CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id cf2011_p170
id cf2011_p170
authors Barros, Mário; Duarte José, Chaparro Bruno
year 2011
title Thonet Chairs Design Grammar: a Step Towards the Mass Customization of Furniture
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 181-200.
summary The paper presents the first phase of research currently under development that is focused on encoding Thonet design style into a generative design system using a shape grammar. The ultimate goal of the work is the design and production of customizable chairs using computer assisted tools, establishing a feasible practical model of the paradigm of mass customization (Davis, 1987). The current research step encompasses the following three steps: (1) codification of the rules describing Thonet design style into a shape grammar; (2) implementing the grammar into a computer tool as parametric design; and (3) rapid prototyping of customized chair designs within the style. Future phases will address the transformation of the Thonet’s grammar to create a new style and the production of real chair designs in this style using computer aided manufacturing. Beginning in the 1830’s, Austrian furniture designer Michael Thonet began experimenting with forming steam beech, in order to produce lighter furniture using fewer components, when compared with the standards of the time. Using the same construction principles and standardized elements, Thonet produced different chairs designs with a strong formal resemblance, creating his own design language. The kit assembly principle, the reduced number of elements, industrial efficiency, and the modular approach to furniture design as a system of interchangeable elements that may be used to assemble different objects enable him to become a pioneer of mass production (Noblet, 1993). The most paradigmatic example of the described vision of furniture design is the chair No. 14 produced in 1858, composed of six structural elements. Due to its simplicity, lightness, ability to be stored in flat and cubic packaging for individual of collective transportation, respectively, No. 14 became one of the most sold chairs worldwide, and it is still in production nowadays. Iconic examples of mass production are formally studied to provide insights to mass customization studies. The study of the shape grammar for the generation of Thonet chairs aimed to ensure rules that would make possible the reproduction of the selected corpus, as well as allow for the generation of new chairs within the developed grammar. Due to the wide variety of Thonet chairs, six chairs were randomly chosen to infer the grammar and then this was fine tuned by checking whether it could account for the generation of other designs not in the original corpus. Shape grammars (Stiny and Gips, 1972) have been used with sucesss both in the analysis as in the synthesis of designs at different scales, from product design to building and urban design. In particular, the use of shape grammars has been efficient in the characterization of objects’ styles and in the generation of new designs within the analyzed style, and it makes design rules amenable to computers implementation (Duarte, 2005). The literature includes one other example of a grammar for chair design by Knight (1980). In the second step of the current research phase, the outlined shape grammar was implemented into a computer program, to assist the designer in conceiving and producing customized chairs using a digital design process. This implementation was developed in Catia by converting the grammar into an equivalent parametric design model. In the third phase, physical models of existing and new chair designs were produced using rapid prototyping. The paper describes the grammar, its computer implementation as a parametric model, and the rapid prototyping of physical models. The generative potential of the proposed digital process is discussed in the context of enabling the mass customization of furniture. The role of the furniture designer in the new paradigm and ideas for further work also are discussed.
keywords Thonet; furniture design; chair; digital design process; parametric design; shape grammar
series CAAD Futures
email m.barros@ipt.pt
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p127
id cf2011_p127
authors Benros, Deborah; Granadeiro Vasco, Duarte Jose, Knight Terry
year 2011
title Integrated Design and Building System for the Provision of Customized Housing: the Case of Post-Earthquake Haiti
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 247-264.
summary The paper proposes integrated design and building systems for the provision of sustainable customized housing. It advances previous work by applying a methodology to generate these systems from vernacular precedents. The methodology is based on the use of shape grammars to derive and encode a contemporary system from the precedents. The combined set of rules can be applied to generate housing solutions tailored to specific user and site contexts. The provision of housing to shelter the population affected by the 2010 Haiti earthquake illustrates the application of the methodology. A computer implementation is currently under development in C# using the BIM platform provided by Revit. The world experiences a sharp increase in population and a strong urbanization process. These phenomena call for the development of effective means to solve the resulting housing deficit. The response of the informal sector to the problem, which relies mainly on handcrafted processes, has resulted in an increase of urban slums in many of the big cities, which lack sanitary and spatial conditions. The formal sector has produced monotonous environments based on the idea of mass production that one size fits all, which fails to meet individual and cultural needs. We propose an alternative approach in which mass customization is used to produce planed environments that possess qualities found in historical settlements. Mass customization, a new paradigm emerging due to the technological developments of the last decades, combines the economy of scale of mass production and the aesthetics and functional qualities of customization. Mass customization of housing is defined as the provision of houses that respond to the context in which they are built. The conceptual model for the mass customization of housing used departs from the idea of a housing type, which is the combined result of three systems (Habraken, 1988) -- spatial, building system, and stylistic -- and it includes a design system, a production system, and a computer system (Duarte, 2001). In previous work, this conceptual model was tested by developing a computer system for existing design and building systems (Benr__s and Duarte, 2009). The current work advances it by developing new and original design, building, and computer systems for a particular context. The urgent need to build fast in the aftermath of catastrophes quite often overrides any cultural concerns. As a result, the shelters provided in such circumstances are indistinct and impersonal. However, taking individual and cultural aspects into account might lead to a better identification of the population with their new environment, thereby minimizing the rupture caused in their lives. As the methodology to develop new housing systems is based on the idea of architectural precedents, choosing existing vernacular housing as a precedent permits the incorporation of cultural aspects and facilitates an identification of people with the new housing. In the Haiti case study, we chose as a precedent a housetype called “gingerbread houses”, which includes a wide range of houses from wealthy to very humble ones. Although the proposed design system was inspired by these houses, it was decided to adopt a contemporary take. The methodology to devise the new type was based on two ideas: precedents and transformations in design. In architecture, the use of precedents provides designers with typical solutions for particular problems and it constitutes a departing point for a new design. In our case, the precedent is an existing housetype. It has been shown (Duarte, 2001) that a particular housetype can be encoded by a shape grammar (Stiny, 1980) forming a design system. Studies in shape grammars have shown that the evolution of one style into another can be described as the transformation of one shape grammar into another (Knight, 1994). The used methodology departs takes off from these ideas and it comprises the following steps (Duarte, 2008): (1) Selection of precedents, (2) Derivation of an archetype; (3) Listing of rules; (4) Derivation of designs; (5) Cataloguing of solutions; (6) Derivation of tailored solution.
keywords Mass customization, Housing, Building system, Sustainable construction, Life cycle energy consumption, Shape grammar
series CAAD Futures
email deborahbenros@gmail.com
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ascaad2016_013
id ascaad2016_013
authors Belkis Öksüz, Elif
year 2016
title Parametricism for Urban Aesthetics - A flawless order behind chaos or an over-design of complexity
source Parametricism Vs. Materialism: Evolution of Digital Technologies for Development [8th ASCAAD Conference Proceedings ISBN 978-0-9955691-0-2] London (United Kingdom) 7-8 November 2016, pp. 105-112
summary Over the last decade, paradigm shifts in the philosophy of space-time relations, the change from space-time to spatio-temporality, caused significant changes in the design field, and introduced new variations and discourses for parametric approaches in architecture. Among all the discourses, parametricism is likely the most spectacular one. The founder of parametricism, Patrik Schumacher (2009) describes it as “a new style,” which has “the superior capacity to articulate programmatic complexity;” and “aesthetically, it is the elegance of ordered complexity in the sense of seamless fluidity.” In its theoretical background, Schumacher (2011) affiliates this style with the philosophy of autopoiesis, the philosophy that stands between making and becoming. Additionally, parametricism concerns not only the physical geometry in making of form; but also discusses the relational and causal aspects in becoming of form. In other words, it brings the aesthetic qualities in making through the topological intelligence behind becoming. Regarding that, parametricism seems an effective way of managing /creating complex topologies in form-related issues. However, when it comes to practice, there are some challenging points of parametricism in large-scale design studies. Thus, this work underlines that the dominance of elegance for urban planning has the potential of limiting the flexible and dynamic topology of the urban context, and objectifying the whole complex urban form as an over-designed product. For an aesthetic inquiry into urban parametricism, this paper highlights the challenging issues behind the aesthetic premises of parametricism at the urban design scale. For that, Kartal Master Plan Design Proposal by Zaha Hadid Architects (2006) will be discussed as an exemplary work.
series ASCAAD
email elifb8807@gmail.com
last changed 2017/05/25 11:31

_id cf2011_p135
id cf2011_p135
authors Chen Rui, Irene; Schnabel Marc Aurel
year 2011
title Multi-touch - the future of design interaction
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 557-572.
summary The next major revolution for design is to bring the natural user interaction into design activities. Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) brought a new approach that was more effective compared to their conventional predecessors. In recent years, Natural User Interfaces (NUI) have advanced user experiences and multi-touch and gesture technologies provide new opportunities for a variety of potential uses in design. Much attention has been paid to leverage in the design of interactive interfaces. The mouse input and desktop screen metaphors limit the information sharing for multiple users and also delayed the direct interaction for communication between each other. This paper proposes the innovative method by integrating game engine ‘Unity3D’ with multi-touch tangible interfaces. Unity3D provides a game development tool as part of its application package that has been designed to let users to focus on creating new games. However, it does not limit the usage of area to design additional game scenarios since the benefits of Unity3D is allowing users to build 3D environments with its customizable and easy to use editor, graphical pipelines to openGL (http://unity3d.com/, 2010 ). It creates Virtual Reality (VR) environments which can simulates places in the real world, as well as the virtual environments helping architects and designers to vividly represent their design concepts through 3D visualizations, and interactive media installations in a detailed multi-sensory experience. Stereoscopic displays advanced their spatial ability while solving issues to design e.g. urban spaces. The paper presents how a multi-touch tabletop can be used for these design collaboration and communication tasks. By using natural gestures, designers can now communicate and share their ideas by manipulating the same reference simultaneously using their own input simultaneously. Further studies showed that 3Dl forms are perceived and understood more readily through haptic and proprioceptive perception of tangible representations than through visual representation alone (Gillet et al, 2005). Based on the authors’ framework presented at the last CAADFutures, the benefits of integrating 3D visualization and tactile sensory can be illustrated in this platform (Chen and Wang, 2009), For instance, more than one designer can manipulate the 3D geometry objects on tabletop directly and can communicate successfully their ideas freely without having to waiting for the next person response. It made the work more effective which increases the overall efficiency. Designers can also collect the real-time data by any change they make instantly. The possibilities of Uniy3D make designing very flexible and fun, it is deeply engaging and expressive. Furthermore, the unity3D is revolutionizing the game development industry, its breakthrough development platform for creating highly interactive 3D content on the web (http://unity3d.com/ , 2010) or similar to the interface of modern multimedia devices such as the iPhone, therefore it allows the designers to work remotely in a collaborative way to integrate the design process by using the individual mobile devices while interacting design in a common platform. In design activities, people create an external representation of a domain, often of their own ideas and understanding. This platform helps learners to make their ideas concrete and explicit, and once externalized, subsequently they reflect upon their work how well it sits the real situation. The paper demonstrates how this tabletop innovatively replaces the typical desktop metaphor. In summary, the paper addresses two major issues through samples of collaborative design: firstly presenting aspects of learners’ interactions with physical objects, whereby tangible interfaces enables them constructing expressive representations passively (Marshall, 2007), while focussing on other tasks; and secondly showing how this novel design tool allows designers to actively create constructions that might not be possible with conventional media.
keywords Multi-touch tabletop, Tangible User Interface
series CAAD Futures
email rui.chen@sydney.edu.au
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p024
id cf2011_p024
authors Tidafi, Temy; Charbonneau Nathalie, Khalili-Araghi Salman
year 2011
title Backtracking Decisions within a Design Process: a Way of Enhancing the Designer's Thought Process and Creativity
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 573-587.
summary This paper proposes a way computer sciences could contribute to stimulate the designer’s reflexive thought. We explore the possibility of making use of backtracking devices in order to formalize the designer’s thought process. Design, as a process of creating an object, cannot be represented by means of a linear timeline. Accordingly, the backtracking processes we are discussing here are not based on a linear model but rather on a non-linear structure. Beyond the notion of undoing and redoing commands within CAD packages, the backtracking process is seen as a way to explore and record several alternate options. The branches of the non-linear model can be seen as pathways made of sequential decisions. The designer creates and explores these pathways while making tentative moves towards an architectural solution. Within the design process, backtracking enables the designer to establish and act on a network of interrelated decisions. This notion is fundamental. It is quite obvious that information, in order to be meaningful, must occupy a specific place within an informational network. A data, separated from its context, is devoid of interest. By the same token, a decision takes on significance solely in combination with other decisions. In this paper, we examine what kinds of decisions are involved within a design process, how they are connected, and what could be the best ways to formalize the relationships. Our goal is to experiment ways that could enable the designer and his/her collaborators to get a clearer mental picture of the network of decisions aforementioned. The non-linear model can be seen as a graph structure. The user moves wherever he/she wants through the branches of the structure to establish the network of decisions or to get reacquainted with a previous design process. As a matter of fact, it can act in both ways: to reassess or to confirm a decision. On the one hand, the designer can go back to previous states, reconsider past choices, and eventually modify them. On the other hand, he/she can move forward and revisit a given sequence of decisions, so as to recapture the essence of a previous design process. It goes without saying that knowledge regarding the design process is constructed by the designer from his/her own experiences. Since the designer’s perception evolves as time goes by, the network of decisions constitutes a model that is continuously questioned and restructured. The designer does not elaborate solely an architectural object, but also an evolving model formalizing the way he/she achieved his/her aim. As Le Moigne (1995) pointed out, the model itself produces knowledge; afterwards, the designer can examine it so as to get a clearer mental picture of his/her own cognitive processes. Furthermore, it can be used by his/her collaborators in order to understand which thread of ideas led the designer to a given visual result, and eventually resume or reorient the design process. In addition to reflecting on the ideological implications inherent to this questioning, we take into account the feasibility of such a research project. From a more technical point of view, in this paper we will describe how we plane to take up the challenge of elaborating a digital environment enabling backtracking processes within graph structures. Furthermore, we will explain how we plane to test the first trial version of the new environment with potential users so as to observe how they respond to it. These experiments will be conducted in order to verify to what extend the methods we are proposing are able to i) enhance the designer’s creativity and ii) increase our understanding of designer’s thought process.
keywords backtracking, design process, digital environments, problem space, network of decisions, graph structure.
series CAAD Futures
email temy.tidafi@umontreal.ca
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ecaade2011_108
id ecaade2011_108
authors Celani, Gabriela; Beirão, José N.; Duarte, José P.: Vaz, Carlos
year 2011
title Optimizing the “characteristic structure”: Combining shape grammars and genetic algorithms to generate urban patterns
source RESPECTING FRAGILE PLACES [29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-9-4912070-1-3], University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture (Slovenia) 21-24 September 2011, pp.491-500
summary The present paper is part of an undergoing research that aims at developing software that can generate urban plans, based on contemporary urban design concepts, in an optimized way. As a design method, the project proposes the use of the trilogy formulation/ generation/evaluation, which starts with an outline of the design requirements, proceeds with the definition of generative procedures that can result in these requirements, and follows with the evaluation of the generated designs. The paper describes the development of a computer program that implements some of Marshall’s evaluation methods, and further elaborates them to define generative criteria and to optimize the resulting designs with GA techniques. The program aims at generating what Marshall calls a “characteristic structure”, a type of urban fabric that is usually found in vernacular urban fabrics.
wos WOS:000335665500057
keywords Generative design; urban design; genetic algorithms; shape grammars
series eCAADe
email gabi.celani@gmail.com
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ecaade2011_070
id ecaade2011_070
authors Montenegro, Nuno; Beirão, José N.; Duarte, José P.
year 2011
title Public Space Patterns: Towards a CIM standard for urban public space
source RESPECTING FRAGILE PLACES [29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-9-4912070-1-3], University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture (Slovenia) 21-24 September 2011, pp.79-86
summary This paper describes public space patterns (PSP) used as basic elements of the City Information Modelling (CIM) model proposed within a larger research project that aims to develop an urban design support tool.
wos WOS:000335665500008
keywords Urban Patterns; CIM; Description Grammars; Ontologies
series eCAADe
email research@montenegroandpartners.com
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ecaade2011_088
id ecaade2011_088
authors Paio, Alexandra; Reis, Joaquim; Santos, Filipe; Lopes, Pedro Faria; Eloy, Sara; Rato, Vasco
year 2011
title Emerg.cities4all: Towards a shape grammar based computational system tool for generating a sustainable and integrated urban design
source RESPECTING FRAGILE PLACES [29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-9-4912070-1-3], University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture (Slovenia) 21-24 September 2011, pp.152-158
summary The ongoing research project called “Emerg.cities4all” is focused on the development of a generative computer-aided planning support system for cities and housing to low-income populations, using a descriptive method as the Shape Grammars and based on multi-agent rule-based system. The goal is to develop a system that could reveal the cultural, social and spatial dynamics involved in the genesis of informal settlements (favelas, musseques and caniços) and use it to generate contemporary humanized urban morphologies. The multi agent shape grammar implementation could generate automatically designs according to different types of users: urban planners, architect and local end users. This paper presents the methodology and the initial results of the research, using an informal settlement as a case study.
wos WOS:000335665500017
keywords Shape grammar; Multi-agent systems; Urban design; Informal settlements; Emergcities4all
series eCAADe
email alexandra.paio@iscte.pt
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ecaade2011_034
id ecaade2011_034
authors Schirmer, Patrick; Kawagishi, Noboru
year 2011
title Using shape grammars as a rule based approach in urban planning - a report on practice
source RESPECTING FRAGILE PLACES [29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-9-4912070-1-3], University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture (Slovenia) 21-24 September 2011, pp.116-124
summary With the development of user friendly software, using procedural shape grammars has become productive for urban planning projects. Little about the experience of their use by architects and urban planning agencies has been reported yet. This paper will thus discuss the experience gained with the use of shape grammars in the projects of KCAP. We will show how the different scales of urban planning and urban design can be handled and how design concepts can be integrated into the procedural “pipeline” using the software “CityEngine”. We will also present an approach of “typological testing” that allows to test various design concepts for their possible developments. This work is the base for current research at ETH, integrating geometric aspects into behavioural simulation processes of urban simulation.
wos WOS:000335665500013
keywords Shape grammars; Urban planning; Urban Simulation; Urban Typologies
series eCAADe
email patrick.schirmer@ivt.baug.ethz.ch
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ecaade2011_053
id ecaade2011_053
authors Barros, Mário; Duarte, José P.; Chaparro, Bruno
year 2011
title Digital Thonet: An automated system for the generation and analysis of custom-made chairs
source RESPECTING FRAGILE PLACES [29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-9-4912070-1-3], University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture (Slovenia) 21-24 September 2011, pp.521-529
summary A system is presented to support the designer in creating custom versions of chairs within a predefined design language using Thonet chairs as a case study. The system consists of parametric models based on shape grammars linked to structural analysis to provide an integrated generative process for mass customization in the furniture industry.
wos WOS:000335665500060
keywords Thonet; furniture design; finite element method; parametric design; mass customization
series eCAADe
email milbarros@gmail.com
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id acadia11_372
id acadia11_372
authors James, Anne; Nagasaka, Dai
year 2011
title Integrative Design Strategies for Multimedia in Architecture
source ACADIA 11: Integration through Computation [Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA)] [ISBN 978-1-6136-4595-6] Banff (Alberta) 13-16 October, 2011, pp. 372-379
summary Multidisciplinary efforts that have shaped the current integration of multimedia into architectural spaces have primarily been conducted by collaborative efforts among art, engineering, interaction design, informatics and software programming. These collaborations have focused on the complexities of designing for applications of multimedia in specific real world contexts. Outside a small but growing number of researchers and practitioners, architects have been largely absent from these efforts. This has resulted in projects that deal primarily with developing technologies augmenting existing architectural environments. (Greenfield and Shepard 2007)This paper examines the potential of multimedia and architecture integration to create new possibilities for architectural space. Established practices of constructing architecture suggest creating space by conventional architectural means. On the other hand, multimedia influences and their effect on the tectonics, topos and typos (Frampton 2001) of an architectural space (‘multimedia effects matrix’) suggest new modes of shaping space. It is proposed that correlations exist between those two that could inform unified design strategies. Case study analyses were conducted examining five works of interactive spaces and multimedia installation artworks, selected from an initial larger study of 25 works. Each case study investigated the means of shaping space employed, according to both conventional architectural practices and the principles of multimedia influence (in reference to the ‘multimedia effects matrix’) (James and Nagasaka 2010, 278-285). Findings from the case studies suggest strong correlations between the two approaches to spatial construction. To indicate these correlations, this paper presents five speculative integrative design strategies derived from the case studies, intended to inform future architectural design practice.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email annejames.07@gmail.com
last changed 2011/10/06 04:05

_id ecaade2011_023
id ecaade2011_023
authors Schneider, Sven; König, Reinhard; Pohle, Robert
year 2011
title Who cares about right angles?: Overcoming barriers in creating rectangularity in layout structures
source RESPECTING FRAGILE PLACES [29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-9-4912070-1-3], University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture (Slovenia) 21-24 September 2011, pp.361-367
summary This paper examines methods for the generation of structures that exhibit rectangularity. Rectangularity in architectural and urban structures can be traced to various reasons, including facilitating the design process, since the use of rectangular geometry limits both the space of possible solutions and the operations necessary to search the solution space. With the help of computer-based methods it becomes possible to explore huge solution spaces, however most existing methods stick to traditional concepts for the generation of geometric structures, such as the use of predefined elements (rectangles). These approaches do not take into account geometric irregularities which the structure to be generated may be subject to. In this paper we present a method that makes it possible to create a nearly rectangular structure within a freely definable boundary.
wos WOS:000335665500041
keywords Rectangularity; Structures; Design Tool; Design Process; Evolutionary Optimization
series eCAADe
email sven.schneider@uni-weimar.de
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id acadia11_82
id acadia11_82
authors Ahlquist, Sean; Menges, Achim
year 2011
title Behavior-based Computational Design Methodologies: Integrative processes for force defined material structures
source ACADIA 11: Integration through Computation [Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA)] [ISBN 978-1-6136-4595-6] Banff (Alberta) 13-16 October, 2011, pp. 82-89
summary With the introduction of physics-based algorithms and modeling environments, design processes have been shifting from the representation of materiality to the simulation of approximate material descriptions. Such computational processes are based upon enacting physical and material behavior, such as gravity, drag, tension, bending, and inflation, within a generative modeling environment. What is often lacking from this strategy is an overall understanding of computational design; that information of increasing value and precision is generated through the development and iterative execution of specific principles and integrative mechanisms. The value of a physics-based modeling method as an information engine is often overlooked, though, as they are primarily utilized for developing representational diagrams or static geometry – inevitably translated to function outside of the physical bounds and parameters defined with the modeling process. The definition of computational design provides a link between process and a larger approach towards architecture – an integrative behavior-based process which develops dynamic specific architectural systems interrelated in their material, spatial, and environmental nature. This paper, focusing on material integration, describes the relation of a computational design approach and the technical framework for a behavior-based integrative process. The application is in the development of complex tension-active architectural systems. The material behavior of tensile meshes and surfaces is integrated and algorithmically calibrated to allow for complex geometries to be materialized as physical systems. Ultimately, this research proposes a computational structure by which material and other sorts of spatial or structural behaviors can be activated within a generative design environment.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email sean.ahlquist@icd.uni-stuttgart.de
last changed 2011/10/06 04:05

_id acadia12_47
id acadia12_47
authors Aish, Robert ; Fisher, Al ; Joyce, Sam ; Marsh, Andrew
year 2012
title Progress Towards Multi-Criteria Design Optimisation Using Designscript With Smart Form, Robot Structural Analysis and Ecotect Building Performance Analysis"
source ACADIA 12: Synthetic Digital Ecologies [Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-1-62407-267-3] San Francisco 18-21 October, 2012), pp. 47-56
summary Important progress towards the development of a system that enables multi-criteria design optimisation has recently been demonstrated during a research collaboration between Autodesk’s DesignScript development team, the University of Bath and the engineering consultancy Buro Happold. This involved integrating aspects of the Robot Structural Analysis application, aspects of the Ecotect building performance application and a specialist form finding solver called SMART Form (developed by Buro Happold) with DesignScript to create a single computation environment. This environment is intended for the generation and evaluation of building designs against both structural and building performance criteria, with the aim of expediently supporting computational optimisation and decision making processes that integrate across multiple design and engineering disciplines. A framework was developed to enable the integration of modeling environments with analysis and process control, based on the authors’ case studies and experience of applied performance driven design in practice. This more generalised approach (implemented in DesignScript) enables different designers and engineers to selectively configure geometry definition, form finding, analysis and simulation tools in an open-ended system without enforcing any predefined workflows or anticipating specific design strategies and allows for a full range of optimisation and decision making processes to be explored. This system has been demonstrated to practitioners during the Design Modeling Symposium, Berlin in 2011 and feedback from this has suggested further development.
keywords Design Optimisation , Scripting , Form Finding , Structural Analysis , Building Performance
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email robert.aish@autodesk.com
last changed 2013/01/09 10:06

_id cf2011_p157
id cf2011_p157
authors Boton, Conrad; Kubicki Sylvain, Halin Gilles
year 2011
title Understanding Pre-Construction Simulation Activities to Adapt Visualization in 4D CAD Collaborative Tools
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 477-492.
summary Increasing productivity and efficiency is an important issue in the AEC field. This area is mainly characterized by fragmentation, heterogeneous teams with low lifetimes and many uncertainties. 4D CAD is one of the greatest innovations in recent years. It consists in linking a 3D model of the building with the works planning in order to simulate the construction evolution over time. 4D CAD can fill several needs from design to project management through constructivity analysis and tasks planning (Tommelein 2003). The literature shows that several applications have been proposed to improve the 4D CAD use (Chau et al. 2004; Lu et al. 2007; Seok & al. 2009). In addition, studies have shown the real impact of 4D CAD use in construction projects (Staub-French & Khanzode 2007; Dawood & Sika 2007). More recently, Mahalingam et al. (2010) showed that the collaborative use of 4D CAD is particularly useful during the pre-construction phase for comparing the constructability of working methods, for visually identifying conflicts and clashes (overlaps), and as visual tool for practitioners to discuss and to plan project progress. So the advantage of the 4D CAD collaborative use is demonstrated. Moreover, several studies have been conducted both in the scientific community and in the industrial world to improve it (Zhou et al. 2009; Kang et al. 2007). But an important need that remains in collaborative 4D CAD use in construction projects is about the adaptation of visualization to the users business needs. Indeed, construction projects have very specific characteristics (fragmentation, variable team, different roles from one project to another). Moreover, in the AEC field several visualization techniques can represent the same concept and actors choose one or another of these techniques according to their specific needs related to the task they have to perform. For example, the tasks planning may be represented by a Gantt chart or by a PERT network and the building elements can be depicted with a 3D model or a 2D plan. The classical view (3D + Gantt) proposed to all practitioners in the available 4D tools seems therefore not suiting the needs of all. So, our research is based on the hypothesis that adapting the visualization to individual business needs could significantly improve the collaboration. This work relies on previous ones and aim to develop a method 1) to choose the best suited views for performed tasks and 2) to compose adapted multiple views for each actor, that we call “business views”. We propose a 4 steps-method to compose business views. The first step identifies the users’ business needs, defining the individual practices performed by each actor, identifying his business tasks and his information needs. The second step identifies the visualization needs related to the identified business needs. For this purpose, the user’s interactions and visualization tasks are described. This enables choosing the most appropriate visualization techniques for each need (step 3). At this step, it is important to describe the visualization techniques and to be able to compare them. Therefore, we proposed a business view metamodel. The final step (step 4) selects the adapted views, defines the coordination mechanisms and the interaction principles in order to compose coordinated visualizations. A final step consists in a validation work to ensure that the composed views really match to the described business needs. This paper presents the latest version of the method and especially presents our latest works about its first and second steps. These include making more generic the business tasks description in order to be applicable within most of construction projects and enabling to make correspondence with visualization tasks.
keywords Pre-construction, Simulation, 4D CAD, Collaboration, Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Human-Computer Interface, Information visualization, Business view, Model driven engineering
series CAAD Futures
email conrad.boton@tudor.lu
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id sigradi2011_127
id sigradi2011_127
authors Giusso, Cecilia; Schaposnik, Viviana
year 2011
title Imagen Digital: Su Aplicacion en Investigacion - Fases Analitica, Diagnostica y Proyectual - Caso Intersticios Bajo Autopista [Digital imaging: Research application - Analytical, diagnostic and design stages in Interstitials Situations under Highways]
source SIGraDi 2011 [Proceedings of the 15th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Argentina - Santa Fe 16-18 November 2011, pp. 69-73
summary The present article links Urban Territories and Interstitials Situations under Highways, appointing to fix regulations and strategies from a systematically formulation of Patterns, ordering elements of Typological Series, able to support possible futures urban and architectural designs. The evaluation of specific conditions of habitability of the interstitial situations mentioned, must be boarded to be changed, as well as those cases apt to be optimized, producing a reconfiguration of present situation. There is a responsibility about a simultaneous design of the upper and under highways, taking in account interstitially space, is unavoidable information to face actions over urban areas in relation with motility, high-way fluxes and appropriation in the under high-way.
series SIGRADI
email ceciliagiusso@fibertel.com.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id caadria2011_044
id caadria2011_044
authors Matthews, Linda and Gavin Perin
year 2011
title Exploiting instability: Reconfiguring digital systems
source Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / The University of Newcastle, Australia 27-29 April 2011, pp. 463-472
summary The transmission technologies of digital environments propagated by the Internet, specifically the ubiquitous webcam system, present new material to mediate people’s engagement with civic space and simultaneously offer new ways to materialize its three-dimensional form. Recent research shows that the technical functionality of the webcam can be extended through deliberate intervention within the performance of contemporary camera optics. This suggests the development of new techniques for design intervention that operate in direct relationship to the evolution of the very technologies they exploit. With specific focus on the optical and chromatic translational capacities of the camera, the paper will discuss how the manipulation of its colour receptor mechanism not only provides the designer with an opportunity to exceed the constraints of commonly available colour palettes, but also it will show how this digital disruption actively capitalises upon the discrepancies that govern design strategies applied to formal production within coexistent virtual and real-time space. Through the deployment of colour filter array patterns, this new technique is able to extend the working gamut of RGB colour space in a way that that allows chromatic selection for exterior and interior urban space to be linked to programmatic distribution across duplicate environments.
keywords CCTV; webcam; virtual; array; discrepancy
series CAADRIA
email Linda.Matthews@uts.edu.au
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id cf2011_p016
id cf2011_p016
authors Merrick, Kathryn; Gu Ning
year 2011
title Supporting Collective Intelligence for Design in Virtual Worlds: A Case Study of the Lego Universe
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 637-652.
summary Virtual worlds are multi-faceted technologies. Facets of virtual worlds include graphical simulation tools, communication, design and modelling tools, artificial intelligence, network structure, persistent object-oriented infrastructure, economy, governance and user presence and interaction. Recent studies (Merrick et al., 2010) and applications (Rosenman et al., 2006; Maher et al., 2006) have shown that the combination of design, modelling and communication tools, and artificial intelligence in virtual worlds makes them suitable platforms for supporting collaborative design, including human-human collaboration and human-computer co-creativity. Virtual worlds are also coming to be recognised as a platform for collective intelligence (Levy, 1997), a form of group intelligence that emerges from collaboration and competition among large numbers of individuals. Because of the close relationship between design, communication and virtual world technologies, there appears a strong possibility of using virtual worlds to harness collective intelligence for supporting upcoming “design challenges on a much larger scale as we become an increasingly global and technological society” (Maher et al, 2010), beyond the current support for small-scale collaborative design teams. Collaborative design is relatively well studied and is characterised by small-scale, carefully structured design teams, usually comprising design professionals with a good understanding of the design task at hand. All team members are generally motivated and have the skills required to structure the shared solution space and to complete the design task. In contrast, collective design (Maher et al, 2010) is characterised by a very large number of participants ranging from professional designers to design novices, who may need to be motivated to participate, whose contributions may not be directly utilised for design purposes, and who may need to learn some or all of the skills required to complete the task. Thus the facets of virtual worlds required to support collective design differ from those required to support collaborative design. Specifically, in addition to design, communication and artificial intelligence tools, various interpretive, mapping and educational tools together with appropriate motivational and reward systems may be required to inform, teach and motivate virtual world users to contribute and direct their inputs to desired design purposes. Many of these world facets are well understood by computer game developers, as level systems, quests or plot and achievement/reward systems. This suggests the possibility of drawing on or adapting computer gaming technologies as a basis for harnessing collective intelligence in design. Existing virtual worlds that permit open-ended design – such as Second Life and There – are not specifically game worlds as they do not have extensive level, quest and reward systems in the same way as game worlds like World of Warcraft or Ultima Online. As such, while Second Life and There demonstrate emergent design, they do not have the game-specific facets that focus users towards solving specific problems required for harnessing collective intelligence. However, a new massively multiplayer virtual world is soon to be released that combines open-ended design tools with levels, quests and achievement systems. This world is called Lego Universe (www.legouniverse.com). This paper presents technology spaces for the facets of virtual worlds that can contribute to the support of collective intelligence in design, including design and modelling tools, communication tools, artificial intelligence, level system, motivation, governance and other related facets. We discuss how these facets support the design, communication, motivational and educational requirements of collective intelligence applications. The paper concludes with a case study of Lego Universe, with reference to the technology spaces defined above. We evaluate the potential of this or similar tools to move design beyond the individual and small-scale design teams to harness large-scale collective intelligence. We also consider the types of design tasks that might best be addressed in this manner.
keywords collective intelligence, collective design, virtual worlds, computer games
series CAAD Futures
email k.merrick@adfa.edu.au
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ijac20109101
id ijac20109101
authors Moloney, Jules; Bharat Dave
year 2011
title From abstraction to being there: mixed reality at the early stages of design
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 9 - no. 1, 1-16
summary We discuss the use of multiple design representations to enhance decision making at the early stages of design. Our interest is how the context in which design decisions are made can be extended by two interrelated approaches: (1) the incorporation of the temporal; (2) through the concurrent evaluation of qualitative representations and quantitative information. Outcomes from a practice survey and observations from design studios are used to inform the development of mixed reality (MixR) technology, to enable the applications to reflect architecture specific modes of design praxis. We propose two approaches - studio MixR and site MixR - reflecting the distinction between typical studio based design process and the requirements of a formal design review by the design team and stakeholders. Prototype applications have been implemented and a number of projects have been undertaken to illustrate some of the potential of mixed reality for architecture and urban design. These focus on the early stages of design, from the abstraction of parametric design to on site design reviews undertaken with augmented reality visualization.
series journal
last changed 2019/05/24 07:55

_id sigradi2011_140
id sigradi2011_140
authors Sanchez Cavazos, Maria E.; Sifuentes Solis, Marco A.
year 2011
title Percepción y Manipulación del Espacio en Proyectos Arquitectónicos dentro de una Sociedad Compleja [Perception and Manipulation of the Space in Architectonic Projects within a Complex Society]
source SIGraDi 2011 [Proceedings of the 15th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Argentina - Santa Fe 16-18 November 2011, pp. 223-226
summary This research consisted on determining, analyzing and evaluating the factors that impact the ability to perceive and manipulate the architectonic space with the use of digital tools for Architectonic Design Workshop students at the U.A.A. The purpose of the research was to validate the model (MUHDyA) (CP+CM) (Sánchez, 2010), which presents a proposal about the use of digital and analogical tools in the acquisition of perceptive and manipulative skills (specific architectonic skill indicated by Tuning Latin America); considering that, the formation by skills is the answer of the architecture schools towards a complex society. Palabras calve
series SIGRADI
email mesanche@correo.uaa.mx
last changed 2016/03/10 08:59

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