CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id cf2011_p109
id cf2011_p109
authors Abdelmohsen, Sherif; Lee Jinkook, Eastman Chuck
year 2011
title Automated Cost Analysis of Concept Design BIM Models
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 403-418.
summary AUTOMATED COST ANALYSIS OF CONCEPT DESIGN BIM MODELS Interoperability: BIM models and cost models This paper introduces the automated cost analysis developed for the General Services Administration (GSA) and the analysis results of a case study involving a concept design courthouse BIM model. The purpose of this study is to investigate interoperability issues related to integrating design and analysis tools; specifically BIM models and cost models. Previous efforts to generate cost estimates from BIM models have focused on developing two necessary but disjoint processes: 1) extracting accurate quantity take off data from BIM models, and 2) manipulating cost analysis results to provide informative feedback. Some recent efforts involve developing detailed definitions, enhanced IFC-based formats and in-house standards for assemblies that encompass building models (e.g. US Corps of Engineers). Some commercial applications enhance the level of detail associated to BIM objects with assembly descriptions to produce lightweight BIM models that can be used by different applications for various purposes (e.g. Autodesk for design review, Navisworks for scheduling, Innovaya for visual estimating, etc.). This study suggests the integration of design and analysis tools by means of managing all building data in one shared repository accessible to multiple domains in the AEC industry (Eastman, 1999; Eastman et al., 2008; authors, 2010). Our approach aims at providing an integrated platform that incorporates a quantity take off extraction method from IFC models, a cost analysis model, and a comprehensive cost reporting scheme, using the Solibri Model Checker (SMC) development environment. Approach As part of the effort to improve the performance of federal buildings, GSA evaluates concept design alternatives based on their compliance with specific requirements, including cost analysis. Two basic challenges emerge in the process of automating cost analysis for BIM models: 1) At this early concept design stage, only minimal information is available to produce a reliable analysis, such as space names and areas, and building gross area, 2) design alternatives share a lot of programmatic requirements such as location, functional spaces and other data. It is thus crucial to integrate other factors that contribute to substantial cost differences such as perimeter, and exterior wall and roof areas. These are extracted from BIM models using IFC data and input through XML into the Parametric Cost Engineering System (PACES, 2010) software to generate cost analysis reports. PACES uses this limited dataset at a conceptual stage and RSMeans (2010) data to infer cost assemblies at different levels of detail. Functionalities Cost model import module The cost model import module has three main functionalities: generating the input dataset necessary for the cost model, performing a semantic mapping between building type specific names and name aggregation structures in PACES known as functional space areas (FSAs), and managing cost data external to the BIM model, such as location and construction duration. The module computes building data such as footprint, gross area, perimeter, external wall and roof area and building space areas. This data is generated through SMC in the form of an XML file and imported into PACES. Reporting module The reporting module uses the cost report generated by PACES to develop a comprehensive report in the form of an excel spreadsheet. This report consists of a systems-elemental estimate that shows the main systems of the building in terms of UniFormat categories, escalation, markups, overhead and conditions, a UniFormat Level III report, and a cost breakdown that provides a summary of material, equipment, labor and total costs. Building parameters are integrated in the report to provide insight on the variations among design alternatives.
keywords building information modeling, interoperability, cost analysis, IFC
series CAAD Futures
email sherif.morad@gatech.edu
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p170
id cf2011_p170
authors Barros, Mrio; Duarte Jos, Chaparro Bruno
year 2011
title Thonet Chairs Design Grammar: a Step Towards the Mass Customization of Furniture
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 181-200.
summary The paper presents the first phase of research currently under development that is focused on encoding Thonet design style into a generative design system using a shape grammar. The ultimate goal of the work is the design and production of customizable chairs using computer assisted tools, establishing a feasible practical model of the paradigm of mass customization (Davis, 1987). The current research step encompasses the following three steps: (1) codification of the rules describing Thonet design style into a shape grammar; (2) implementing the grammar into a computer tool as parametric design; and (3) rapid prototyping of customized chair designs within the style. Future phases will address the transformation of the Thonets grammar to create a new style and the production of real chair designs in this style using computer aided manufacturing. Beginning in the 1830s, Austrian furniture designer Michael Thonet began experimenting with forming steam beech, in order to produce lighter furniture using fewer components, when compared with the standards of the time. Using the same construction principles and standardized elements, Thonet produced different chairs designs with a strong formal resemblance, creating his own design language. The kit assembly principle, the reduced number of elements, industrial efficiency, and the modular approach to furniture design as a system of interchangeable elements that may be used to assemble different objects enable him to become a pioneer of mass production (Noblet, 1993). The most paradigmatic example of the described vision of furniture design is the chair No. 14 produced in 1858, composed of six structural elements. Due to its simplicity, lightness, ability to be stored in flat and cubic packaging for individual of collective transportation, respectively, No. 14 became one of the most sold chairs worldwide, and it is still in production nowadays. Iconic examples of mass production are formally studied to provide insights to mass customization studies. The study of the shape grammar for the generation of Thonet chairs aimed to ensure rules that would make possible the reproduction of the selected corpus, as well as allow for the generation of new chairs within the developed grammar. Due to the wide variety of Thonet chairs, six chairs were randomly chosen to infer the grammar and then this was fine tuned by checking whether it could account for the generation of other designs not in the original corpus. Shape grammars (Stiny and Gips, 1972) have been used with sucesss both in the analysis as in the synthesis of designs at different scales, from product design to building and urban design. In particular, the use of shape grammars has been efficient in the characterization of objects styles and in the generation of new designs within the analyzed style, and it makes design rules amenable to computers implementation (Duarte, 2005). The literature includes one other example of a grammar for chair design by Knight (1980). In the second step of the current research phase, the outlined shape grammar was implemented into a computer program, to assist the designer in conceiving and producing customized chairs using a digital design process. This implementation was developed in Catia by converting the grammar into an equivalent parametric design model. In the third phase, physical models of existing and new chair designs were produced using rapid prototyping. The paper describes the grammar, its computer implementation as a parametric model, and the rapid prototyping of physical models. The generative potential of the proposed digital process is discussed in the context of enabling the mass customization of furniture. The role of the furniture designer in the new paradigm and ideas for further work also are discussed.
keywords Thonet; furniture design; chair; digital design process; parametric design; shape grammar
series CAAD Futures
email m.barros@ipt.pt
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p043
id cf2011_p043
authors Boeykens, Stefan
year 2011
title Using 3D Design Software, BIM and Game Engines for Architectural Historical Reconstruction
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 493-509.
summary The use of digital tools has become a tremendous aid in the creation of digital, historical reconstructions of architectural projects. Regular visualization techniques have been used for quite some time and they still pose interesting approaches, such as following cinematic techniques [1]. While common visualizations focus on pre-rendered graphics, it is possible to apply Game Engines [2] for real-time architectural visualization, as witnessed by [3] and [4]. In the course of our teaching and research efforts, we have collected experience with several visualization and modeling techniques, including the use of gaming engines. While the modeling of qualitative geometry for use in regular visualization already poses an elaborate effort, the preparation of models for different uses is often not trivial. Most modeling systems only support the creation of models for a single amount of detail, whereas an optimized model for a real-time system will have fairly different constraints when compared to non-real-time models for photorealistic rendering and animation. The use of parametric methods is one usable approach to tackle this complexity, as illustrated in [4]. One of the major advantages of using parametric approaches lies precisely in the possibility of using a single model to generate different geometry with control over the amount of detail. We explicitly tackle this in a Building Information Modeling (BIM) context, as to support much more than purely 3D geometry and visualization purposes. An integrated approach allows the same model to be used for technical drawings in 2D and an optimized 3D model in varying levels of detail for different visualization purposes. However, while most Building Information Modeling applications are targeted to current architectural practice, they seldom provide sufficient content for the recreation of historical models. This thus requires an extensive library of parametric, custom objects to be used and re-used for historically accurate models, which can serve multiple purposes. Finally, the approach towards the historical resources also poses interpretation problems, which we tackled using a reasonably straightforward set up of an information database, collecting facts and accuracies. This helps in the visualization of color-coded 3D models, depicting the accuracy of the model, which is a valuable graphical approach to discuss and communicate information about the historical study in an appealing format. This article will present the results of different reconstruction case studies, using a variety of design applications and discuss the inherent complexity and limitations in the process of translating an active, evolving model into an environment suitable for use in a real-time system. Especially workflow issues are identified, as the translation of the model into the game engine should be repeated several times, when the model is further refined and adapted. This used to involve a large amount of repetitive work, but the current crop of game engines have much better approaches to manage the updating of the geometry.
keywords Real-time architecture, game engines, cultural heritage, digital reconstruction, parametric modeling, Building Information Modeling
series CAAD Futures
email stefan.boeykens@asro.kuleuven.be
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p135
id cf2011_p135
authors Chen Rui, Irene; Schnabel Marc Aurel
year 2011
title Multi-touch - the future of design interaction
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 557-572.
summary The next major revolution for design is to bring the natural user interaction into design activities. Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) brought a new approach that was more effective compared to their conventional predecessors. In recent years, Natural User Interfaces (NUI) have advanced user experiences and multi-touch and gesture technologies provide new opportunities for a variety of potential uses in design. Much attention has been paid to leverage in the design of interactive interfaces. The mouse input and desktop screen metaphors limit the information sharing for multiple users and also delayed the direct interaction for communication between each other. This paper proposes the innovative method by integrating game engine Unity3D with multi-touch tangible interfaces. Unity3D provides a game development tool as part of its application package that has been designed to let users to focus on creating new games. However, it does not limit the usage of area to design additional game scenarios since the benefits of Unity3D is allowing users to build 3D environments with its customizable and easy to use editor, graphical pipelines to openGL (http://unity3d.com/, 2010 ). It creates Virtual Reality (VR) environments which can simulates places in the real world, as well as the virtual environments helping architects and designers to vividly represent their design concepts through 3D visualizations, and interactive media installations in a detailed multi-sensory experience. Stereoscopic displays advanced their spatial ability while solving issues to design e.g. urban spaces. The paper presents how a multi-touch tabletop can be used for these design collaboration and communication tasks. By using natural gestures, designers can now communicate and share their ideas by manipulating the same reference simultaneously using their own input simultaneously. Further studies showed that 3Dl forms are perceived and understood more readily through haptic and proprioceptive perception of tangible representations than through visual representation alone (Gillet et al, 2005). Based on the authors framework presented at the last CAADFutures, the benefits of integrating 3D visualization and tactile sensory can be illustrated in this platform (Chen and Wang, 2009), For instance, more than one designer can manipulate the 3D geometry objects on tabletop directly and can communicate successfully their ideas freely without having to waiting for the next person response. It made the work more effective which increases the overall efficiency. Designers can also collect the real-time data by any change they make instantly. The possibilities of Uniy3D make designing very flexible and fun, it is deeply engaging and expressive. Furthermore, the unity3D is revolutionizing the game development industry, its breakthrough development platform for creating highly interactive 3D content on the web (http://unity3d.com/ , 2010) or similar to the interface of modern multimedia devices such as the iPhone, therefore it allows the designers to work remotely in a collaborative way to integrate the design process by using the individual mobile devices while interacting design in a common platform. In design activities, people create an external representation of a domain, often of their own ideas and understanding. This platform helps learners to make their ideas concrete and explicit, and once externalized, subsequently they reflect upon their work how well it sits the real situation. The paper demonstrates how this tabletop innovatively replaces the typical desktop metaphor. In summary, the paper addresses two major issues through samples of collaborative design: firstly presenting aspects of learners interactions with physical objects, whereby tangible interfaces enables them constructing expressive representations passively (Marshall, 2007), while focussing on other tasks; and secondly showing how this novel design tool allows designers to actively create constructions that might not be possible with conventional media.
keywords Multi-touch tabletop, Tangible User Interface
series CAAD Futures
email rui.chen@sydney.edu.au
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p019
id cf2011_p019
authors Haeusler, Matthias Hank; Beilharz Kirsty
year 2011
title Architecture = Computer from Computational to Computing Environments
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 217-232.
summary Drawing on architecture, urban digital media, engineering, IT and interaction design, the research presented in this paper outlines a possible shift from architecture designed through computation (any type of process, algorithm or measurement done in a computational matter) towards architecture capable of computing (developing, using and improving computer technology, computer hardware and software as a space-defining element). The research is driven by recent developments in four fields, as follows: (a) Architecture in its recent development has shifted from a planar box, as was the ideal in the modernist movement, towards complex and non-standard forms. (b) The design concepts of non-standard surfaces have been adopted into media facades and media architecture by liberating the pixel from its planar position on a screen [1]. (c) Advancements in pervasive computing applications are now able both to receive information from the environment in which they are used and to detect other devices that enter this environment [2]. (d) Developments in advanced autonomous systems such as Human Computer Interaction (HCI) or Human Robot Interaction (HRI), have produced intelligent systems capable of observing human cues and using these cues as the basis for intelligent decision-making [3]. Media fa_ade developments work in the direction of the above-mentioned four fields, but often come with limitations in architectural integration; they need additional components to interact with their environment and their interactions are both often limited to visual interactions and require the user to act first. The researched system, Polymedia Pixel [4] discussed in this paper, can overcome these limitations and fulfil the need for a space-defining material capable of computing, thus enabling a shift from architecture designed by computation towards architecture capable of active computing. The Polymedia Pixel architecture merges digital technology with ubiquitous computing. This allows the built environment and its relation with digital technology to develop from (a) architecture being represented by computer to (b) computation being used to develop architecture and then further to where (c) architecture and the space-defining objects have computing attributes. Hence the study presented aims to consider and answer this key question: When building components with computing capacity can define space and function as a computer at the same time, what are the constraints for the building components and what are the possible advantages for the built environment? The conceptual framework, design and methods used in this research combine three fields: (a) hardware (architecture and design, electronic engineering) (b) software (content design and IT) and (c) interaction design (HCI and HRI). Architecture and urban design determinates the field of application. Media architecture and computer science provide the technological foundation, while the field of interaction design defines the methodology to link space and computing [5]. The conceptual starting point is to rethink the application of computers in architecture and, if architecture is capable of computing, what kind of methodology and structure would find an answer to the above core research question, and what are the implications of the question itself? The case study discusses opportunities for applying the Polymedia Pixel as an architectural component by testing it on: (a) constraint testing applying computational design methodologies to design space (b) singular testing - discussing the advantages for an individual building, and (c) plural testing investigating the potential for an urban context. The research aims to contribute to the field of knowledge through presenting first steps of a System < - > System mode where buildings can possibly watch and monitor each other, additional to the four primary interactive modes of operation. This investigation, its proposed hypothesis, methodology, implications, significance and evaluation are presented in the paper.
keywords media architecture, computational environments, ubiquitous computing, interaction design, computer science
series CAAD Futures
email matthias.haeusler@uts.edu.au
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p152
id cf2011_p152
authors Plume, Jim; Mitchell John
year 2011
title An Urban Information Framework to support Planning, Decision-Making & Urban Design
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 653-668.
summary This paper reports on a 2-year research project undertaken in collaboration with a state planning authority, a major city municipal council and a government-owned development organisation. The project has involved the design of an urban information model framework with the aim of supporting more informed urban planning by addressing the intersection where an individual building interfaces with its urban context. This adopted approach enables new techniques that better model the city and its processes in a transparent and accessible manner. The primary driver for this project was the challenge provided by the essential incompatibility between legacy GIS (geographic information system) datasets and BIM (building information model) representations of the built form. When dealing with urban scale information, GIS technologies use an overlay mapping metaphor linked to traditional relational database technologies to identify features or regions in the urban landscape and attach attribute data to those in order to permit analysis and informed assessment of the urban form. On the other hand, BIM technologies adopt an object-oriented approach to model the full three-dimensional characteristics of built forms in a way that captures both the geometric and physical attributes of the parts that make up a building, as well as the relationships between those parts and the spaces defined by the building fabric. The latter provides a far richer semantic structure to the data, while the former provides robust tools for a wide range of urban analyses. Both approaches are widely recognised as serving well the needs of their respective domains, but there is a widespread belief that we need to reconcile the two disparate approaches to modelling the real world. This project has sought to address that disjunction between modelling approaches. The UrbanIT project concentrated on two aspects of this issue: the development of a framework for managing information at the precinct and building level through the adoption of an object-oriented database technology that provides a platform for information management; and an exploration of ontology tools and how they can be adopted to facilitate semantic information queries across diverse data sources based on a common urban ontology. This paper is focussed on the first of those two agendas, examining the context of the work, the challenges addressed by the framework and the structure of our solution. A prototype implementation of the framework is illustrated through an urban precinct currently undergoing renewal and redevelopment, finishing with a discussion of future work that comes out of this project. Our approach to the implementation of the urban information model has been to propose extensions to ISO/PAS 16739, the international standard for modelling building information that is commonly known as IFC (Industry Foundation Classes). Our reason for adopting that approach is primarily our deep commitment to the adoption of open standards to facilitate the exchange of information across the built environment professions, but also because IFC is based on a robust object schema that can be used to construct a internet-accessible database able, theoretically, to handle the vast quantity of data needed to model urban-scale information. The database solution comes with well-established protocols for handling data security, integrity, versioning and transaction processing or querying. A central issue addressed through this work is concerned with level of detail. An urban information model permits a very precise and detailed representation of an urban precinct, while many planning analyses rely on simplified object representations. We will show that a key benefit of our approach is the ability to simultaneously maintain multiple representations of objects, making use of the concept of model view definitions to manage diverse analysis needs.
keywords urban information modelling, geographic information systems, city models, interoperability, urban planning, open standards
series CAAD Futures
email J.Plume@unsw.edu.au
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p115
id cf2011_p115
authors Pohl, Ingrid; Hirschberg Urs
year 2011
title Sensitive Voxel - A reactive tangible surface
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 525-538.
summary Haptic and tactile sensations, the active or passive exploration of our built surroundings through our sense of touch, give us a direct feeling and detailed information of space, a sense of architecture (Pallasmaa 2005). This paper presents the prototype of a reactive surface system, which focuses its output on the sense of touch. It explains how touch sensations influence the perception of architecture and discusses potential applications that might arise from such systems in the future. A growing number of projects demonstrate the strong impact of interaction design on the human senses and perception. They offer new ways of sensing and experiencing architectural space. But the majority of these interaction concepts focus on visual and auditory output-effects. The sense of touch is typically used as an input generator, but neglected as as a potential receiver of stimuli. With all the possibilities of sensors and micro-devices available nowadays, there is no longer a technical reason for this. It is possible to explore a much wider range of sense responding projects, to broaden the horizon of sensitive interaction concepts (Bullivant 2006). What if the surfaces of our surroundings can actively change the way it feels to touch them? What if things like walls and furniture get the ability to interactively respond to our touch? What new dimensions of communication and esthetic experience will open up when we conceive of tangibility in this bi-directional way? This paper presents a prototype system aimed at exploring these very questions. The prototype consists of a grid of tangible embedded cells, each one combining three kinds of actuators to produce divergent touch stimuli. All cells can be individually controlled from an interactive computer program. By providing a layering of different combinations and impulse intensities, the grid structure enables altering patterns of actuation. Thus it can be employed to explore a sort of individual touch aesthetic, for which - in order to differentiate it from established types of aesthetic experiences - we have created the term 'Euhaptics' (from the Greek = good and Ĝќ = touch, finger). The possibility to mix a wide range of actuators leads to blending options of touch stimuli. The sense of touch has an expanded perception- spectrum, which can be exploited by this technically embedded superposition. The juxtaposed arrangement of identical multilayered cell-units offers blending and pattern effects of different touch-stimuli. It reveals an augmented form of interaction with surfaces and interactive material structures. The combination of impulses does not need to be fixed a priori; it can be adjusted during the process of use. Thus the sensation of touch can be made personally unique in its qualities. The application on architectural shapes and surfaces allows the user to feel the sensations in a holistic manner potentially on the entire body. Hence the various dimensions of touch phenomena on the skin can be explored through empirical investigations by the prototype construction. The prototype system presented in the paper is limited in size and resolution, but its functionality suggests various directions of further development. In architectural applications, this new form of overlay may lead to create augmented environments that let inhabitants experience multimodal touch sensations. By interactively controlling the sensual patterns, such environments could get a unique touch for every person that inhabit them. But there may be further applications that go beyond the interactive configuration of comfort, possibly opening up new forms of communication for handicapped people or applications in medical and therapeutic fields (Grunwald 2001). The well-known influence of touch- sensations on human psychological processes and moreover their bodily implications suggest that there is a wide scope of beneficial utilisations yet to be investigated.
keywords Sensitive Voxel- A reactive tangible surface
series CAAD Futures
email inge@sbox.tugraz.at
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id sigradi2011_347
id sigradi2011_347
authors Trevisan Pupo, Regiane; Aranda, Isadora Magdalena
year 2011
title Sentir um quadro [Feeling a painting]
source SIGraDi 2011 [Proceedings of the 15th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Argentina - Santa Fe 16-18 November 2011, pp. 281-284
summary Since 2007, LAPAC - Laboratory of Automation and Prototyping for Architecture and Construction, FEC, UNICAMP, has developed scientific researches in rapid prototyping. With the recent acquisition of a numerical control machine (CNC), LAPAC starts a new line of research, the digital fabrication, which gives the production possibility of real scale objects and its moulds. It is also possible to produce relief surfaces using a wide range of materials. This research?s purpose is to reproduce pictures in relief (2.5D) so that visually impaired and people with subnormal vision can experience art by touch and will reckon on LAB (Laboratory of Accessibility) of UNICAMP.
series SIGRADI
email isamagdalena.arq@gmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 09:01

_id cf2011_p098
id cf2011_p098
authors Bernal, Marcelo; Eastman Charles
year 2011
title Top-down Approach for Interaction of Knowledge-Based Parametric Objects and Preliminary Massing Studies for Decision Making in Early Design Stages
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 149-164.
summary Design activities vary from high-degree of freedom in early concept design stages to highly constrained solution spaces in late ones. Such late developments entail large amount of expertise from technical domains. Multiple parallel models handle different aspects of a project, from geometric master models to specific building components. This variety of models must keep consistency with the design intent while they are dealing with specific domains of knowledge such as architectural design, structure, HVAC, MEP, or plumbing systems. Most of the expertise embedded within the above domains can be translated into parametric objects by capturing design and engineering knowledge through parameters, constraints, or conditionals. The aim of this research is capturing such expertise into knowledge-based parametric objects (KPO) for re-usability along the design process. The proposed case study provided by SOM New York is the interaction between a massing study of a high-rise and its building service core, which at the same time handles elevators, restrooms, emergency stairs, and space for technical systems. This project is focused on capturing design expertise, involved in the definition of a building service core, from a high-rise senior designer, and re-using this object for interaction in real-time with a preliminary massing study model of a building, which will drive the adaption process of the service core. This interaction attempts to provide an integrated design environment for feedback from technical domains to early design stages for decision-making, and generate a well-defined first building draft. The challenges addressed to drive the instantiation of the service core according to the shifting characteristics of the high-rise are automatic instantiation and adaptation of objects based on decision rules, and updating in real-time shared parameters and information derived from the high-rise massing study. The interaction between both models facilitates the process from the designers perspective of reusing previous design solutions in new projects. The massing study model is the component that handles information from the perspective of the outer shape design intent. Variations at this massing study model level drive the behavior of the service core model, which must adapt its configuration to the shifting geometry of the building during design exploration in early concept design stages. These variations depend on a list of inputs derived from multiple sources such as variable lot sizes, building type, variable square footage of the building, considerations about modularity, number of stories, floor-to-floor height, total building height, or total building square footage. The shifting combination of this set of parameters determines the final aspect of the building and, consequently, the final configuration of the service core. The service core is the second component involved in the automatic generation of a building draft. In the context of BIM, it is an assembly of objects, which contains other objects representing elevators, restrooms, emergency stairs, and space for several technical systems. This assembly is driven by different layouts depending on the building type, a drop-off sequence, which is the process of continuous reduction of elevators along the building, and how this reduction affects the re-arrangement of the service core layout. Results from this research involves a methodology for capturing design knowledge, a methodology for defining the architecture of smart parametric objects, and a method for real-time-feedback for decision making in early design stages. The project also wants to demonstrate the feasibility of continuous growth on top of existing parametric objects allowing the creation of libraries of smart re-usable objects for automation in design.
keywords design automation, parametric modeling, design rules, knowledge-based design
series CAAD Futures
email marcelo.bernal@gatech.edu
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p157
id cf2011_p157
authors Boton, Conrad; Kubicki Sylvain, Halin Gilles
year 2011
title Understanding Pre-Construction Simulation Activities to Adapt Visualization in 4D CAD Collaborative Tools
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 477-492.
summary Increasing productivity and efficiency is an important issue in the AEC field. This area is mainly characterized by fragmentation, heterogeneous teams with low lifetimes and many uncertainties. 4D CAD is one of the greatest innovations in recent years. It consists in linking a 3D model of the building with the works planning in order to simulate the construction evolution over time. 4D CAD can fill several needs from design to project management through constructivity analysis and tasks planning (Tommelein 2003). The literature shows that several applications have been proposed to improve the 4D CAD use (Chau et al. 2004; Lu et al. 2007; Seok & al. 2009). In addition, studies have shown the real impact of 4D CAD use in construction projects (Staub-French & Khanzode 2007; Dawood & Sika 2007). More recently, Mahalingam et al. (2010) showed that the collaborative use of 4D CAD is particularly useful during the pre-construction phase for comparing the constructability of working methods, for visually identifying conflicts and clashes (overlaps), and as visual tool for practitioners to discuss and to plan project progress. So the advantage of the 4D CAD collaborative use is demonstrated. Moreover, several studies have been conducted both in the scientific community and in the industrial world to improve it (Zhou et al. 2009; Kang et al. 2007). But an important need that remains in collaborative 4D CAD use in construction projects is about the adaptation of visualization to the users business needs. Indeed, construction projects have very specific characteristics (fragmentation, variable team, different roles from one project to another). Moreover, in the AEC field several visualization techniques can represent the same concept and actors choose one or another of these techniques according to their specific needs related to the task they have to perform. For example, the tasks planning may be represented by a Gantt chart or by a PERT network and the building elements can be depicted with a 3D model or a 2D plan. The classical view (3D + Gantt) proposed to all practitioners in the available 4D tools seems therefore not suiting the needs of all. So, our research is based on the hypothesis that adapting the visualization to individual business needs could significantly improve the collaboration. This work relies on previous ones and aim to develop a method 1) to choose the best suited views for performed tasks and 2) to compose adapted multiple views for each actor, that we call business views. We propose a 4 steps-method to compose business views. The first step identifies the users business needs, defining the individual practices performed by each actor, identifying his business tasks and his information needs. The second step identifies the visualization needs related to the identified business needs. For this purpose, the users interactions and visualization tasks are described. This enables choosing the most appropriate visualization techniques for each need (step 3). At this step, it is important to describe the visualization techniques and to be able to compare them. Therefore, we proposed a business view metamodel. The final step (step 4) selects the adapted views, defines the coordination mechanisms and the interaction principles in order to compose coordinated visualizations. A final step consists in a validation work to ensure that the composed views really match to the described business needs. This paper presents the latest version of the method and especially presents our latest works about its first and second steps. These include making more generic the business tasks description in order to be applicable within most of construction projects and enabling to make correspondence with visualization tasks.
keywords Pre-construction, Simulation, 4D CAD, Collaboration, Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Human-Computer Interface, Information visualization, Business view, Model driven engineering
series CAAD Futures
email conrad.boton@tudor.lu
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id caadria2011_023
id caadria2011_023
authors Champion, Erik M. and Andrew Dekker
year 2011
title Indirect biofed architecture: Strategies to best utilise biofeedback tools and interaction metaphors within digital architectural environment
source Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / The University of Newcastle, Australia 27-29 April 2011, pp. 241-250
summary This paper explains potential benefits of indirect biofeedback used within interactive virtual environments, and reflects on an earlier study that allowed for the dynamic modification of a virtual environments graphic shaders, music and artificial intelligence (of Non Playing Characters) based on the biofeedback of the player. It then examines both the potential and the issues in applying biofeedback (already effective for games) to digital architectural environments, and suggests potential uses such as personalization, object creation, atmospheric augmentation, filtering, and tracking.
keywords Virtual worlds; biofeedback; sensors; empathy theory
series CAADRIA
email e.champion@massey.ac.nz
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id cf2011_p165
id cf2011_p165
authors Chasznar, Andre
year 2011
title Navigating Complex Models in Collaborative Work for (Sustainably) Integrated Design
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 619-636.
summary Increasingly intensive use of computational techniques such as parametric-associative modeling, algorithmic design, performance simulations and generative design in architecture, engineering and construction are leading to increasingly large and complex 3D building models which in turn require increasingly powerful techniques in order to be manipulated and interpreted effectively. Further complexities are of course due also to the multi-disciplinary nature of building projects, in which there can be significant variation and even conflict among the aims of architects, engineers and builders, as well as owners, occupants and other stakeholders in the process. Effective use of model information depends to a large extent on sense-making, which can in some ways be helped but also hindered by schemes for organizing the information contained. Common techniques such as layering, labeling (aka tagging) and assignment of various other attributes to model objects have significant limitations especially those arising from general problems of language, ontology and standardization, as well as but distinct from issues of interoperability both with respect to locating the desired items in a 3D building model and also with respect to displaying the objects in informative ways which effectively assist collaborative design and decision-making. Sustainable design in particular is an area generally requiring a high level of inter-disciplinary collaboration to achieve highly integrated designs which make multiple use of the elements and systems incorporated (though integrated design may also be pursued without explicit aims of sustainability). The proposed paper describes ongoing research concerning alternatives to the currently common techniques for locating and displaying information in 3D building models in support of sense-making to promote collaborative and integrated design. These alternatives comprise on the one hand interactive geometric-content-based methods for search and classification of model objects as an alternative or complement to common assigned-attribute-based methods and on the other hand visual analytic techniques in contrast to existing, relatively static tabular and "physical" views which can help to increase the informativeness of the geometric data within the model, as well as the non-geometric data that is attached to geometric objects (e.g. as in the cases of BIM and various types of CAE performance simulations). Tests undertaken with architects and engineers in practice and academia to evaluate the proposed methods are also described. Finally conclusions are drawn regarding these methods positive present performance and some of their shortcomings, as well as indicating directions for future research concerning the methods refinement and extension to help 3D building models become more effective components of the design process than they are at present, both with respect to these models present levels of complexity and especially with respect to their anticipated increasing complexity in future.
keywords CAD/CAE/BIM, content-based search, visual analytics
series CAAD Futures
email a.t.chaszar@tudelft.nl
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id acadia11_234
id acadia11_234
authors Chok, Kermin
year 2011
title Progressive Spheres of Innovation: Efficiency, communication and collaboration
source ACADIA 11: Integration through Computation [Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA)] [ISBN 978-1-6136-4595-6] Banff (Alberta) 13-16 October, 2011, pp. 234-241
summary Over the last few years, a large majority of construction work has moved overseas. In response to this, our engineering practice has been involved in a large number of Asian and Middle East design competitions, usually executed in a compressed timeframe. Building codes usually include very specific requirements regarding the lateral performance of a building under seismic and wind loads. This is especially true in China. Our structural engineering practice has thus developed a variety of digital tools customized to building code requirements, in order to provide relevant structural feedback in an appropriate design time frame. The paper will discuss our recent digital design work in the context of building code requirements and information sharing. Our innovations have centered on three progressive spheres of innovation: internal efficiency, communication and collaboration. We propose that only with closer and more transparent collaboration will the building industry be effective and efficient in meeting clients needs. However, without first addressing a firms internal capabilities of efficiency and communication, the firm will be unable to effectively participate in the collaborative process. This paper begins by discussing various custom Rhino-Grasshopper components to facilitate our internal design process. We then touch on the communication realm discussing work in lowering the barriers for information sharing. Lastly, we explore the necessary shifts in thinking required to move beyond linear design exploration and the exciting opportunity to deliver truly innovative design solutions.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email kermin.chok@gmail.com
last changed 2011/10/06 04:05

_id sigradi2011_150
id sigradi2011_150
authors Garca Amen, Fernando; Payss Alvarez, Marcelo; Portillo, Juan Pablo; Richero, Andrs
year 2011
title Viaje 2.0 |Un moleskine digital [Viaje 2.0 | a digital moleskine]
source SIGraDi 2011 [Proceedings of the 15th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Argentina - Santa Fe 16-18 November 2011, pp. 428-431
summary For sixty-seven years, students of architecture from our University have made an academic journey around the world. It lasts between five and nine months, and studentscan visit the most important works of architecture from all the times.Therefore,Viaje 2.0 arises as a digital interactive real-time platform, where travelers from this year and further ones will be able to register their own experiences, and develop knowledge through direct contact with buildings, cities, and authors.Viaje 2.0 combines elements of social networking, geo-positioning apps, and architectural information, developing a conceptual mashup, capable of constituting a large database, which may be consulted in real-time from all over the world.
series SIGRADI
email efe@farq.edu.uy
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id acadiaregional2011_020
id acadiaregional2011_020
authors Hudson, Roly; Drew MacDonald, Mark Humphreys
year 2011
title Race track modeler. Developing an Iterative Design Workflow Combining a Game Engine and Parametric Design
source Parametricism (SPC) ACADIA Regional 2011 Conference Proceedings
summary This paper documents the continuing development and testing of a novel digital work flow established and implemented for the design and redevelopment of formula one racing tracks. The Race Track Modeler (RTM) tool uses a game engine to simulate driving around proposed track designs. Performance data from the simulation is combined with real data acquired from analysis of vehicle mounted accident data recorders (ADRs). The output of the tool is a graphical representation of simulated stopping positions of vehicles that have lost control and left the track. This information directly informs the design of motor racing facilities; the zoning of spectator facilities, position and specification of crash barriers (if required), and surface material selection for the run-off zones (the area where vehicles are expected to stop after losing control and leaving the track). The RTM can suggest further design changes to the track geometry which are then fed back into the game engine. The project involves methods of binding analysis of design directly to geometry together with input from interactive controls. The RTM has been developed and tested during the redevelopment of Silverstone race track in the United Kingdom (figure 1) this paper documents the current state of the tool and concludes with proposed future developments.
series ACADIA
last changed 2011/07/08 09:17

_id ecaade2011_146
id ecaade2011_146
authors Hunter, Moira; Chase, Scott; Kligerman, Bradley; Zupancic, Tadeja
year 2011
title ARCHI21: Architectural and Design based Education and Practice through Content & Language Integrated Learning using Immersive Virtual Environments for 21st Century Skills
source RESPECTING FRAGILE PLACES [29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-9-4912070-1-3], University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture (Slovenia) 21-24 September 2011, pp.725-733
summary This paper offers insights into innovative practice being undertaken in higher architectural and design education, where both language and content teaching and learning are integrated as interwoven parts with joint curricular roles. Using Expansive Learning Theory as an analytical framework to examine potential tensions and contradictions arising from the educational approach of Content and Language Integrated Learning, reference is made to three very recent pilot studies of the EU funded project, ARCHI21. The experiential learning in these studies adopted a blended approach, where classical face-to-face learning-teaching scenarios were supported by immersive 3D virtual environments together with social networking media and Web 2.0 tools. This paper uses these pilot studies to speculate on aspects of fragility and offers reflection on future project activity.
wos WOS:000335665500084
keywords Architecture; education; Content and Language Integrated Learning; 3D immersive environments; Second Life
series eCAADe
email moira.hunter@paris-malaquais.archi.fr
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id acadia11_278
id acadia11_278
authors Kobayashi, Yoshihiro
year 2011
title Irregular Vertex Editing and Pattern Design on Mesh
source ACADIA 11: Integration through Computation [Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA)] [ISBN 978-1-6136-4595-6] Banff (Alberta) 13-16 October, 2011, pp. 278-283
summary This paper introduces an innovative computational design tool used to edit architectural geometry by addressing the problem of irregular vertices. An irregular vertex is a special kind of vertex which is connected with fewer or greater less or more edges than regular vertices on a mesh object. Irregular vertices create problems with further surface rationalization, as well as structural analysis and constructability of the surface. Geometry created using other tools can also be remeshed upon import. Using the developed tool, the user is able to identify irregular vertices, interactively change the type, and then move or remove these irregular vertices. Additionally, a computational tool to make various design patterns on the mesh after the topology has been edited is also developed. The workflow is illustrated step by step in the pipeline. The advantages and disadvantages of editing mesh topology on architectural geometry design including the limitations are discussed at the end.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email ykobaya@asu.edu
last changed 2011/10/06 04:05

_id ecaade2011_143
id ecaade2011_143
authors Lemberski, David; Hemmerling, Marco
year 2011
title TouchControl: An interactive multi-touch 3D design tool
source RESPECTING FRAGILE PLACES [29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-9-4912070-1-3], University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture (Slovenia) 21-24 September 2011, pp.279-284
summary Todays architectural design is changing rapidly through the scope of new digital design tools (software like parametrical modelers) on the one and the use of digitally controlled fabrication techniques (hardware like 3D CNC-milling) on the other side. However the full intuitive and experimental potential of the software has to be accessed through the sometimes limiting bottleneck of the traditional mouse-screen user interface although alternative interaction methods like multi-touch became available. This paper focuses on extending the usability and spontaneity in a common architectural design process using an iPad as an external hardware controller.
wos WOS:000335665500031
keywords Intuitive design tool; iPad; OSC; multi-touch; human-computer interaction
series eCAADe
email david.lemberski@hs-owl.de
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id caadria2011_020
id caadria2011_020
authors Lonsing, Werner and Peter Anders
year 2011
title Three-dimensional computational structures and the real world
source Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / The University of Newcastle, Australia 27-29 April 2011, pp. 209-218
summary In this paper, we describe a system of composite images to design virtual three-dimensional structures in an outdoor environment. The system, called AmbiViewer, consists of a modeler for three-dimensional on-site sketching, and overlapping locative technologies to orient virtual objects in a real-space, real-time setting. The system employs both GPS orientation and a visual marker system to provide a realistic and interactive augmented reality interface. While it is still under development, the authors believe it can bridge the gap between sketching on site, and creating virtual models in the office.
keywords Augmented reality; mixed reality, locative design; interactive mModeler; visualisation; GPS; cybrids
series CAADRIA
email caadria2011@lonsing.com
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id ecaade2017_265
id ecaade2017_265
authors Motalebi, Nasim and Duarte, Jos Pinto
year 2017
title A Shape Grammar of Emotional Postures - An approach towards encoding the analogue qualities of bodily expressions of emotions
source Fioravanti, A, Cursi, S, Elahmar, S, Gargaro, S, Loffreda, G, Novembri, G, Trento, A (eds.), ShoCK! - Sharing Computational Knowledge! - Proceedings of the 35th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy, 20-22 September 2017, pp. 485-492
summary This paper is concerned with the translation of analogue qualities of human emotions into digital readings. Human body postures are considered as one of the main behavioral conduits for non-verbal communication and emotional expressions (Shan et.al., 2007). This research is the first step towards identifying and detecting emotions through posture analysis of users moving through space; leading towards generating real time responses in the form of spatial configurations to users' emotions. Such spatial configurations would then help inhabitants reach certain emotional states that would enhance their life quality. In order to achieve this goal, we propose a methodology for developing a comprehensive shape grammar algorithm that could evaluate and predict bodily expressions of emotions. The importance of this study lies under the embodied interactions (Streech et.al., 2011) in space. As the circumfixed space impacts the embodied mind, the body impacts its surrounding including the architectural space.
keywords Shape Grammar; Computation; Emotion; Posture; Interactive Architecture
series eCAADe
email nfm5140@psu.edu
last changed 2017/09/13 13:31

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