CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id acadiaregional2011_028
id acadiaregional2011_028
authors Haliburton, James; Mark Clayton, Ozan Ozener, Francisco Farias, WoonSeong Jeong
year 2011
title Parametric Modeling and BIM: Innovative Design Education for Integrated Building Practices
source Parametricism (SPC) ACADIA Regional 2011 Conference Proceedings
summary Parametric modeling and Building Information Modeling (BIM) present opportunities to radically change the architectural design process, which has similarly radical implications upon design education. These processes and technologies are demanding a broader knowledge base and deeper skill set. The same technologies and processes create opportunities to meet and surpass the traditional architectural knowledge base that forms the basis for design education. Outlined in this paper are the results of three studies that employed BIM and parametric modeling within the context of simulated professional project delivery and compares the results using the new process to the NAAB Student Performance Criteria. From these studies, it appears that the alternative design method that employs BIM and parametric modeling is more rigorous and effective than the traditional method of instructing students with respect to the Student Performance Criteria in Realm B: Integrated Building Practices.
series ACADIA
last changed 2011/07/08 09:17

_id cf2011_p108
id cf2011_p108
authors Iordanova, Ivanka; Forgues Daniel, Chiocchio François
year 2011
title Creation of an Evolutive Conceptual Know-how Framework for Integrative Building Design
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 435-450.
summary Low productivity of the building sector today is attributed to the fragmentation of tasks, disciplines and responsibilities, as well as to the resistance to adopt integrative work processes and digital means. The increased complexity of architectural projects and the aroused social consciousness for sustainable environment calls for integrative design collaboration. Thus, there is need for a Conceptual Framework combining work processes, technological means and policy aspects. According to the literature, integrative multidisciplinary design is a strategy resulting in high performance buildings nurturing sustainable way of living (Reed et al. 2009, Krygiel & Nies 2008). Responding to the increased technological complexity of our built environment, as well as to the objective of meeting multiple criteria of quality, both necessitating multidisciplinary collaboration during design, Building Information Modeling (BIM) is seen as a powerful means for fostering quality, augmenting productivity and decreasing loss in construction. Based on recent research, we can propose that a sustainable building can be designed through an integrative design process (IDP) which is best supported by BIM. However, our ongoing research program and consultations with advanced practitioners underscore a number of limitations. For example, a large portion of the interviewed professionals and construction stakeholders do not necessarily see a link between sustainable building, integrative design process and BIM, while in our opinion, their joint use augments the power of each of these approaches taken separately. Thus, there is an urgent necessity for the definition of an IDP-BIM framework, which could guide the building industry to sustainable results and better productivity. This paper defines such a framework, whose theoretical background lays on studies in social learning (activity theory and situated action theories). These theories suggest that learning and knowledge generation occurs mainly within a social process defined as an activity. This corresponds to the context in which the IDP-BIM framework will be used, its final objective being the transformation of building design practices. The proposed IDP-BIM framework is based on previous research and developments. Thus, firstly, IDP process was well formalized in the Roadmap for the Integrated Design Process‚ (Reed et al.) which is widely used as a guideline for collaborative integrative design by innovating practices in USA and Canada. Secondly, the National Building Information Modeling Standard (NBIMS) of the USA is putting an enormous effort in creating a BIM standard, Succar (2008) recently proposed a conceptual framework for BIM, but BIM ontology is still under development (Gursel et al 2009). Thirdly, an iterative design process bound to gating reviews (inspired from software development processes) was found to be successful in the context of multidisciplinary design studios (reported in our previous papers). The feedback from this study allowed for modifications and adjustments included in the present proposal. The gating process assures the good quality of the project and its compliance to the client's requirements. The challenge of this research is to map the above mentioned approaches, processes and technologies into the design process, thus creating an integrated framework supporting and nurturing sustainable design. The IDP-BIM framework can be represented by a multidimensional matrix linked to a semantic network knowledge database: - the axes of the matrix being the project timeline, the design process actors and building stakeholders (architect, engineers, client, contractor, environmental biologist, etc.), or different aspects of building performance (environmental, functional, social, interior environment quality, cost, etc.); and - the knowledge database providing multiple layers of semantic support in terms of process, domain knowledge, technology and workflow at a given moment of the project and for a given actor or building aspect. The IDP-BIM framework is created as an evolutive digital environment for know-how and will have an established protocol for regular updates. The paper will firstly present the state of the art in IDP and BIM. Secondly, it will expose the methodology used for the definition of the Framework, followed by a description of its structure, contents and digital implementation. Then, some scenarios for the use of the Framework will be shown as validation.
keywords integrated design process, BIM, multidisciplinary design, conceptual framework
series CAAD Futures
email ivanka.iordanova@videotron.ca
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id sigradi2014_099
id sigradi2014_099
authors Paiva de Almeida, Álvaro José
year 2014
title Implantação de software BIM em curso de arquitetura [BIM application in course of architecture]
source SIGraDi 2014 [Proceedings of the 18th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-9974-99-655-7] Uruguay - Montevideo 12 - 14 November 2014, pp. 49-52
summary This paper presents partial results from a process of a BIM application in the third period of the Architecture course of PUC Minas from August 2011. The study refers to a learning experience. It is, methodologically, an experimental research. The software learning process happens parallel to the design process. The students have to design a little house, with help of all disciplines of the period. The great advantage of BIM in the design process is that obtaining the details, cuts, plants, etc. occurs from detailed digital model of the building.
keywords Building Information Modeling; Desenho Digital; Desenho Arquitetônico; Projeto integrado; Metodologia de Projeto
series SIGRADI
email alvaropaiva@pucminas.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:57

_id acadia10_327
id acadia10_327
authors Vassigh, Shahin; Herrera, Silvana
year 2010
title Interactive Teaching through Simulation Environments
source ACADIA 10: LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture [Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-1-4507-3471-4] New York 21-24 October, 2010), pp. 327-332
summary Spurring new and innovative building design will be critical to the urban energy and economic future of the nation. The operation of completed buildings account for 48% of the nation’s annual greenhouse gas emissions, and 76% of all electricity generated by U.S. power plants goes to supply the building sector. Therefore developing and applying new and innovative sustainable building design will have a measurable impact on the environment. Recent studies show sustainable building design is closely linked to system integration, where various components of a building work in confluence to produce synergetic benefits. As a result, a critical component of sustainable design involves a clear understanding of building systems operation, interaction, and the selection parameters. A consideration of suitable building systems, gauging their interaction, and proposing well integrated systems can lead to producing efficient models of sustainable buildings with minimal impact on the environment. The following paper outlines the progress on a project entitled “Building Literacy: the Integration of Building Technology and Design in Architectural Education.” The project develops a digital tool for teaching/learning architectural technology from an integrated systems perspective. The project attempts to immerse students in a simulated environment that is based on the real life practice of architecture. The project accomplishes this by harnessing the capabilities of simulation and dynamic modeling programs, as well as the state of art graphic media, to create compelling and rewarding reasons for students’ engagement in the lear ning process. The project involves a multidisciplinary team of faculty from Florida International University, University at Buffalo the State University of New York, and Iowa State University and is funded by the US Department of Education for the period of 2007-2011.
keywords educational software, interactive learning, interactive teaching, simulation programs, building performance, building integrated systems,
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email svassigh@fiu.edu
last changed 2010/11/10 06:27

_id cf2011_p109
id cf2011_p109
authors Abdelmohsen, Sherif; Lee Jinkook, Eastman Chuck
year 2011
title Automated Cost Analysis of Concept Design BIM Models
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 403-418.
summary AUTOMATED COST ANALYSIS OF CONCEPT DESIGN BIM MODELS Interoperability: BIM models and cost models This paper introduces the automated cost analysis developed for the General Services Administration (GSA) and the analysis results of a case study involving a concept design courthouse BIM model. The purpose of this study is to investigate interoperability issues related to integrating design and analysis tools; specifically BIM models and cost models. Previous efforts to generate cost estimates from BIM models have focused on developing two necessary but disjoint processes: 1) extracting accurate quantity take off data from BIM models, and 2) manipulating cost analysis results to provide informative feedback. Some recent efforts involve developing detailed definitions, enhanced IFC-based formats and in-house standards for assemblies that encompass building models (e.g. US Corps of Engineers). Some commercial applications enhance the level of detail associated to BIM objects with assembly descriptions to produce lightweight BIM models that can be used by different applications for various purposes (e.g. Autodesk for design review, Navisworks for scheduling, Innovaya for visual estimating, etc.). This study suggests the integration of design and analysis tools by means of managing all building data in one shared repository accessible to multiple domains in the AEC industry (Eastman, 1999; Eastman et al., 2008; authors, 2010). Our approach aims at providing an integrated platform that incorporates a quantity take off extraction method from IFC models, a cost analysis model, and a comprehensive cost reporting scheme, using the Solibri Model Checker (SMC) development environment. Approach As part of the effort to improve the performance of federal buildings, GSA evaluates concept design alternatives based on their compliance with specific requirements, including cost analysis. Two basic challenges emerge in the process of automating cost analysis for BIM models: 1) At this early concept design stage, only minimal information is available to produce a reliable analysis, such as space names and areas, and building gross area, 2) design alternatives share a lot of programmatic requirements such as location, functional spaces and other data. It is thus crucial to integrate other factors that contribute to substantial cost differences such as perimeter, and exterior wall and roof areas. These are extracted from BIM models using IFC data and input through XML into the Parametric Cost Engineering System (PACES, 2010) software to generate cost analysis reports. PACES uses this limited dataset at a conceptual stage and RSMeans (2010) data to infer cost assemblies at different levels of detail. Functionalities Cost model import module The cost model import module has three main functionalities: generating the input dataset necessary for the cost model, performing a semantic mapping between building type specific names and name aggregation structures in PACES known as functional space areas (FSAs), and managing cost data external to the BIM model, such as location and construction duration. The module computes building data such as footprint, gross area, perimeter, external wall and roof area and building space areas. This data is generated through SMC in the form of an XML file and imported into PACES. Reporting module The reporting module uses the cost report generated by PACES to develop a comprehensive report in the form of an excel spreadsheet. This report consists of a systems-elemental estimate that shows the main systems of the building in terms of UniFormat categories, escalation, markups, overhead and conditions, a UniFormat Level III report, and a cost breakdown that provides a summary of material, equipment, labor and total costs. Building parameters are integrated in the report to provide insight on the variations among design alternatives.
keywords building information modeling, interoperability, cost analysis, IFC
series CAAD Futures
email sherif.morad@gatech.edu
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id sigradi2011_068
id sigradi2011_068
authors Gomez Zamora, Paula
year 2011
title NonGeometric Information Visualization in BIM. An Approach to Improve Project Team Communication
source SIGraDi 2011 [Proceedings of the 15th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Argentina - Santa Fe 16-18 November 2011, pp. 22-26
summary Building design and construction processes use geometrical models as well as other documentation for com- municating information during all phases of a project. Currently, an important amount of information included into the documentation is not linked to the 3D model, such as emails or decision-making updates. A huge challenge is an accurate and effective management of this non-geometrical information to improve team communication. This paper proposes the uses of Information Visualization techniques for managing these data visually, enhancing human understanding and interpretation. This research area is situated in the intersection of three areas of computing
keywords Building Information Modeling (BIM); non-geometrical information; information visualization; team project communication
series SIGRADI
email paulagomez.cl@gmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id caadria2011_058
id caadria2011_058
authors Reffat, Rabee M.
year 2011
title Impact analysis of digital-based architecture curriculum on students’ learning
source Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / The University of Newcastle, Australia 27-29 April 2011, pp. 609-618
summary This paper reports the findings of assessing the impact of current digital-based architecture curriculum in architecture at KFUPM on students’ learning primarily from students’ perspectives. The paper addresses both generic and specific impacts of current digital-based architecture curriculum on students’ learning. The specific impacts include: level of achieving better understanding of the architectural issues of buildings, and impacts of media qualities on understanding architecture. The paper introduces a performance improvement plan aimed at enhancing students’ learning in the digital-based architecture curriculum and to accommodate the evolving nature of information technology applications in the building and construction industry.
keywords Digital architecture curriculum; students’ learning; impact analysis; digital design education
series CAADRIA
email rabee.reffat@gmail.com
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id cf2011_p024
id cf2011_p024
authors Tidafi, Temy; Charbonneau Nathalie, Khalili-Araghi Salman
year 2011
title Backtracking Decisions within a Design Process: a Way of Enhancing the Designer's Thought Process and Creativity
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 573-587.
summary This paper proposes a way computer sciences could contribute to stimulate the designer’s reflexive thought. We explore the possibility of making use of backtracking devices in order to formalize the designer’s thought process. Design, as a process of creating an object, cannot be represented by means of a linear timeline. Accordingly, the backtracking processes we are discussing here are not based on a linear model but rather on a non-linear structure. Beyond the notion of undoing and redoing commands within CAD packages, the backtracking process is seen as a way to explore and record several alternate options. The branches of the non-linear model can be seen as pathways made of sequential decisions. The designer creates and explores these pathways while making tentative moves towards an architectural solution. Within the design process, backtracking enables the designer to establish and act on a network of interrelated decisions. This notion is fundamental. It is quite obvious that information, in order to be meaningful, must occupy a specific place within an informational network. A data, separated from its context, is devoid of interest. By the same token, a decision takes on significance solely in combination with other decisions. In this paper, we examine what kinds of decisions are involved within a design process, how they are connected, and what could be the best ways to formalize the relationships. Our goal is to experiment ways that could enable the designer and his/her collaborators to get a clearer mental picture of the network of decisions aforementioned. The non-linear model can be seen as a graph structure. The user moves wherever he/she wants through the branches of the structure to establish the network of decisions or to get reacquainted with a previous design process. As a matter of fact, it can act in both ways: to reassess or to confirm a decision. On the one hand, the designer can go back to previous states, reconsider past choices, and eventually modify them. On the other hand, he/she can move forward and revisit a given sequence of decisions, so as to recapture the essence of a previous design process. It goes without saying that knowledge regarding the design process is constructed by the designer from his/her own experiences. Since the designer’s perception evolves as time goes by, the network of decisions constitutes a model that is continuously questioned and restructured. The designer does not elaborate solely an architectural object, but also an evolving model formalizing the way he/she achieved his/her aim. As Le Moigne (1995) pointed out, the model itself produces knowledge; afterwards, the designer can examine it so as to get a clearer mental picture of his/her own cognitive processes. Furthermore, it can be used by his/her collaborators in order to understand which thread of ideas led the designer to a given visual result, and eventually resume or reorient the design process. In addition to reflecting on the ideological implications inherent to this questioning, we take into account the feasibility of such a research project. From a more technical point of view, in this paper we will describe how we plane to take up the challenge of elaborating a digital environment enabling backtracking processes within graph structures. Furthermore, we will explain how we plane to test the first trial version of the new environment with potential users so as to observe how they respond to it. These experiments will be conducted in order to verify to what extend the methods we are proposing are able to i) enhance the designer’s creativity and ii) increase our understanding of designer’s thought process.
keywords backtracking, design process, digital environments, problem space, network of decisions, graph structure.
series CAAD Futures
email temy.tidafi@umontreal.ca
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id acadiaregional2011_003
id acadiaregional2011_003
authors Howe, Nathan
year 2011
title Algorithmic Modeling: Teaching Architecture in Digital Age
source Parametricism (SPC) ACADIA Regional 2011 Conference Proceedings
summary Can a working knowledge of algorithmic modeling augment student understanding of building architecture? This question is fundamental when addressing student design education today. This paper demonstrates that when students apply a reductive process more in line with Newell, Shaw and Simon (Newell, Shaw and Simon 1957), they can break down a complex problem into simpler and simpler terms until the problem can be resolved. This type of reduction can be applied systematically to the parametric-driven form through reverse engineering. In the process of reverse engineering, students begin to connect descriptive geometry with complex form, breaking down the complex form into its simplest parts. This design process of reduction and reverse engineering leads designers to take a more systematic approach to theoretical ideas, at once creating complex constructs while pragmatically attacking the issues of buildable form. This paper will delve into teaching analytical tools so students not only comprehend the input of form-making, but the necessary output to test building and material concepts. Fostering a clear methodology for testing built form within the design process also furthers the student’s development as a problem solver and design innovator.
series ACADIA
last changed 2011/07/08 09:17

_id caadria2011_042
id caadria2011_042
authors Lee, Seongki and Ludger Hovestadt
year 2011
title Complex adaptive residential quarter planning using multiobjective optimization: An agent-based modeling approach
source Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / The University of Newcastle, Australia 27-29 April 2011, pp. 443-452
summary This paper presents a complex adaptive residential quarter planning software. It is developed using Java object oriented programming language and targeting at configuring the tower-type apartment in a dense area during early design stage. Rules are analyzed and formulated based on building code and zone ordinance. Moreover we develop an agent-based modeling with multi-objective optimization algorithm. In this modeling, each agent acts independently according to the rules that are designed to solve the complex geometric problems that are related to physical constraints. At the end, we present a simulation outcome of a case study.
keywords MOOP; Urban design; residential quarter planning; agent system
series CAADRIA
email leese@student.ethz.ch
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id sigradi2011_220
id sigradi2011_220
authors Velandia, Diego
year 2011
title Modelado digital y diseño paramétrico como opción en la experimentación, desarrollo, visualización y toma de decisiones para estudiantes de arquitectura: Experiencias en un curso electivo [Digital modeling and parametric design]
source SIGraDi 2011 [Proceedings of the 15th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Argentina - Santa Fe 16-18 November 2011, pp. 436-439
summary An elective course called architectural visualization and simulation was proposed in 2010. Introduce and integrate digital media into learning processes in architecture was the main objective. Interacting in 3-dimensional with digital models of projects, integrating a lot of information and physical variables in a digital model and parameterize a project to digital modeling were the specific objectives related to the concepts of visualization and simulation. Familiarization with the interface and application of parametric modeling, lighting and mapping in projects of the students were some of the results shown by students at the end of the course.
series SIGRADI
email dvelandi@uniandes.edu.co
last changed 2016/03/10 09:02

_id acadia11_82
id acadia11_82
authors Ahlquist, Sean; Menges, Achim
year 2011
title Behavior-based Computational Design Methodologies: Integrative processes for force defined material structures
source ACADIA 11: Integration through Computation [Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA)] [ISBN 978-1-6136-4595-6] Banff (Alberta) 13-16 October, 2011, pp. 82-89
summary With the introduction of physics-based algorithms and modeling environments, design processes have been shifting from the representation of materiality to the simulation of approximate material descriptions. Such computational processes are based upon enacting physical and material behavior, such as gravity, drag, tension, bending, and inflation, within a generative modeling environment. What is often lacking from this strategy is an overall understanding of computational design; that information of increasing value and precision is generated through the development and iterative execution of specific principles and integrative mechanisms. The value of a physics-based modeling method as an information engine is often overlooked, though, as they are primarily utilized for developing representational diagrams or static geometry – inevitably translated to function outside of the physical bounds and parameters defined with the modeling process. The definition of computational design provides a link between process and a larger approach towards architecture – an integrative behavior-based process which develops dynamic specific architectural systems interrelated in their material, spatial, and environmental nature. This paper, focusing on material integration, describes the relation of a computational design approach and the technical framework for a behavior-based integrative process. The application is in the development of complex tension-active architectural systems. The material behavior of tensile meshes and surfaces is integrated and algorithmically calibrated to allow for complex geometries to be materialized as physical systems. Ultimately, this research proposes a computational structure by which material and other sorts of spatial or structural behaviors can be activated within a generative design environment.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email sean.ahlquist@icd.uni-stuttgart.de
last changed 2011/10/06 04:05

_id ecaade2011_145
id ecaade2011_145
authors Araújo, Leandro; Andrés, Roberto
year 2011
title BIM.BON . A BIM system for architectural practice in Brazil
source RESPECTING FRAGILE PLACES [29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-9-4912070-1-3], University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture (Slovenia) 21-24 September 2011, pp.439-443
summary This article discusses the difficulties faced by the BIM (Building Information Modeling) systems to be widely adopted among most part of architecture and engineering professionals in Brazil. A revision of the issue and investigation of possibilities for improving the practice of architecture were made by creating a new model of BIM software addressed to a wider audience. It lists the main critical points in the usability of BIM software, based on a survey made with 300 professionals. The analysis is followed by a study of a new BIM software that could reach a wider audience of architects by implementing a tool that directly links the users to the construction materials market, also including a tool for easy budgetary calculations.
wos WOS:000335665500050
keywords BIM Software; Architectural design; Architecture in Brazil; ICT; Collaborative design
series eCAADe
email leandro@superficie.org
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id cf2011_p098
id cf2011_p098
authors Bernal, Marcelo; Eastman Charles
year 2011
title Top-down Approach for Interaction of Knowledge-Based Parametric Objects and Preliminary Massing Studies for Decision Making in Early Design Stages
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 149-164.
summary Design activities vary from high-degree of freedom in early concept design stages to highly constrained solution spaces in late ones. Such late developments entail large amount of expertise from technical domains. Multiple parallel models handle different aspects of a project, from geometric master models to specific building components. This variety of models must keep consistency with the design intent while they are dealing with specific domains of knowledge such as architectural design, structure, HVAC, MEP, or plumbing systems. Most of the expertise embedded within the above domains can be translated into parametric objects by capturing design and engineering knowledge through parameters, constraints, or conditionals. The aim of this research is capturing such expertise into knowledge-based parametric objects (KPO) for re-usability along the design process. The proposed case study ‚Äì provided by SOM New York‚ is the interaction between a massing study of a high-rise and its building service core, which at the same time handles elevators, restrooms, emergency stairs, and space for technical systems. This project is focused on capturing design expertise, involved in the definition of a building service core, from a high-rise senior designer, and re-using this object for interaction in real-time with a preliminary massing study model of a building, which will drive the adaption process of the service core. This interaction attempts to provide an integrated design environment for feedback from technical domains to early design stages for decision-making, and generate a well-defined first building draft. The challenges addressed to drive the instantiation of the service core according to the shifting characteristics of the high-rise are automatic instantiation and adaptation of objects based on decision rules, and updating in real-time shared parameters and information derived from the high-rise massing study. The interaction between both models facilitates the process from the designer‚Äôs perspective of reusing previous design solutions in new projects. The massing study model is the component that handles information from the perspective of the outer shape design intent. Variations at this massing study model level drive the behavior of the service core model, which must adapt its configuration to the shifting geometry of the building during design exploration in early concept design stages. These variations depend on a list of inputs derived from multiple sources such as variable lot sizes, building type, variable square footage of the building, considerations about modularity, number of stories, floor-to-floor height, total building height, or total building square footage. The shifting combination of this set of parameters determines the final aspect of the building and, consequently, the final configuration of the service core. The service core is the second component involved in the automatic generation of a building draft. In the context of BIM, it is an assembly of objects, which contains other objects representing elevators, restrooms, emergency stairs, and space for several technical systems. This assembly is driven by different layouts depending on the building type, a drop-off sequence, which is the process of continuous reduction of elevators along the building, and how this reduction affects the re-arrangement of the service core layout. Results from this research involves a methodology for capturing design knowledge, a methodology for defining the architecture of smart parametric objects, and a method for real-time-feedback for decision making in early design stages. The project also wants to demonstrate the feasibility of continuous growth on top of existing parametric objects allowing the creation of libraries of smart re-usable objects for automation in design.
keywords design automation, parametric modeling, design rules, knowledge-based design
series CAAD Futures
email marcelo.bernal@gatech.edu
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p043
id cf2011_p043
authors Boeykens, Stefan
year 2011
title Using 3D Design Software, BIM and Game Engines for Architectural Historical Reconstruction
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 493-509.
summary The use of digital tools has become a tremendous aid in the creation of digital, historical reconstructions of architectural projects. Regular visualization techniques have been used for quite some time and they still pose interesting approaches, such as following cinematic techniques [1]. While common visualizations focus on pre-rendered graphics, it is possible to apply Game Engines [2] for real-time architectural visualization, as witnessed by [3] and [4]. In the course of our teaching and research efforts, we have collected experience with several visualization and modeling techniques, including the use of gaming engines. While the modeling of qualitative geometry for use in regular visualization already poses an elaborate effort, the preparation of models for different uses is often not trivial. Most modeling systems only support the creation of models for a single amount of detail, whereas an optimized model for a real-time system will have fairly different constraints when compared to non-real-time models for photorealistic rendering and animation. The use of parametric methods is one usable approach to tackle this complexity, as illustrated in [4]. One of the major advantages of using parametric approaches lies precisely in the possibility of using a single model to generate different geometry with control over the amount of detail. We explicitly tackle this in a Building Information Modeling (BIM) context, as to support much more than purely 3D geometry and visualization purposes. An integrated approach allows the same model to be used for technical drawings in 2D and an optimized 3D model in varying levels of detail for different visualization purposes. However, while most Building Information Modeling applications are targeted to current architectural practice, they seldom provide sufficient content for the recreation of historical models. This thus requires an extensive library of parametric, custom objects to be used and re-used for historically accurate models, which can serve multiple purposes. Finally, the approach towards the historical resources also poses interpretation problems, which we tackled using a reasonably straightforward set up of an information database, collecting facts and accuracies. This helps in the visualization of color-coded 3D models, depicting the accuracy of the model, which is a valuable graphical approach to discuss and communicate information about the historical study in an appealing format. This article will present the results of different reconstruction case studies, using a variety of design applications and discuss the inherent complexity and limitations in the process of translating an active, evolving model into an environment suitable for use in a real-time system. Especially workflow issues are identified, as the translation of the model into the game engine should be repeated several times, when the model is further refined and adapted. This used to involve a large amount of repetitive work, but the current crop of game engines have much better approaches to manage the updating of the geometry.
keywords Real-time architecture, game engines, cultural heritage, digital reconstruction, parametric modeling, Building Information Modeling
series CAAD Futures
email stefan.boeykens@asro.kuleuven.be
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id acadia11_138
id acadia11_138
authors Buell, Samantha; Shaban, Ryan; Corte, Daniel; Beorkrem, Christopher
year 2011
title Zero-waste, Flat Pack Truss Work: An Investigation of Responsive Structuralism
source ACADIA 11: Integration through Computation [Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA)] [ISBN 978-1-6136-4595-6] Banff (Alberta) 13-16 October, 2011, pp. 138-143
summary The direct and rapid connections between scripting, modeling and prototyping allow for investigations of computation in fabrication. The manipulation of planar materials with two-dimensional CNC cuts can easily create complex and varied forms, volumes, and surfaces. However, the bulk of research on folding using CNC fabrication tools is focused upon surfaces, self-supporting walls and shell structures, which do not integrate well into more conventional building construction models.This paper attempts to explain the potential for using folding methodologies to develop structural members through a design-build process. Conventional building practice consists of the assembly of off-the-shelf parts. Many times, the plinth, skeleton, and skin are independently designed and fabricated, integrating multiple industries. Using this method of construction as an operative status quo, this investigation focused on a single structural component: the truss. A truss is defined as: “A triangulated arrangement of structural members that reduces nonaxial external forces to a set of axial forces in its members.” (Allen and Iano 2004)Using folding methodologies and sheet steel to create a truss, this design investigation employed a recyclable and prolific building material to redefine the fabrication of a conventional structural member. The potential for using digital design and two-dimensional CNC fabrication tools in the design of a foldable truss from sheet steel is viable in the creation of a flat-packed, minimal waste structural member that can adapt to a variety of aesthetic and structural conditions. Applying new methods to a component of the conventional ‘kit of parts’ allowed for a novel investigation that recombines zero waste goals, flat-packing potential, structural expression and computational processes.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email srbuell2@gmail.com
last changed 2011/10/06 04:05

_id acadiaregional2011_025
id acadiaregional2011_025
authors Bum Kim, Jong ; Mark J. Clayton, Wei Yan
year 2011
title Parametric Form-Based Codes: Incorporation of land-use regulations into Building Information Models
source Parametricism (SPC) ACADIA Regional 2011 Conference Proceedings
summary This project describes investigations into whether parametric modeling using a Building Information Modeling (BIM) platform can represent the provisions and constraints of Form-Based Codes (FBCs). BIM software environments couple 3D modeling with parametric form generation and rich semantics. Further capabilities of an Application Programming Interface that supports Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) results in a very powerful environment for expressing planning and design concepts. While these capabilities were developed under the intention of supporting building design, we hypothesize that they can support planning rules and regulations that are found in FBCs. If our approach is successful, future planning departments will be able to provide architects and urban designers with a FBC that is implemented as a BIM software toolkit, better integrating the planning phase of a project into the building design phase.
series ACADIA
last changed 2011/07/08 09:17

_id cf2011_p165
id cf2011_p165
authors Chasznar, Andre
year 2011
title Navigating Complex Models in Collaborative Work for (Sustainably) Integrated Design
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 619-636.
summary Increasingly intensive use of computational techniques such as parametric-associative modeling, algorithmic design, performance simulations and generative design in architecture, engineering and construction are leading to increasingly large and complex 3D building models which in turn require increasingly powerful techniques in order to be manipulated and interpreted effectively. Further complexities are of course due also to the multi-disciplinary nature of building projects, in which there can be significant variation and even conflict among the aims of architects, engineers and builders, as well as owners, occupants and other stakeholders in the process. Effective use of model information depends to a large extent on sense-making, which can in some ways be helped but also hindered by schemes for organizing the information contained. Common techniques such as layering, labeling (aka ‘tagging’) and assignment of various other attributes to model objects have significant limitations – especially those arising from general problems of language, ontology and standardization, as well as but distinct from issues of interoperability – both with respect to locating the desired items in a 3D building model and also with respect to displaying the objects in informative ways which effectively assist collaborative design and decision-making. Sustainable design in particular is an area generally requiring a high level of inter-disciplinary collaboration to achieve highly integrated designs which make multiple use of the elements and systems incorporated (though integrated design may also be pursued without explicit aims of sustainability). The proposed paper describes ongoing research concerning alternatives to the currently common techniques for locating and displaying information in 3D building models in support of sense-making to promote collaborative and integrated design. These alternatives comprise on the one hand interactive geometric-content-based methods for search and classification of model objects – as an alternative or complement to common assigned-attribute-based methods – and on the other hand visual analytic techniques – in contrast to existing, relatively static tabular and "physical" views – which can help to increase the informativeness of the geometric data within the model, as well as the non-geometric data that is attached to geometric objects (e.g. as in the cases of BIM and various types of CAE performance simulations). Tests undertaken with architects and engineers in practice and academia to evaluate the proposed methods are also described. Finally conclusions are drawn regarding these methods’ positive present performance and some of their shortcomings, as well as indicating directions for future research concerning the methods’ refinement and extension to help 3D building models become more effective components of the design process than they are at present, both with respect to these models’ present levels of complexity and especially with respect to their anticipated increasing complexity in future.
keywords CAD/CAE/BIM, content-based search, visual analytics
series CAAD Futures
email a.t.chaszar@tudelft.nl
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ecaade2011_013
id ecaade2011_013
authors Fleischmann, Moritz; Lienhard, Julian; Menges, Achim
year 2011
title Computational Design Synthesis: Embedding Material Behaviour in Generative Computational Processes
source RESPECTING FRAGILE PLACES [29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-9-4912070-1-3], University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture (Slovenia) 21-24 September 2011, pp.759-767
summary This paper presents strategies for the design of bending-active structures through the introduction of modern computational design methods, exploring their architectural potential through contemporary means of design, engineering and robotic manufacturing. As a case study the ICD/ITKE research pavilion’s information modeling process is depicted: how form-finding experiments guided the development of various models that synthesize data for design, simulation, analysis and fabrication. The paper explains the integration of relevant material information into generative computational design processes and concludes by comparing the resultant data models with a scan of the built prototype.
wos WOS:000335665500088
keywords Computational Design; Bending-Active Structures; Robotic Fabrication; Computer-Aided Manufacturing; Information Modeling
series eCAADe
email moritz.fleischmann@icd.uni-stuttgart.de
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id eaea2009_kardos_plachtinska
id eaea2009_kardos_plachtinska
authors Kardos, Peter; Petra Plachtinska
year 2011
title Spatial Experience in Real & Virtual Environment as an Urban Design Tool
source Projecting Spaces [Proceedings of the 9th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 978-3-942411-31-8 ], pp. 59-64
summary The innovations of information technologies and the new possibilities of multimedia exploitation in the realm of architectural design and education are supporting the development of image communication methods on the basis of interactivity. The creative process of searching and decision-making in the urban design studio of our Faculty is supported by spatial modeling methods. The draft is sketched in modeling material on a working model. From the didactic point of view, relevant are mainly those phases, in which is possible, in the imaginative way, to support the searching and decision making process with the aim to test, compare and continuously evaluate the fulfillment of the hypothetic intentions of the solution responsibilities. The model becomes an interactive medium of cooperation between teacher and the working group of students. From the view of design crystallization, the dominant phases, in the creative process, are examining, verification, and simulation. The alternatives of material-compositional content and the spatial performance charts of modeled physical structure are verifying and the visual experience of the anticipated urban environment is simulated by the author, but also through the future client’s eyes. The alternation of the composition’s spatial configurations is generally appreciated by the static visual verification in the endoscopic horizon like the architectural spatial studies. The effective method of the progress generates a creative atmosphere for the generative thinking and design. The laboratory simulation of spatial experiences and their evaluation is performed following the perception psychology relations. The simulation of digestion of the new spatial reality intervenes the customer’s identification and guides to subjective approaches towards the quality and complexity of the formed environment. The simulation is performed in motion in order to be able to anticipate the dynamic continuity of subjective spatial imagination. The induced atmosphere will direct the evaluational attitudes of authors on comparison and selection of the successful alternatives. In our fee, we will present the demonstrations of selected static and dynamic notations of image sequences prepared in our laboratory. The presentations have been created in order to analyze, verify and offer imaginative support to creative findings in result of fulfilling the studio design tasks in the educational process. The main one is the design of urban spatial structures. The laboratory methodology is in the first place oriented on the analogue-digital procedures of "endoscope" model simulation. At the same time it also explores and looks for new unconventional forms of visual communication or archiving as imagination support to specialist and laymen participants in creative, valorization and approval processes.
series other
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea
last changed 2011/03/04 07:45

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