication; models; Rhinoceros; twisted towers; Dubai
series CAADRIA
email b.kenzari@uaeu.ac.ae
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id acadia10_133
id acadia10_133
authors Kim, Jong Bum, Clayton, Mark J.
year 2010
title Support Form-based Codes with Building Information Modeling – The Parametric Urban Model Case Study
source ACADIA 10: LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture [Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-1-4507-3471-4] New York 21-24 October, 2010), pp. 133-138
summary This study aims to develop the parametric urban model to support Form-based Codes (FBCs) by using Object-Oriented Parametric Modeling (OOPM) and Building Information Modeling (BIM). FBCs have been used to substitute conventional land-use and zoning regulations in the United States. In many cities, FBCs were implemented successfully, but excessive design constraints, difficult code making process, and missing density of FBCs are criticized. As a response to the increasing needs of parametric modeling approaches in the urban design domain, we applied BIM and OOPM techniques in two case studies. We conclude that BIM and OOPM have a great potential to support planning and design processes, and that the parametric urban model allows FBCs to be more flexible, interpretable, and interoperable.
keywords Form-based Codes, Building Information Modeling, Object-Oriented Parametric Modeling
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email jongbum.kim.coa@gmail.com
last changed 2010/11/10 06:27

_id sigradi2010_26
id sigradi2010_26
authors Klinger, Kevin R.
year 2010
title Connect Globally | Make Locally: Cases in Design - Through - Production Collaboration Between the Academy and Industry
source SIGraDi 2010_Proceedings of the 14th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, pp. Bogotá, Colombia, November 17-19, 2010, pp. 26-29
summary Collaboration and information exchange are the primary tactics for a globally connected locally produced design - through - production process. With strategic industry partners, Ball State University students test knowledge through real - world applications. While the open access to knowledge in the global environment is critical, it is also imperative to consider the ethic of production and regionally specific conditions under which work is enabled. To this end, the paper will reveal specific design - throughproduction industry - partner collaborations, while exploring the regional implications of making locally, and consider the role of the university to serve as a local catalyst for change in a shifting global economic climate.
keywords digital fabrication, immersive learning, regionalism, collaborative design, design - through - production
series SIGRADI
email krklinger@bsu.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:54

_id ecaade2010_167
id ecaade2010_167
authors Kunze, Antje; Schmitt, Gerhard
year 2010
title A Conceptual Framework for the Formulation of Stakeholder Requirements
source FUTURE CITIES [28th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-9-6] ETH Zurich (Switzerland) 15-18 September 2010, pp.697-705
summary We need to face challenging needs for the planning of sustainable future cities. New methods in urban simulation enhance significantly the early urban design phase. However, these promising methods will only be sustainable if they consider stakeholder participation from the very beginning. Therefore we propose a conceptual framework for the formulation of stakeholder requirements, which enables the iterative modification of an urban model inside participatory workshops. A special emphasis concentrates on environmental, social and economical factors. The requirements posed by the stakeholders are instantly transferred into urban design patterns. Each single pattern stands for a solution for a specific problem that is integrated and visualized in a procedural model. Our goal is to create a participatory process that takes advantages by the use of comprehensive urban design patterns. The results are integrated within an interactive procedural model that communicate the most important guidelines for the planning of sustainable future cities.
wos WOS:000340629400075
keywords Decision-making process; Stakeholder participation; Shape grammars; Urban patterns; Urban planning
series eCAADe
email kunze@arch.ethz.ch
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ecaade2010_090
id ecaade2010_090
authors Ladouce, Nicolas; Hee, Limin; Janssen, Patrick T.
year 2010
title Urban Space Planning for Sustainable High Density Environment
source FUTURE CITIES [28th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-9-6] ETH Zurich (Switzerland) 15-18 September 2010, pp.777-785
summary In this paper we investigate the possibilities of new typologies of urban public space for high density environments. The premise for the project would be that with new high-density typologies, it would be necessary to consider a difference in the nature of urban public spaces rather than a difference in degree from the status quo. From observations of urban patterns that drive collective, hybrid spaces around Asia, relationships between urban attributes are drawn. For this paper we shall focus on the particular case of Linked Hybrid, Beijing, China, as an elevated urban public space. A literature review focuses on reviewing key theories to construct and adopt a rating system to develop an empirical framework to evaluate the case studies and extract the key attributes. These rated attributes are then abstracted in a real-time model that enables user manipulation. The purpose is to create a tool to better observe the effects and evolution of planning decisions for future urban spaces in high density contexts. The preliminary results are consistent with the idea that selected spatial parameters of a space may be embedded into a “barcode” and referenced as a type. The combination of different types, hence their parameters may be used for effective replication of their characteristics to improve the decision-making process for urban designers. The research is not intended to reproduce the successful urban public spaces but rather result in a catalogue of typologies which can be referred to during the initial stages of planning to provide an indication of spatial qualities.
wos WOS:000340629400083
keywords High density environments; Collective urban space; Hybrid typologies; Parametric urbanism
series eCAADe
email nicolas@nus.edu.sg
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id caadria2010_035
id caadria2010_035
authors Lo, Chia-Hui; Ih-Cheng Lai and Teng-Wen Chang
year 2010
title Playing jigsaw: finding the underlying structure of assembling ideas within design productive process
source Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Hong Kong 7-10 April 2010, pp. 371-380
summary Idea generation in design productive process often occurs within brainstorming sessions. Linking ideas is the key mechanism in this process to produce design. Through linking ideas, a graph-like knowledge is representing the individual memories with the nodes and arcs that are the ideas and the links between ideas respectively. Design is the process of puzzle-making, such thinking process is similar to play jigsaw. This research applies a computational tool (called DIM) to produce a graph-like knowledge including diverse jigsaw-like ideas and their relationships. Then we use protocol analysis to understand how designers organise the ideas. The objective is to find the hidden patterns of assembling ideas in the design productive process. Some feasibilities of the game mechanisms are proposed in this paper.
keywords design production; linking ideas; graph-like knowledge; protocol analysis; puzzle-making
series CAADRIA
email nicoinschool@gmail.com
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id sigradi2010_301
id sigradi2010_301
authors Malard, Maria Lúcia; Kölln Elke Berenice
year 2010
title A imersão virtual em espaços arquitetônicos e a sua colaboração nas decisões de projeto [Immersion in virtual architectural spaces, and their impact on design decision - making]
source SIGraDi 2010_Proceedings of the 14th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, pp. Bogotá, Colombia, November 17-19, 2010, pp. 301-303
summary Today, with technological advances the way man interacts with the world around him changes every day, bringing our field to the study of perception. For architects it has always been a challenge to represent their projects in view of the architectural object built. This study aimed to understand how immersion in virtual architectural spaces designed will facilitate greater participation of users and architects in design decisions, as well as how virtual immersion may facilitate decisions on collaborative project teams.
keywords space perception; virtual immersion; architectural design
series SIGRADI
email pirapora@arq.ufmg.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id sigradi2010_304
id sigradi2010_304
authors Matos, Camila; Fideles Felipe; Ximenes Luciana; Gaspar Rebeca
year 2010
title Diagramas interativos: visualização e especulações sobre as dinâmicas urbanas [Interactive diagrams: visualization and speculation about urban dynamics]
source SIGraDi 2010_Proceedings of the 14th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, pp. Bogotá, Colombia, November 17-19, 2010, pp. 304-307
summary The main instrument of urban regulation in Brazil is the plano diretor. Currently, apart from serving as a legal document, it is also the sole means of representation of the rates, zones and boundaries that it determines. However, this representation has been inefficient and, given the need to include civil society in decision - making, it becomes imperative that the impact of decisions be reviewed and communicated. As an effort to solve this problem, we propose the creation of an interface that combines information design and GIS (geographic information systems) in the format of an interactive diagram.
keywords information design; urban planning; GIS; interactive diagram; social control
series SIGRADI
email camilamatosf@gmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id caadria2010_038
id caadria2010_038
authors Moloney, Jules and Bharat Dave
year 2010
title Mixed reality at the sketch design stage
source Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Hong Kong 7-10 April 2010, pp. 401-408
summary We discuss the use of multiple design representations to enhance decision making at the early stages of design. Our particular interest is in the way in which context can be extended by two interrelated approaches: (1) the incorporation of the temporal; and (2) through the concurrent evaluation of qualitative representations and quantitative information. Outcomes from a practice survey are used to formulate approaches to the use of mixed reality (MR) technology that reflect design-specific modes of working. We propose two approaches – studio MR and site MR – reflecting the distinction between the act of design and the process of a design review. The implementation of a studio MR application and illustrative design project are presented.
keywords Design representations; mixed reality
series CAADRIA
email jmoloney@unimelb.edu.au
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id ecaade2010_111
id ecaade2010_111
authors Morello, Eugenio; Carneiro, Cla_udio; Desthieux, Gilles
year 2010
title The Use of Digital 3-D Information to Assess Urban Environmental Quality Indicators
source FUTURE CITIES [28th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-9-6] ETH Zurich (Switzerland) 15-18 September 2010, pp.499-506
summary This paper anticipates the use of 3-D data for the environmental analysis of cities, aiming to provide useful tools for urban designers. The extraction of urban environmental quality (UEQ) indicators from 3-D information using innovative tools is presented. We will introduce our recent research about the implementation of computational tools for the analysis, evaluation and design of the urban space and compare results that can be obtained with different data sources. In particular, we are going to present the advantages of urban models generated from LiDAR data, by showing the case-study analysis of the measurement and quantification of urban vegetation indicators. Results show that the limitation to solar accessibility on roofs is not relevant for the case-study area. Moreover, a set of environmental and morphological indicators could inform urban designers for decision making processes about the distribution of vegetation inside the urban fabric.
wos WOS:000340629400054
keywords 3-D information; Urban environmental quality; 2.5-D digital urban surface model; LiDAR; Digital image processing
series eCAADe
email eugenio.morello@polimi.it
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ecaade2010_056
id ecaade2010_056
authors Oezener, Ozan Oender; Farias, Francisco; Haliburton, James; Clayton, Mark J.
year 2010
title Illuminating the Design: Incorporation of natural lighting analyses in the design studio using BIM
source FUTURE CITIES [28th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-9-6] ETH Zurich (Switzerland) 15-18 September 2010, pp.493-498
summary The growing demand for sustainable architectural design motivates the integration of BIM technologies and novel design processes into architectural education. This paper presents the results from a set of educational case studies for the incorporation of BIM-based daylighting simulations and analyses into the design studio. With a carefully devised studio setting and the participation of interdisciplinary consultants, the experimental case studies simulated an integrated design process based on rapid information exchange and collaborative decision making. The implemented method enables students to use BIM models and daylighting simulations as significant sources of design information for performance-based architectural design.
wos WOS:000340629400053
keywords BIM; daylighting simulations; Collaborative design; Integration
series eCAADe
email ozener@itu.edu.tr
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id caadria2010_052
id caadria2010_052
authors Okuda, S. and Z. Ou
year 2010
title Bio-shell (biodegradable vacuum-formed modularised shelter)
source Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Hong Kong 7-10 April 2010, pp. 565-574
summary This paper demonstrates how digitally fabricated vacuum-formed components can provide a new type of efficient construction applicable to architecture. Vacuum forming has the advantage of rapid mass-production capability of 3D curved forms. Recent digital fabrication technologies, such as 3D CAD and CNC machining, have dramatically reduced the cost and time for making the mould. In combination with biodegradable plastic, such as PLA (poly lactic acid) made of biopolymer, it could open up new type of sustainable construction system, which is applicable for temporal disaster housings or exhibition booths.
keywords Digital fabrication; biodegradable; vacuum forming; fi nite element; lightweight structure
series CAADRIA
email akiso@nus.edu.sg
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

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