CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 21 to 40 of 543

_id cf2011_p098
id cf2011_p098
authors Bernal, Marcelo; Eastman Charles
year 2011
title Top-down Approach for Interaction of Knowledge-Based Parametric Objects and Preliminary Massing Studies for Decision Making in Early Design Stages
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 149-164.
summary Design activities vary from high-degree of freedom in early concept design stages to highly constrained solution spaces in late ones. Such late developments entail large amount of expertise from technical domains. Multiple parallel models handle different aspects of a project, from geometric master models to specific building components. This variety of models must keep consistency with the design intent while they are dealing with specific domains of knowledge such as architectural design, structure, HVAC, MEP, or plumbing systems. Most of the expertise embedded within the above domains can be translated into parametric objects by capturing design and engineering knowledge through parameters, constraints, or conditionals. The aim of this research is capturing such expertise into knowledge-based parametric objects (KPO) for re-usability along the design process. The proposed case study ‚Äì provided by SOM New York‚ is the interaction between a massing study of a high-rise and its building service core, which at the same time handles elevators, restrooms, emergency stairs, and space for technical systems. This project is focused on capturing design expertise, involved in the definition of a building service core, from a high-rise senior designer, and re-using this object for interaction in real-time with a preliminary massing study model of a building, which will drive the adaption process of the service core. This interaction attempts to provide an integrated design environment for feedback from technical domains to early design stages for decision-making, and generate a well-defined first building draft. The challenges addressed to drive the instantiation of the service core according to the shifting characteristics of the high-rise are automatic instantiation and adaptation of objects based on decision rules, and updating in real-time shared parameters and information derived from the high-rise massing study. The interaction between both models facilitates the process from the designer‚Äôs perspective of reusing previous design solutions in new projects. The massing study model is the component that handles information from the perspective of the outer shape design intent. Variations at this massing study model level drive the behavior of the service core model, which must adapt its configuration to the shifting geometry of the building during design exploration in early concept design stages. These variations depend on a list of inputs derived from multiple sources such as variable lot sizes, building type, variable square footage of the building, considerations about modularity, number of stories, floor-to-floor height, total building height, or total building square footage. The shifting combination of this set of parameters determines the final aspect of the building and, consequently, the final configuration of the service core. The service core is the second component involved in the automatic generation of a building draft. In the context of BIM, it is an assembly of objects, which contains other objects representing elevators, restrooms, emergency stairs, and space for several technical systems. This assembly is driven by different layouts depending on the building type, a drop-off sequence, which is the process of continuous reduction of elevators along the building, and how this reduction affects the re-arrangement of the service core layout. Results from this research involves a methodology for capturing design knowledge, a methodology for defining the architecture of smart parametric objects, and a method for real-time-feedback for decision making in early design stages. The project also wants to demonstrate the feasibility of continuous growth on top of existing parametric objects allowing the creation of libraries of smart re-usable objects for automation in design.
keywords design automation, parametric modeling, design rules, knowledge-based design
series CAAD Futures
email marcelo.bernal@gatech.edu
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id acadia11_242
id acadia11_242
authors Braumann, Johannes; Brell-Cokcan, Sigrid
year 2011
title Parametric Robot Control: Integrated CAD/CAM for Architectural Design
source ACADIA 11: Integration through Computation [Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA)] [ISBN 978-1-6136-4595-6] Banff (Alberta) 13-16 October, 2011, pp. 242-251
summary Robots are gaining popularity in architecture. Snøhetta has recently purchased their own industrial robot, becoming one of the first architectural offices to adopt robot technology. As more and more architects are exposed to robotic fabrication, the need for easy interoperability, integration into architectural design tools and general accessibility will increase. Architects are discovering that industrial robots are much more than kinematic machines for stacking bricks, welding or milling - they are highly multifunctional and can be used for a huge variety of tasks. However, industry standard software does not provide easy solutions for allowing direct robot control right from CAAD (Computer Aided Architectural Design) systems. In this paper we will discuss existing methods of programming industrial robots, published architectural results (Gramazio and Kohler 2008) and the design of a new user interface that allows intuitive control of parametric designs and customized robotic mass production, by integrating CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing) functions into CAAD.
keywords robot programming; parametric design; mass customization; grasshopper component design; fabrication; robot milling; digital architecture
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email johannes@robotsinarchitecture.com
last changed 2011/10/06 04:05

_id acadia11_138
id acadia11_138
authors Buell, Samantha; Shaban, Ryan; Corte, Daniel; Beorkrem, Christopher
year 2011
title Zero-waste, Flat Pack Truss Work: An Investigation of Responsive Structuralism
source ACADIA 11: Integration through Computation [Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA)] [ISBN 978-1-6136-4595-6] Banff (Alberta) 13-16 October, 2011, pp. 138-143
summary The direct and rapid connections between scripting, modeling and prototyping allow for investigations of computation in fabrication. The manipulation of planar materials with two-dimensional CNC cuts can easily create complex and varied forms, volumes, and surfaces. However, the bulk of research on folding using CNC fabrication tools is focused upon surfaces, self-supporting walls and shell structures, which do not integrate well into more conventional building construction models.This paper attempts to explain the potential for using folding methodologies to develop structural members through a design-build process. Conventional building practice consists of the assembly of off-the-shelf parts. Many times, the plinth, skeleton, and skin are independently designed and fabricated, integrating multiple industries. Using this method of construction as an operative status quo, this investigation focused on a single structural component: the truss. A truss is defined as: “A triangulated arrangement of structural members that reduces nonaxial external forces to a set of axial forces in its members.” (Allen and Iano 2004)Using folding methodologies and sheet steel to create a truss, this design investigation employed a recyclable and prolific building material to redefine the fabrication of a conventional structural member. The potential for using digital design and two-dimensional CNC fabrication tools in the design of a foldable truss from sheet steel is viable in the creation of a flat-packed, minimal waste structural member that can adapt to a variety of aesthetic and structural conditions. Applying new methods to a component of the conventional ‘kit of parts’ allowed for a novel investigation that recombines zero waste goals, flat-packing potential, structural expression and computational processes.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email srbuell2@gmail.com
last changed 2011/10/06 04:05

_id cf2011_p083
id cf2011_p083
authors Calderon, Dominguez, Emmanuel Ruffo, Hirschberg Urs
year 2011
title Towards a Morphogenetic Control of Free-Form Surfaces for Designers
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 165-180.
summary The present paper discusses a novel computational design strategy for approximating architectural free form geometry with discrete planar elements by using morphogenetic patterns. We report on an ongoing research project [1], which is focused on the design of flat ornamental tessellations by using computational geometry for the discretization of curved forms rather than manufacturing curvy elements, which typically increase cost. The significance of our approach lies in the fact that it allows the designer to progressively embrace the constructive constraints and their esthetic potential already in the design stage and to follow them through to actual fabrication.
keywords morphogenetic geometry, design strategies, user-interactiveness, design control, flat tessellations, ornamental structure.
series CAAD Futures
email e.calderon@TUGraz.at
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id caadria2011_004
id caadria2011_004
authors Coorey, Benjamin P. and Julie R. Jupp
year 2011
title Parametric modelling and design processes: Exploringsynthesis and evaluation using a Function-Behaviour-Structure perspective
source Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / The University of Newcastle, Australia 27-29 April 2011, pp. 39-48
summary In an attempt to extend our understanding of the design process in the context of computational parametric design tools, this paper explores the relationship between and interaction of synthesis and evaluation. In establishing the importance of their coupling in parametric design the paper then explores its consequence on the design process relative to existing models of designing. A tension between designing as planning, search and exploration in parametric design is highlighted together with a conceptual framework, which draws from a situated Function-Behaviour-Structure model of design. The purpose of the framework is to facilitate these different modes of designing and is targeted at the use of parametric tools.
keywords Design processes; parametric design; evaluation; synthesis, design models
series CAADRIA
email benjamin.coorey@uts.edu.au
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id ecaadesigradi2019_397
id ecaadesigradi2019_397
authors Cristie, Verina and Joyce, Sam Conrad
year 2019
title 'GHShot': a collaborative and distributed visual version control for Grasshopper parametric programming
source Sousa, JP, Xavier, JP and Castro Henriques, G (eds.), Architecture in the Age of the 4th Industrial Revolution - Proceedings of the 37th eCAADe and 23rd SIGraDi Conference - Volume 3, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal, 11-13 September 2019, pp. 35-44
summary When working with parametric models, architects typically focus on using rather structuring them (Woodbury, 2010). As a result, increasing design complexity typically means a convoluted parametric model, amplifying known problems: 'hard to understand, modify, share and reuse' (Smith 2007; Davis 2011). This practice is in contrast with conventional software-programming where programmers are known to meticulously document and structure their code with versioning tool. In this paper, we argue that versioning tools could help to manage parametric modelling complexity, as it has been showing with software counterparts. Four key features of version control: committing, differentiating, branching, and merging, and how they could be implemented in a parametric design practice are discussed. Initial user test sessions with 5 student designers using GHShot Grasshopper version control plugin (Cristie and Joyce 2018, 2017) revealed that the plugin is useful to record and overview design progression, share model, and provide a fallback mechanism.
keywords Version Control; Parametric Design; Collaborative Design; Design Exploration
series eCAADeSIGraDi
email verina_cristie@mymail.sutd.edu.sg
last changed 2019/08/26 20:28

_id sigradi2011_222
id sigradi2011_222
authors Faria Lopes, Pedro; Reis, Joaquim; Santos, Filipe; Eloy, Sara; Paio, Alexandra; Rato, Vasco
year 2011
title Shaping emergent cities for all
source SIGraDi 2011 [Proceedings of the 15th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Argentina - Santa Fe 16-18 November 2011, pp. 107-109
summary This paper describes work in progress in the area of producing affordable housing to underprivileged populations living in slums. This project is being developed recurring to a Shape Grammar approach, using a direct input strategy targeted to the common user with non digital expertise. The diversity of solutions are to be applied to three case studies in Mozambique, Angola and Brazil.
keywords Interface design; shape grammar; agents; housing
series SIGRADI
email pedro.lopes@iscte.pt
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id cf2011_p019
id cf2011_p019
authors Haeusler, Matthias Hank; Beilharz Kirsty
year 2011
title Architecture = Computer‚ from Computational to Computing Environments
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 217-232.
summary Drawing on architecture, urban digital media, engineering, IT and interaction design, the research presented in this paper outlines a possible shift from architecture designed through computation (any type of process, algorithm or measurement done in a computational matter) towards architecture capable of computing (developing, using and improving computer technology, computer hardware and software as a space-defining element). The research is driven by recent developments in four fields, as follows: (a) Architecture in its recent development has shifted from a planar box, as was the ideal in the modernist movement, towards complex and non-standard forms. (b) The design concepts of non-standard surfaces have been adopted into media facades and media architecture by liberating the pixel from its planar position on a screen [1]. (c) Advancements in pervasive computing applications are now able both to receive information from the environment in which they are used and to detect other devices that enter this environment [2]. (d) Developments in advanced autonomous systems such as Human Computer Interaction (HCI) or Human Robot Interaction (HRI), have produced intelligent systems capable of observing human cues and using these cues as the basis for intelligent decision-making [3]. Media fa_ßade developments work in the direction of the above-mentioned four fields, but often come with limitations in architectural integration; they need additional components to interact with their environment and their interactions are both often limited to visual interactions and require the user to act first. The researched system, Polymedia Pixel [4] discussed in this paper, can overcome these limitations and fulfil the need for a space-defining material capable of computing, thus enabling a shift from architecture designed by computation towards architecture capable of active computing. The Polymedia Pixel architecture merges digital technology with ubiquitous computing. This allows the built environment and its relation with digital technology to develop from (a) architecture being represented by computer to (b) computation being used to develop architecture and then further to where (c) architecture and the space-defining objects have computing attributes. Hence the study presented aims to consider and answer this key question: ‚ÄòWhen building components with computing capacity can define space and function as a computer at the same time, what are the constraints for the building components and what are the possible advantages for the built environment?‚Äô The conceptual framework, design and methods used in this research combine three fields: (a) hardware (architecture and design, electronic engineering) (b) software (content design and IT) and (c) interaction design (HCI and HRI). Architecture and urban design determinates the field of application. Media architecture and computer science provide the technological foundation, while the field of interaction design defines the methodology to link space and computing [5]. The conceptual starting point is to rethink the application of computers in architecture and, if architecture is capable of computing, what kind of methodology and structure would find an answer to the above core research question, and what are the implications of the question itself? The case study discusses opportunities for applying the Polymedia Pixel as an architectural component by testing it on: (a) constraint testing ‚Äì applying computational design methodologies to design space (b) singular testing - discussing the advantages for an individual building, and (c) plural testing ‚Äì investigating the potential for an urban context. The research aims to contribute to the field of knowledge through presenting first steps of a System < - > System mode where buildings can possibly watch and monitor each other, additional to the four primary interactive modes of operation. This investigation, its proposed hypothesis, methodology, implications, significance and evaluation are presented in the paper.
keywords media architecture, computational environments, ubiquitous computing, interaction design, computer science
series CAAD Futures
email matthias.haeusler@uts.edu.au
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id sigradi2011_092
id sigradi2011_092
authors Hemmerling, Marco
year 2011
title Informed Material
source SIGraDi 2011 [Proceedings of the 15th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Argentina - Santa Fe 16-18 November 2011, pp. 339-342
summary Next to the possibilities of digital form-finding strategies, parametric design and computational visualization techniques, which lead to an increasing virtualization of our society - rapid technologies allow today for the direct translation of the digital model into the physical world. As a result of this process the experience of digital realities, driven by virtual environment gets an interesting shift back to the physical world. Against this background the paper points out that it is a question of design to define contemporary and intended matters, processes and strategies of interaction, in other words: to inform the design.
keywords Rapid Prototyping; Materialization; Perception; Digital Design Tools; Human-Centered Design
series SIGRADI
email marco.hemmerling@hs-owl.de
last changed 2016/03/10 08:53

_id cf2011_p049
id cf2011_p049
authors Hii Jun Chung, Daniel; Chye Kiang Heng, Lai Choo Malone Lee, Ji Zhang
year 2011
title Analyzing the Ventilation Performance of Tropical High Density Residential Precincts using Computational Fluid Dynamics
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 351-366.
summary Major cities in the world are getting bigger as they continue to grow to cater for more population increase. These cities normally forced the urban planning to go high density. In the tropical context, high density cities like Singapore and Hong Kong do not have the luxury of space to go low rise and compact. These cities have to build to the floor area ratio of 4 and above to cater for the population. Their only solution is to go up, as high as possible, to the extent that the natural wind flow pattern will be altered, which brings environmental impact to the people. This is generally not good since wind flow helps to maintain the thermal comfort of the people as heat and pollutants are being channeled out of the city to avoid Urban Heat Island effect. In the tropical context, wind flow is crucial to maintain people’s comfort as the temperature is generally very high from the exposure of the sun for the entire year. Studies have shown that wind flow plays the most significant part in maintaining human comfort despite exposing to direct sunlight in the tropics. Therefore, wind flow analysis is extremely crucial to make the design sustainable and energy efficient, as people will not have to depend on mechanical ventilation to compensate for the lack of wind flow. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has always been used in the field of architecture, urban design and urban planning to understand the patterns of wind flow through the built environment apart from wind tunnel tests. The availability of more powerful hardware for the mainstream computer users as well as the lowering costs of these computers made CFD more possible to be adopted in the design world today. This also means using CFD in the design process, especially to analyze the impact of the design to the current site conditions and annual wind patterns will help the new design to be more responsive to the site. The interest of this paper is to analyze the high density typologies to see how well they respond to the local wind flow pattern. A typology is considered acceptable when the wind flow going through the site is still maintaining acceptable wind speed. This means it does not block off the wind and create stagnant spaces. Different designs generate different typologies which will respond differently to the wind pattern. The study aims at comparing the local high density typologies in terms of their response to the wind. Changes to a typology can be explored too to see if the performance will be different. For a typology which is considered a total failure in terms of response to wind, it may improve its performance if the orientation is altered. The CFD software can also parametrically respond to the changes of the typologies’ dimensions. This is helpful to see how much more a typology can still be performing well before failure by increasing the floor area index. The easiest way to do this is to pump up the building height. In conclusion, designing in response to wind is extremely important as it is more sustainable and responsive to Urban Heat Island effect. A design which responds well to the wind patterns will help save cost of cooling load and fan expenditure. The people will also be more willing to use the outdoor spaces which will as a whole generate more vibrant city spaces. As a result, a high density city with huge population count can still enjoy good thermal comfort if the general urban planning and design respond well to wind.
keywords computational fluid dynamics, sustainability, high density, urban design, airflow, ventilation
series CAAD Futures
email sdedhjc@nus.edu.sg
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id caadria2011_053
id caadria2011_053
authors Jalalian, Arash; Stephan K. Chalup and Michael J. Ostwald
year 2011
title Agent-agent interaction as a component of agent-environment interaction in the modelling and analysis of pedestrian visual behaviour
source Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / The University of Newcastle, Australia 27-29 April 2011, pp. 555-564
summary This multidisciplinary project involves concepts from architectural design, statistical learning, machine vision, and human ecology. The focus is on analysing how pedestrians’ dynamic behaviour in space is influenced by the environmental design of different architectural scenarios. This paper presents a multi-agent pedestrian simulation and analysis system that supports agent-to-agent interactions, different spatial desires, and interpersonal distance. The system simulates and analyses pedestrian spatial behaviour with combined focus on movement trajectories, walking speed, and the visual gaze vector. The analysis component relies on learning a statistical model characterising normal/abnormal behaviour, based on sample observations of regular pedestrian movements without/with the impacts of significant visual attractions in the environment. Using the example of Wheeler Place in Newcastle (Australia) our pilot experiments demonstrate how pedestrian behaviour characteristics can depend on selected features in the visual environment. The presented system will allow architects and urban designers to obtain better assessment of planned urban spaces and streetscape characteristics and their impacts on pedestrian behaviour.
keywords Agent interaction; pedestrian behaviour; analysis
series CAADRIA
email arash.jalalian@uon.edu.au
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id cf2011_p075
id cf2011_p075
authors Janssen, Patrick; Chen Kian Wee
year 2011
title Visual Dataflow Modelling: A Comparison of Three Systems
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 801-816.
summary Visual programming languages enable users to create computer programs by manipulating graphical elements rather than by entering text. The difference between textual languages and visual languages is that most textual languages use a procedural programming model, while most visual languages use a dataflow programming model. When visual programming is applied to design, it results in a new modelling approach that we refer to 'visual dataflow modelling' (VDM). Recently, VDM has becoming increasingly popular within the design community, as it can accelerate the iterative design process, thereby allowing larger numbers of design possibilities to be explored. Furthermore, it is now also becoming an important tool in performance-based design approaches, since it may potentially enable the closing of the loop between design development and design evaluation. A number of CAD systems now provide VDM interfaces, allowing designers to define form generating procedures without having to resort to scripting or programming. However, these environments have certain weaknesses that limit their usability. This paper will analyse these weaknesses by comparing and contrasting three VDM environments: McNeel Grasshopper, Bentley Generative Components, and Sidefx Houdini. The paper will focus on five key areas: * Conditional logic allow rules to be applied to geometric entities that control how they behave. Such rules will typically be defined as if-then-else conditions, where an action will be executed if a particular condition is true. A more advanced version of this is the while loop, where the action within the loop will be repeatedly executed while a certain condition remains true. * Local coordinate systems allow geometric entities to be manipulated relative to some convenient local point of reference. These systems may be either two-dimensional or three-dimensional, using either Cartesian, cylindrical, or spherical systems. Techniques for mapping geometric entities from one coordinate system to another also need to be considered. * Duplication includes three types: simple duplication, endogenous duplication, and exogenous duplication. Simple duplication consists of copying some geometric entity a certain number of times, producing identical copies of the original. Endogenous duplication consist of copying some geometric entity by applying a set of transformations that are defined as part of the duplication process. Lastly, exogenous duplication consists of copying some geometric entity by applying a set of transformations that are defined by some other external geometry. * Part-whole relationships allow geometric entities to be grouped in various ways, based on the fundamental set-theoretic concept that entities can be members of sets, and sets can be members of other sets. Ways of aggregating data into both hierarchical and non-hierarchical structures, and ways of filtering data based on these structures need to be considered. * Spatial queries include relationships between geometric entities such as touching, crossing, overlapping, or containing. More advanced spatial queries include various distance based queries and various sorting queries (e.g. sorting all entities based on position) and filtering queries (e.g. finding all entities with a certain distance from a point). For each of these five areas, a simple benchmarking test case has been developed. For example, for conditional logic, the test case consists of a simple room with a single window with a condition: the window should always be in the longest north-facing wall. If the room is rotated or its dimensions changed, then the window must re-evaluate itself and possibly change position to a different wall. For each benchmarking test-case, visual programs are implemented in each of the three VDM environments. The visual programs are then compared and contrasted, focusing on two areas. First, the type of constructs used in each of these environments are compared and contrasted. Second, the cognitive complexity of the visual programming task in each of these environments are compared and contrasted.
keywords visual, dataflow, programming, parametric, modelling
series CAAD Futures
email patrick@janssen.name
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p020
id cf2011_p020
authors Kabre, Chitrarekha
year 2011
title A Computer Aided Design Model for Climate Responsive Dwelling Roof
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 315-332.
summary Computer-Aided Design models have generated new possibilities in the sustainable design of buildings. Computer models assisting different aspects of architectural design have been developed and used for several decades. A review of contributions of computing to architectural design is given by Gero. Most of the conventional simulation computer programs do not actively support design development and optimization, specially at the formative design stages. It is well established that most decisions that affect comfort and building energy use occur during the formative design stages of the project. Furthermore, the efforts required to implement those decisions at the beginning of the design process are small compared to the effort that would be necessary later on in the design process. Therefore, if sustainable design issues are going to receive an appropriate level of consideration at the beginning of the design process, they must be presented in a way which is useful to the architect and fits with other things the architect is considering at that time. Design is seen as a problem-solving process of searching through a space of design solutions. The process of finding a solution to a design problem involves, identifying one or more objectives, making design decisions based on the objectives, predicting and evaluating the performance to find the acceptable decisions. Each of these activities can be performed inside or outside the formal model. In designing a roof, an architect or building designer has to make many decisions on the materials. The arrangement of these materials determines the aesthetic appearance of the roof and the house. Other considerations that affect the choice of roofing materials are thermal performance, rain, fire protection, cost, availability and maintenance. Recyclability of materials, hazardous materials, life-cycle expectancy, solutions, and design options as they relate to the environment also need to be considered. Consequently, the design of roof has become quite a complex and multifaceted problem. The principal need is for a direct design aid which can generate feasible solutions and tradeoff performance in conflicting requirements and prescribe the optimum solution. This paper presents a conceptual Computer Aided Design model for dwelling roof. It is based on generation and optimization paradigms of Computer Aided Design; which is diametrically opposite to conventional simulation. The design of roof (design goal) can be defined in terms of design objective as "control radiant and conduction heat." This objective must be satisfied to achieve the design goal. The performance variables, such as roof ceiling surface temperature or new thermal performance index (TPI*) must acquire values within certain ranges which will satisfy the objective. Given the required inputs, this computer model automatically generates prescriptive quantitative information to design roof to achieve optimum thermal comfort in warm humid tropics. The model first generates feasible solutions based on the decision rules; next it evaluates the thermal performance of the roof taking into account design variables related to the building’s roof and finally it applies numerical optimization techniques to automatically determine the optimum design variables, which achieve the best thermal performance. The rational and methodology used to develop the proposed model is outlined and the implementation of model is described with examples for climatic and technological contexts of India and Australia.
keywords Computer aided design, sustainable design, generation, optimization, dwelling roof, thermal performance
series CAAD Futures
email crekha969@gmail.com
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id caadria2011_014
id caadria2011_014
authors Khoo, Chin Koi and Flora Dilys Salim
year 2011
title Designing elastic transformable structures: Towards soft responsive architecture
source Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / The University of Newcastle, Australia 27-29 April 2011, pp. 143-152
summary This paper discusses the issues of designing and building environment involving spatial conditions that can be physically reconfigured to meet changing needs. To achieve this architectural vision, most current research focuses on the kinetic, mechanical systems and physical control mechanisms for actuation and structural transformation. Instead of the ‘hard’ mechanical joints and components, there is an unexplored ‘soft’ approach using lightweight elastic composite materials for designing responsive architectural skins and structures. This paper investigates the new possibilities for the manipulation of various architectural enclosures using ‘soft’ and elastic transformable structures, in response to environmental, communication and adapting to various contexts. This approach intends to minimise the mechanistic actuations and reduce weight for such operations. Therefore, this research introduces two modules (a tetrahedron and a cube) as responsive spatial models to test the potentials and limitations for the implementation of elastic materials with responsive capability towards reconfigurable architectural enclosure. Despite their individual differences, these experiments identify a trajectory for new possibilities for elastic architectural components that are more appropriate for ‘soft’ responsive architecture. We argue that this approach can provide an early hypothesis for design responsive architecture with a mix of passive and active design strategies.
keywords Elastic; transformable; soft; responsive
series CAADRIA
email mosphosis@hotmail.com
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id acadia11_350
id acadia11_350
authors Kim, Simon; Yim, Mark; Laucharoen, Jedtsada; Wetmore, Michael; Salek, Sanam; Pan, Sam
year 2011
title Motion and Modular Architecture
source ACADIA 11: Integration through Computation [Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA)] [ISBN 978-1-6136-4595-6] Banff (Alberta) 13-16 October, 2011, pp. 350-357
summary This paper presents an implementation of an architectural module that corresponds to a long serial chain modular robot. As such, this configuration poses possibilities that can move using travelling wave gaits based on snakes and caterpillars. The gaits are controlled with a Gait Control Table which is a simple but powerful way to coordinate the motion of a multiple degree-of-freedom systems. The gaits are implemented on a self-sufficient modular reconfigurable robot with onboard power, computation, sensors and actuators.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email simonkim@design.upenn.edu
last changed 2011/10/06 04:05

_id caadria2013_080
id caadria2013_080
authors Koh, Immanuel
year 2013
title Computer Vision and Augmented Reality Technologies in Experimental Architectural Design Education at the AA
source Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2013) / Singapore 15-18 May 2013, pp. 427-436
summary This paper aims to investigate the potential of both open source software and new media (esp. computer vision and augmented reality) as tools for architectural design and education. The examples illustrated in the paper would be drawn mainly from students’ projects done as part of their AA Media Studies Course submission at the AA School of Architecture (AA) during the academic years from 2011/2012 to 2012/2013. The paper outlines the main approaches, which students have chosen to implement, both directly and indirectly, these new media and tools into their studio work at the AA. Section 1 briefly introduces a range of currently available open source computational design toolkits that are deemed useful for quick implementation of computer vision and augmented reality technologies. The related programming languages, softwares and hardwares would also be introduced and described accordingly. Sections 2 and 3 are accompanied with a visual catalogue of students’ projects to better illustrate the diversity in the understanding and implementation of computer vision and augmented reality technologies in architectural design. Section 4 serves to conclude the paper by first discussing briefly the feedback from students at the end of the course before clarifying the context of the research and thus its relation to recent work done by others using similar technologies.  
wos WOS:000351496100042
keywords Computer vision, Augmented reality, Generative design, Interaction design 
series CAADRIA
email artplusik@gmail.com
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ecaade2011_067
id ecaade2011_067
authors Kontovourkis, Odysseas
year 2011
title Pedestrian Modeling as Generative Mechanism for the Design of Adaptive Built Environment
source RESPECTING FRAGILE PLACES [29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-9-4912070-1-3], University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture (Slovenia) 21-24 September 2011, pp.850-858
summary The investigation of the relationship between pedestrian modeling and the built environment is essential in the process of analyzing, evaluating and generating new architectural spaces that can satisfy circulation design conditions and respect the surrounding environment in the best possible way. In order to achieve the direct interaction between the users and the environment, current work attempts to examine how pedestrian models can be used as generative mechanisms for the production of adaptive spaces, which can be optimized according to human movement behavior needs. In this investigation, an existing computer program will be further developed in relation to its ability to inform the environment in an adaptive manner resulting the formation of spaces that can influence and can be influenced by pedestrian movement behavior and hence circulation systems. This can be done by creating new rules of interaction between components, for instance between pedestrians and the geometry of environment, and by taking into account pedestrian movement behavior conditions, as well as functional and morphological architectural design criteria.
wos WOS:000335665500098
keywords Pedestrian modeling; virtual forces; generative design; adaptive built environment
series eCAADe
email kontovourkis.odysseas@ucy.ac.cy
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id caadria2011_013
id caadria2011_013
authors Kozlova, Karine; Roham M. Sheikholeslami, Lyn Bartram and Robert F. Woodbury
year 2011
title Graph visualization in computer-aided design: An exploration of alternative representations for GenerativeComponentsTM Symbolic View
source Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / The University of Newcastle, Australia 27-29 April 2011, pp. 133-142
summary In this paper we explore graph models used to illustrate the relationships between elements of designs in computer-aided design (CAD) systems. We discuss common limitations and ways to make such representations more usable and interactive. In order to study common problems of symbolic representations in CAD systems, we conducted a survey of a number of CAD applications that employ graph representations in their interface and provided comparative analysis of the properties of graph representations in these systems. As a case study we used Bentley GenerativeComponentsTM (GC) system - a parametric CAD application that uses graph (“symbolic”) view to visualize the structure of design. We conducted series of interviews with expert GC users that revealed many limitations of the GC symbolic view. To address these limitations, we developed alternative representations of symbolic view that aim at enhancing user experience with the system and reviewed these with expert GC users. As a result of our study, we developed a set of interactive prototypes using SHriMP1 visualization tool and Processing programming language. These provide improved ways of user interaction with symbolic representation, including better readability of the graph and, as a result, an improved support for design model analysis.
keywords Graph visualization; visual interfaces; CAD systems; visual interaction; node-link diagrams
series CAADRIA
type normal paper
email karine.kozlova@sfu.ca
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id acadiaregional2011_008
id acadiaregional2011_008
authors Krietemeyer,Elizabeth A.; Anna H. Dyson
year 2011
title Electropolymeric Technology for Dynamic Building Envelopes
source Parametricism (SPC) ACADIA Regional 2011 Conference Proceedings
summary Human health and energy problems associated with the lack of control of natural light in contemporary buildings have necessitated research into dynamic windows for energy efficient buildings. Existing dynamic glazing technologies have made limited progress towards greater energy performance for curtain wall systems because they are still unable to respond to dynamic solar conditions, fluctuating building demands, and a range of user preferences for visual comfort and individual control. Recent breakthroughs in the field of information display provide opportunities to transfer electropolymeric technology to building envelopes that can achieve geometric and spectral selectivity in concert with pattern variation within the façade. Integrating electroactive polymers within the surfaces of an insulated glazing unit (IGU) could dramatically improve the energy performance of windows while enabling user empowerment through the control of the visual quality of this micro-material assembly, in addition to allowing for the switchable patterning of information display. Using parametric modeling as a generative design and analysis tool, this paper examines the technical intricacies linking system variables with visual comfort, daylight quality, and pattern design of the proposed electropolymeric dynamic facade technology.
series ACADIA
last changed 2011/07/08 09:17

_id ecaade2011_014
id ecaade2011_014
authors Langenhan, Christoph; Haß, Sebastian; Weber, Markus; Petzold, Frank; Liwicki, Marcus; Dengel, Andreas
year 2011
title Investigating research strategies for accessing knowledge stored in semantic models
source RESPECTING FRAGILE PLACES [29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-9-4912070-1-3], University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture (Slovenia) 21-24 September 2011, pp.403-411
summary Current data storage and retrieval strategies usually use keywords and are not well suited to retrieving spatial configurations, the proportions of rooms or their interrelationships. Instead of using text-based research, a graphical inquiry and query system is proposed that can recognise formal structures on the one hand and concept sketches on the other. Using artificial intelligence methods and multimodal interaction, knowledge is stored in semantic models. From previously stored planning solutions in a BIM, semantic fingerprints are derived that describe their functional and topological characteristics. The search system likewise derives a semantic fingerprint from the spatial configuration of a concept sketch and compares it with fingerprints stored in the repository. Similar matches are then shown to the designer.
wos WOS:000335665500046
keywords Knowledge management; ontology; case-based design; industry foundation classes; multimodal
series eCAADe
email langenhan@ai.ar.tum.de
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

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