CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 421

_id caadria2011_052
id caadria2011_052
authors Al-Kazzaz, Dhuha A. and Alan Bridges
year 2011
title Assessing innovation in hybrid designs using shape grammars
source Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / The University of Newcastle, Australia 27-29 April 2011, pp. 545-554
summary Al-kazzaz et al (2010) described hybrid adaption technique to generate innovative designs from heterogeneous precedents using shape grammars. An evaluation of the degree of innovation in the hybrid designs gave feedback to grammar users before and after applying a rule. Innovation was assessed using variables derived from the internal structure of the grammar such as: the number of antecedents in the corpus having the same rule; the number of rules in a subclass rule set having the same geometry; etc. However, the validity of the innovation assessment was unclear and the use of the feedback measures was not demonstrated. Accordingly, this study aims to verify the credibility of the innovation measures and to identify the independent variables that a user can control to achieve a significant impact on each innovation measure as a dependent variable.
keywords Shape grammars; hybrid design; innovation assessment
series CAADRIA
email dhuha.abdul-aziz@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id acadia11_300
id acadia11_300
authors Ruffo Calderon, Emmanuel; Schimek, Heimo; Wiltsche, Albert
year 2011
title Seeking Performative Beauty
source ACADIA 11: Integration through Computation [Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA)] [ISBN 978-1-6136-4595-6] Banff (Alberta) 13-16 October, 2011, pp. 300-307
summary With digital design and fabrication becoming ever more common in architectural design, the computational geometry topic of discretizing freeform surfaces into flat panels has become a common challenge. At the present, most approaches to the issue of preserving a 2D-tessellation on a freeform surface are focused on optimizing the shape of the structure by approximating geometric “equally-sized” flat patterns. In doing so, these strategies treat the approximation of the desired shape as the primary goal, leaving aside the aesthetical aspect of the paneling, which can be seen as having an ornamental quality. In contrast to these common strategies, the project presented in this paper pursues a more holistic approach that tries to integrate aesthetical as well as structural issues by using more complex as well as more performative patterns for the discretization. In the present paper, we present algorithmic strategies that were designed to integrate from the aesthetics of an exposed timber structure, through analysis of structural loading feedbacks to a detailed level of the physical joint system, as part of the fundamental early design decisions. The consequence of the overall negotiations relies fully on their physical integration through computational design. The present paper discusses both the algorithmic techniques and the joint systems through a series of case studies. At the end of the paper we provide an overview to upcoming tasks including the production of a major structure.
keywords digital architecture; mathematics in architecture; higher-dimensional objects in architecture; design computation and mathematics
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email research@emmanuelruffo.com
last changed 2011/10/06 04:05

_id cf2011_p170
id cf2011_p170
authors Barros, Mário; Duarte José, Chaparro Bruno
year 2011
title Thonet Chairs Design Grammar: a Step Towards the Mass Customization of Furniture
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 181-200.
summary The paper presents the first phase of research currently under development that is focused on encoding Thonet design style into a generative design system using a shape grammar. The ultimate goal of the work is the design and production of customizable chairs using computer assisted tools, establishing a feasible practical model of the paradigm of mass customization (Davis, 1987). The current research step encompasses the following three steps: (1) codification of the rules describing Thonet design style into a shape grammar; (2) implementing the grammar into a computer tool as parametric design; and (3) rapid prototyping of customized chair designs within the style. Future phases will address the transformation of the Thonet’s grammar to create a new style and the production of real chair designs in this style using computer aided manufacturing. Beginning in the 1830’s, Austrian furniture designer Michael Thonet began experimenting with forming steam beech, in order to produce lighter furniture using fewer components, when compared with the standards of the time. Using the same construction principles and standardized elements, Thonet produced different chairs designs with a strong formal resemblance, creating his own design language. The kit assembly principle, the reduced number of elements, industrial efficiency, and the modular approach to furniture design as a system of interchangeable elements that may be used to assemble different objects enable him to become a pioneer of mass production (Noblet, 1993). The most paradigmatic example of the described vision of furniture design is the chair No. 14 produced in 1858, composed of six structural elements. Due to its simplicity, lightness, ability to be stored in flat and cubic packaging for individual of collective transportation, respectively, No. 14 became one of the most sold chairs worldwide, and it is still in production nowadays. Iconic examples of mass production are formally studied to provide insights to mass customization studies. The study of the shape grammar for the generation of Thonet chairs aimed to ensure rules that would make possible the reproduction of the selected corpus, as well as allow for the generation of new chairs within the developed grammar. Due to the wide variety of Thonet chairs, six chairs were randomly chosen to infer the grammar and then this was fine tuned by checking whether it could account for the generation of other designs not in the original corpus. Shape grammars (Stiny and Gips, 1972) have been used with sucesss both in the analysis as in the synthesis of designs at different scales, from product design to building and urban design. In particular, the use of shape grammars has been efficient in the characterization of objects’ styles and in the generation of new designs within the analyzed style, and it makes design rules amenable to computers implementation (Duarte, 2005). The literature includes one other example of a grammar for chair design by Knight (1980). In the second step of the current research phase, the outlined shape grammar was implemented into a computer program, to assist the designer in conceiving and producing customized chairs using a digital design process. This implementation was developed in Catia by converting the grammar into an equivalent parametric design model. In the third phase, physical models of existing and new chair designs were produced using rapid prototyping. The paper describes the grammar, its computer implementation as a parametric model, and the rapid prototyping of physical models. The generative potential of the proposed digital process is discussed in the context of enabling the mass customization of furniture. The role of the furniture designer in the new paradigm and ideas for further work also are discussed.
keywords Thonet; furniture design; chair; digital design process; parametric design; shape grammar
series CAAD Futures
email m.barros@ipt.pt
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p098
id cf2011_p098
authors Bernal, Marcelo; Eastman Charles
year 2011
title Top-down Approach for Interaction of Knowledge-Based Parametric Objects and Preliminary Massing Studies for Decision Making in Early Design Stages
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 149-164.
summary Design activities vary from high-degree of freedom in early concept design stages to highly constrained solution spaces in late ones. Such late developments entail large amount of expertise from technical domains. Multiple parallel models handle different aspects of a project, from geometric master models to specific building components. This variety of models must keep consistency with the design intent while they are dealing with specific domains of knowledge such as architectural design, structure, HVAC, MEP, or plumbing systems. Most of the expertise embedded within the above domains can be translated into parametric objects by capturing design and engineering knowledge through parameters, constraints, or conditionals. The aim of this research is capturing such expertise into knowledge-based parametric objects (KPO) for re-usability along the design process. The proposed case study ‚Äì provided by SOM New York‚ is the interaction between a massing study of a high-rise and its building service core, which at the same time handles elevators, restrooms, emergency stairs, and space for technical systems. This project is focused on capturing design expertise, involved in the definition of a building service core, from a high-rise senior designer, and re-using this object for interaction in real-time with a preliminary massing study model of a building, which will drive the adaption process of the service core. This interaction attempts to provide an integrated design environment for feedback from technical domains to early design stages for decision-making, and generate a well-defined first building draft. The challenges addressed to drive the instantiation of the service core according to the shifting characteristics of the high-rise are automatic instantiation and adaptation of objects based on decision rules, and updating in real-time shared parameters and information derived from the high-rise massing study. The interaction between both models facilitates the process from the designer‚Äôs perspective of reusing previous design solutions in new projects. The massing study model is the component that handles information from the perspective of the outer shape design intent. Variations at this massing study model level drive the behavior of the service core model, which must adapt its configuration to the shifting geometry of the building during design exploration in early concept design stages. These variations depend on a list of inputs derived from multiple sources such as variable lot sizes, building type, variable square footage of the building, considerations about modularity, number of stories, floor-to-floor height, total building height, or total building square footage. The shifting combination of this set of parameters determines the final aspect of the building and, consequently, the final configuration of the service core. The service core is the second component involved in the automatic generation of a building draft. In the context of BIM, it is an assembly of objects, which contains other objects representing elevators, restrooms, emergency stairs, and space for several technical systems. This assembly is driven by different layouts depending on the building type, a drop-off sequence, which is the process of continuous reduction of elevators along the building, and how this reduction affects the re-arrangement of the service core layout. Results from this research involves a methodology for capturing design knowledge, a methodology for defining the architecture of smart parametric objects, and a method for real-time-feedback for decision making in early design stages. The project also wants to demonstrate the feasibility of continuous growth on top of existing parametric objects allowing the creation of libraries of smart re-usable objects for automation in design.
keywords design automation, parametric modeling, design rules, knowledge-based design
series CAAD Futures
email marcelo.bernal@gatech.edu
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p083
id cf2011_p083
authors Calderon, Dominguez, Emmanuel Ruffo, Hirschberg Urs
year 2011
title Towards a Morphogenetic Control of Free-Form Surfaces for Designers
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 165-180.
summary The present paper discusses a novel computational design strategy for approximating architectural free form geometry with discrete planar elements by using morphogenetic patterns. We report on an ongoing research project [1], which is focused on the design of flat ornamental tessellations by using computational geometry for the discretization of curved forms rather than manufacturing curvy elements, which typically increase cost. The significance of our approach lies in the fact that it allows the designer to progressively embrace the constructive constraints and their esthetic potential already in the design stage and to follow them through to actual fabrication.
keywords morphogenetic geometry, design strategies, user-interactiveness, design control, flat tessellations, ornamental structure.
series CAAD Futures
email e.calderon@TUGraz.at
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ecaade2011_101
id ecaade2011_101
authors Colakoglu, Birgul
year 2011
title Introduction to Architecture Studio: Geometry, Rules and Patterns
source RESPECTING FRAGILE PLACES [29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-9-4912070-1-3], University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture (Slovenia) 21-24 September 2011, pp.745-750
summary Introduction to architecture studio introduces students of architecture with fundamentals of design and design thinking. Here, the students learn: analytical thinking by constructive analysis of precedents; language of design by using basic geometric elements and operational/transformational principles among them; and principles of form making by engaging in constructing the form. The paper explains the process of the studio in which shape grammar methodology is utilized in teaching analytical thinking, language of design and principles of form making to architecture students.
wos WOS:000335665500086
keywords Architecture Studio Education: Shape Grammars: Rule Based Design
series eCAADe
email bigi_c3@yildiz.edu.tr
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id acadia11_98
id acadia11_98
authors Kudless, Andrew
year 2011
title Bodies in Formation: The material evolution of flexible formworks
source ACADIA 11: Integration through Computation [Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA)] [ISBN 978-1-6136-4595-6] Banff (Alberta) 13-16 October, 2011, pp. 98-105
summary Borne from the complex negotiation between liquid mass and tensile constraint, flexible formwork castings are resonant with material energy. Hard as stone, yet visually supple and fluid, the pre-cast architectural assemblies produced using flexible formwork techniques suggest integrative design strategies that acknowledge the intricate associations between form, fabrication, and material behavior. This tripartite synthesis between geometry, making, and performance has emerged as one of the central themes of contemporary architecture and engineering. Borrowing ideas of morphology from biology and physics, 20th century architectural innovators such as Antoni Gaudi and Frei Otto built a legacy of material practice that incorporated methods of making with material and geometric logics. The emergent effects (and affects) produced through these highly integrative practices serve as the basis of much of the research and design at Matsys. Building on the flexible formwork research of Miguel Fisac in the 1970s, the P_Wall series by Matsys explores the use of digital tools in the generation and fabrication of these bodies in formation.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email akudless@cca.edu
last changed 2011/10/06 04:05

_id cf2011_p116
id cf2011_p116
authors Stavric, Milena; Wiltsche Albert
year 2011
title Ornamental Plate Shell Structures
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 817-832.
summary The development of digital technologies in the last twenty years has led to an unprecedented formal freedom in design and in the representation in virtual space. Combining non-standard geometry with CAD tools enables a new way of expression and realization of architectural ideas and conceptions. The transformation of a virtual double-curved surface into a buildable physical structure and object is always accompanied by huge costs and big problems like geometric and statical ones. Our structure is a type of shell structure consisting of plane panels. The load bearing system is organized in a way so that the forces are distributed along the edges of the plane elements. A structure with plane elements supports a high stiffness in combination with a relatively small overall weight. This is due to smooth curved shape of the geometry. We show geometric methods how to control the construction of curved surfaces out of planar building elements. The approach is based on the discretization of the surfaces by plane elements derived from tangent planes. The novel process in this work is that we take the surface curvature at local points into account. This solves former problems which occurred when intersecting the planes. The fact that there is an infinite number of possibilities when selecting tangent planes on a surface raises the issue of the way and conditions which make it possible to select specific tangent planes whose intersection would produce a desired three-dimensional shape. In order to satisfy also aesthetical requirements we engage plane geometrical patterns and ornaments and transfer them into spatial shape. So a three-dimensional ornamental shape is deduced from a two-dimensional ornament. Another task which will be showed is how to limit the infinite range of possibilities to generate a preferred spatial ornament and on what conditions surface tessellation would be ornamental in character, i.e. it would generate not only the functional, but also the aesthetic component of a free-form surface.
keywords ornament, discretization, free-form surfaces
series CAAD Futures
email mstavric@tugraz.at
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p127
id cf2011_p127
authors Benros, Deborah; Granadeiro Vasco, Duarte Jose, Knight Terry
year 2011
title Integrated Design and Building System for the Provision of Customized Housing: the Case of Post-Earthquake Haiti
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 247-264.
summary The paper proposes integrated design and building systems for the provision of sustainable customized housing. It advances previous work by applying a methodology to generate these systems from vernacular precedents. The methodology is based on the use of shape grammars to derive and encode a contemporary system from the precedents. The combined set of rules can be applied to generate housing solutions tailored to specific user and site contexts. The provision of housing to shelter the population affected by the 2010 Haiti earthquake illustrates the application of the methodology. A computer implementation is currently under development in C# using the BIM platform provided by Revit. The world experiences a sharp increase in population and a strong urbanization process. These phenomena call for the development of effective means to solve the resulting housing deficit. The response of the informal sector to the problem, which relies mainly on handcrafted processes, has resulted in an increase of urban slums in many of the big cities, which lack sanitary and spatial conditions. The formal sector has produced monotonous environments based on the idea of mass production that one size fits all, which fails to meet individual and cultural needs. We propose an alternative approach in which mass customization is used to produce planed environments that possess qualities found in historical settlements. Mass customization, a new paradigm emerging due to the technological developments of the last decades, combines the economy of scale of mass production and the aesthetics and functional qualities of customization. Mass customization of housing is defined as the provision of houses that respond to the context in which they are built. The conceptual model for the mass customization of housing used departs from the idea of a housing type, which is the combined result of three systems (Habraken, 1988) -- spatial, building system, and stylistic -- and it includes a design system, a production system, and a computer system (Duarte, 2001). In previous work, this conceptual model was tested by developing a computer system for existing design and building systems (Benr__s and Duarte, 2009). The current work advances it by developing new and original design, building, and computer systems for a particular context. The urgent need to build fast in the aftermath of catastrophes quite often overrides any cultural concerns. As a result, the shelters provided in such circumstances are indistinct and impersonal. However, taking individual and cultural aspects into account might lead to a better identification of the population with their new environment, thereby minimizing the rupture caused in their lives. As the methodology to develop new housing systems is based on the idea of architectural precedents, choosing existing vernacular housing as a precedent permits the incorporation of cultural aspects and facilitates an identification of people with the new housing. In the Haiti case study, we chose as a precedent a housetype called “gingerbread houses”, which includes a wide range of houses from wealthy to very humble ones. Although the proposed design system was inspired by these houses, it was decided to adopt a contemporary take. The methodology to devise the new type was based on two ideas: precedents and transformations in design. In architecture, the use of precedents provides designers with typical solutions for particular problems and it constitutes a departing point for a new design. In our case, the precedent is an existing housetype. It has been shown (Duarte, 2001) that a particular housetype can be encoded by a shape grammar (Stiny, 1980) forming a design system. Studies in shape grammars have shown that the evolution of one style into another can be described as the transformation of one shape grammar into another (Knight, 1994). The used methodology departs takes off from these ideas and it comprises the following steps (Duarte, 2008): (1) Selection of precedents, (2) Derivation of an archetype; (3) Listing of rules; (4) Derivation of designs; (5) Cataloguing of solutions; (6) Derivation of tailored solution.
keywords Mass customization, Housing, Building system, Sustainable construction, Life cycle energy consumption, Shape grammar
series CAAD Futures
email deborahbenros@gmail.com
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ecaade2011_083
id ecaade2011_083
authors Coutinho, Filipe; Costa, Eduardo Castro e; Duarte, José P.; Kruger, Mário
year 2011
title A computational interpretation of ”De re aedificatoria”: Translating Alberti’s column system into a shape grammar
source RESPECTING FRAGILE PLACES [29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-9-4912070-1-3], University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture (Slovenia) 21-24 September 2011, pp.788-798
summary Alberti’s ”De re aedificatoria” is considered one of the most influential treatises of architecture. Historic approaches aimed at tracing such an influence on European architecture have relied mainly on documental sources. The extent of such an influence, however, remains elusive. The research described in this paper is part of a larger project aimed at using the computational framework provided by shape grammars to determine the extension of such an influence on the architecture of the Portuguese empire in the counter-reform period. The idea is to translate the treatise into a shape grammar and then determine the transformations required for the grammar to account for the generation of the buildings designed and built in this geographic region. The paper presents a grammar for the Albertian column system, focusing on the Doric order. Subsequent work will be concerned with identifying the transformations of this grammar in the Portuguese context.
wos WOS:000335665500091
keywords Alberti; generative design; shape grammars; transformations in design, design automation
series eCAADe
email filipecoutinho@darq.uc.pt
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id cf2011_p019
id cf2011_p019
authors Haeusler, Matthias Hank; Beilharz Kirsty
year 2011
title Architecture = Computer‚ from Computational to Computing Environments
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 217-232.
summary Drawing on architecture, urban digital media, engineering, IT and interaction design, the research presented in this paper outlines a possible shift from architecture designed through computation (any type of process, algorithm or measurement done in a computational matter) towards architecture capable of computing (developing, using and improving computer technology, computer hardware and software as a space-defining element). The research is driven by recent developments in four fields, as follows: (a) Architecture in its recent development has shifted from a planar box, as was the ideal in the modernist movement, towards complex and non-standard forms. (b) The design concepts of non-standard surfaces have been adopted into media facades and media architecture by liberating the pixel from its planar position on a screen [1]. (c) Advancements in pervasive computing applications are now able both to receive information from the environment in which they are used and to detect other devices that enter this environment [2]. (d) Developments in advanced autonomous systems such as Human Computer Interaction (HCI) or Human Robot Interaction (HRI), have produced intelligent systems capable of observing human cues and using these cues as the basis for intelligent decision-making [3]. Media fa_ßade developments work in the direction of the above-mentioned four fields, but often come with limitations in architectural integration; they need additional components to interact with their environment and their interactions are both often limited to visual interactions and require the user to act first. The researched system, Polymedia Pixel [4] discussed in this paper, can overcome these limitations and fulfil the need for a space-defining material capable of computing, thus enabling a shift from architecture designed by computation towards architecture capable of active computing. The Polymedia Pixel architecture merges digital technology with ubiquitous computing. This allows the built environment and its relation with digital technology to develop from (a) architecture being represented by computer to (b) computation being used to develop architecture and then further to where (c) architecture and the space-defining objects have computing attributes. Hence the study presented aims to consider and answer this key question: ‚ÄòWhen building components with computing capacity can define space and function as a computer at the same time, what are the constraints for the building components and what are the possible advantages for the built environment?‚Äô The conceptual framework, design and methods used in this research combine three fields: (a) hardware (architecture and design, electronic engineering) (b) software (content design and IT) and (c) interaction design (HCI and HRI). Architecture and urban design determinates the field of application. Media architecture and computer science provide the technological foundation, while the field of interaction design defines the methodology to link space and computing [5]. The conceptual starting point is to rethink the application of computers in architecture and, if architecture is capable of computing, what kind of methodology and structure would find an answer to the above core research question, and what are the implications of the question itself? The case study discusses opportunities for applying the Polymedia Pixel as an architectural component by testing it on: (a) constraint testing ‚Äì applying computational design methodologies to design space (b) singular testing - discussing the advantages for an individual building, and (c) plural testing ‚Äì investigating the potential for an urban context. The research aims to contribute to the field of knowledge through presenting first steps of a System < - > System mode where buildings can possibly watch and monitor each other, additional to the four primary interactive modes of operation. This investigation, its proposed hypothesis, methodology, implications, significance and evaluation are presented in the paper.
keywords media architecture, computational environments, ubiquitous computing, interaction design, computer science
series CAAD Futures
email matthias.haeusler@uts.edu.au
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id sigradi2011_145
id sigradi2011_145
authors Linhares, Bruna; Alarcão, Helena; Carvão, Luís; Toste, Pedro; Paio, Alexandra
year 2011
title Using Shape Grammar to design ready-made housing for humanized living. Towards a parametric-typological design tool
source SIGraDi 2011 [Proceedings of the 15th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Argentina - Santa Fe 16-18 November 2011, pp. 78-81
summary The research described in this paper is part of a larger on-going project called "Emerg.cities4all" that proposes a generative computer-aided planning system for housing for low-income populations using shape grammars. This paper presents the preliminary research results of a group of four master students who proposed to develop a grammar of ready-made housing for humanized living based in three informal settlements case studies. The results of this research are based on the assumption that it is possible to generate modular, adaptable and affordable ready-made housing for humanized living solutions design, supported by a computational generation tool.
keywords Shape grammars; emergent housing; housing design; CPLP
series SIGRADI
email alexandra.paio@iscte.pt
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id ecaade2011_088
id ecaade2011_088
authors Paio, Alexandra; Reis, Joaquim; Santos, Filipe; Lopes, Pedro Faria; Eloy, Sara; Rato, Vasco
year 2011
title Emerg.cities4all: Towards a shape grammar based computational system tool for generating a sustainable and integrated urban design
source RESPECTING FRAGILE PLACES [29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-9-4912070-1-3], University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture (Slovenia) 21-24 September 2011, pp.152-158
summary The ongoing research project called “Emerg.cities4all” is focused on the development of a generative computer-aided planning support system for cities and housing to low-income populations, using a descriptive method as the Shape Grammars and based on multi-agent rule-based system. The goal is to develop a system that could reveal the cultural, social and spatial dynamics involved in the genesis of informal settlements (favelas, musseques and caniços) and use it to generate contemporary humanized urban morphologies. The multi agent shape grammar implementation could generate automatically designs according to different types of users: urban planners, architect and local end users. This paper presents the methodology and the initial results of the research, using an informal settlement as a case study.
wos WOS:000335665500017
keywords Shape grammar; Multi-agent systems; Urban design; Informal settlements; Emergcities4all
series eCAADe
email alexandra.paio@iscte.pt
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id acadia11_82
id acadia11_82
authors Ahlquist, Sean; Menges, Achim
year 2011
title Behavior-based Computational Design Methodologies: Integrative processes for force defined material structures
source ACADIA 11: Integration through Computation [Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA)] [ISBN 978-1-6136-4595-6] Banff (Alberta) 13-16 October, 2011, pp. 82-89
summary With the introduction of physics-based algorithms and modeling environments, design processes have been shifting from the representation of materiality to the simulation of approximate material descriptions. Such computational processes are based upon enacting physical and material behavior, such as gravity, drag, tension, bending, and inflation, within a generative modeling environment. What is often lacking from this strategy is an overall understanding of computational design; that information of increasing value and precision is generated through the development and iterative execution of specific principles and integrative mechanisms. The value of a physics-based modeling method as an information engine is often overlooked, though, as they are primarily utilized for developing representational diagrams or static geometry – inevitably translated to function outside of the physical bounds and parameters defined with the modeling process. The definition of computational design provides a link between process and a larger approach towards architecture – an integrative behavior-based process which develops dynamic specific architectural systems interrelated in their material, spatial, and environmental nature. This paper, focusing on material integration, describes the relation of a computational design approach and the technical framework for a behavior-based integrative process. The application is in the development of complex tension-active architectural systems. The material behavior of tensile meshes and surfaces is integrated and algorithmically calibrated to allow for complex geometries to be materialized as physical systems. Ultimately, this research proposes a computational structure by which material and other sorts of spatial or structural behaviors can be activated within a generative design environment.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email sean.ahlquist@icd.uni-stuttgart.de
last changed 2011/10/06 04:05

_id acadia12_47
id acadia12_47
authors Aish, Robert ; Fisher, Al ; Joyce, Sam ; Marsh, Andrew
year 2012
title Progress Towards Multi-Criteria Design Optimisation Using Designscript With Smart Form, Robot Structural Analysis and Ecotect Building Performance Analysis"
source ACADIA 12: Synthetic Digital Ecologies [Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-1-62407-267-3] San Francisco 18-21 October, 2012), pp. 47-56
summary Important progress towards the development of a system that enables multi-criteria design optimisation has recently been demonstrated during a research collaboration between Autodesk’s DesignScript development team, the University of Bath and the engineering consultancy Buro Happold. This involved integrating aspects of the Robot Structural Analysis application, aspects of the Ecotect building performance application and a specialist form finding solver called SMART Form (developed by Buro Happold) with DesignScript to create a single computation environment. This environment is intended for the generation and evaluation of building designs against both structural and building performance criteria, with the aim of expediently supporting computational optimisation and decision making processes that integrate across multiple design and engineering disciplines. A framework was developed to enable the integration of modeling environments with analysis and process control, based on the authors’ case studies and experience of applied performance driven design in practice. This more generalised approach (implemented in DesignScript) enables different designers and engineers to selectively configure geometry definition, form finding, analysis and simulation tools in an open-ended system without enforcing any predefined workflows or anticipating specific design strategies and allows for a full range of optimisation and decision making processes to be explored. This system has been demonstrated to practitioners during the Design Modeling Symposium, Berlin in 2011 and feedback from this has suggested further development.
keywords Design Optimisation , Scripting , Form Finding , Structural Analysis , Building Performance
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email robert.aish@autodesk.com
last changed 2013/01/09 10:06

_id cf2011_p043
id cf2011_p043
authors Boeykens, Stefan
year 2011
title Using 3D Design Software, BIM and Game Engines for Architectural Historical Reconstruction
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 493-509.
summary The use of digital tools has become a tremendous aid in the creation of digital, historical reconstructions of architectural projects. Regular visualization techniques have been used for quite some time and they still pose interesting approaches, such as following cinematic techniques [1]. While common visualizations focus on pre-rendered graphics, it is possible to apply Game Engines [2] for real-time architectural visualization, as witnessed by [3] and [4]. In the course of our teaching and research efforts, we have collected experience with several visualization and modeling techniques, including the use of gaming engines. While the modeling of qualitative geometry for use in regular visualization already poses an elaborate effort, the preparation of models for different uses is often not trivial. Most modeling systems only support the creation of models for a single amount of detail, whereas an optimized model for a real-time system will have fairly different constraints when compared to non-real-time models for photorealistic rendering and animation. The use of parametric methods is one usable approach to tackle this complexity, as illustrated in [4]. One of the major advantages of using parametric approaches lies precisely in the possibility of using a single model to generate different geometry with control over the amount of detail. We explicitly tackle this in a Building Information Modeling (BIM) context, as to support much more than purely 3D geometry and visualization purposes. An integrated approach allows the same model to be used for technical drawings in 2D and an optimized 3D model in varying levels of detail for different visualization purposes. However, while most Building Information Modeling applications are targeted to current architectural practice, they seldom provide sufficient content for the recreation of historical models. This thus requires an extensive library of parametric, custom objects to be used and re-used for historically accurate models, which can serve multiple purposes. Finally, the approach towards the historical resources also poses interpretation problems, which we tackled using a reasonably straightforward set up of an information database, collecting facts and accuracies. This helps in the visualization of color-coded 3D models, depicting the accuracy of the model, which is a valuable graphical approach to discuss and communicate information about the historical study in an appealing format. This article will present the results of different reconstruction case studies, using a variety of design applications and discuss the inherent complexity and limitations in the process of translating an active, evolving model into an environment suitable for use in a real-time system. Especially workflow issues are identified, as the translation of the model into the game engine should be repeated several times, when the model is further refined and adapted. This used to involve a large amount of repetitive work, but the current crop of game engines have much better approaches to manage the updating of the geometry.
keywords Real-time architecture, game engines, cultural heritage, digital reconstruction, parametric modeling, Building Information Modeling
series CAAD Futures
email stefan.boeykens@asro.kuleuven.be
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p135
id cf2011_p135
authors Chen Rui, Irene; Schnabel Marc Aurel
year 2011
title Multi-touch - the future of design interaction
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 557-572.
summary The next major revolution for design is to bring the natural user interaction into design activities. Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) brought a new approach that was more effective compared to their conventional predecessors. In recent years, Natural User Interfaces (NUI) have advanced user experiences and multi-touch and gesture technologies provide new opportunities for a variety of potential uses in design. Much attention has been paid to leverage in the design of interactive interfaces. The mouse input and desktop screen metaphors limit the information sharing for multiple users and also delayed the direct interaction for communication between each other. This paper proposes the innovative method by integrating game engine ‘Unity3D’ with multi-touch tangible interfaces. Unity3D provides a game development tool as part of its application package that has been designed to let users to focus on creating new games. However, it does not limit the usage of area to design additional game scenarios since the benefits of Unity3D is allowing users to build 3D environments with its customizable and easy to use editor, graphical pipelines to openGL (http://unity3d.com/, 2010 ). It creates Virtual Reality (VR) environments which can simulates places in the real world, as well as the virtual environments helping architects and designers to vividly represent their design concepts through 3D visualizations, and interactive media installations in a detailed multi-sensory experience. Stereoscopic displays advanced their spatial ability while solving issues to design e.g. urban spaces. The paper presents how a multi-touch tabletop can be used for these design collaboration and communication tasks. By using natural gestures, designers can now communicate and share their ideas by manipulating the same reference simultaneously using their own input simultaneously. Further studies showed that 3Dl forms are perceived and understood more readily through haptic and proprioceptive perception of tangible representations than through visual representation alone (Gillet et al, 2005). Based on the authors’ framework presented at the last CAADFutures, the benefits of integrating 3D visualization and tactile sensory can be illustrated in this platform (Chen and Wang, 2009), For instance, more than one designer can manipulate the 3D geometry objects on tabletop directly and can communicate successfully their ideas freely without having to waiting for the next person response. It made the work more effective which increases the overall efficiency. Designers can also collect the real-time data by any change they make instantly. The possibilities of Uniy3D make designing very flexible and fun, it is deeply engaging and expressive. Furthermore, the unity3D is revolutionizing the game development industry, its breakthrough development platform for creating highly interactive 3D content on the web (http://unity3d.com/ , 2010) or similar to the interface of modern multimedia devices such as the iPhone, therefore it allows the designers to work remotely in a collaborative way to integrate the design process by using the individual mobile devices while interacting design in a common platform. In design activities, people create an external representation of a domain, often of their own ideas and understanding. This platform helps learners to make their ideas concrete and explicit, and once externalized, subsequently they reflect upon their work how well it sits the real situation. The paper demonstrates how this tabletop innovatively replaces the typical desktop metaphor. In summary, the paper addresses two major issues through samples of collaborative design: firstly presenting aspects of learners’ interactions with physical objects, whereby tangible interfaces enables them constructing expressive representations passively (Marshall, 2007), while focussing on other tasks; and secondly showing how this novel design tool allows designers to actively create constructions that might not be possible with conventional media.
keywords Multi-touch tabletop, Tangible User Interface
series CAAD Futures
email rui.chen@sydney.edu.au
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id sigradi2011_391
id sigradi2011_391
authors Claro, Ana Julia
year 2011
title Herramientas digitales para la ideación y desarrollo de formas complejas [Digital tools for conception and development of complex forms]
source SIGraDi 2011 [Proceedings of the 15th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Argentina - Santa Fe 16-18 November 2011, pp. 197-200
summary The aim of this investigation is to study the connection between geometry and architecture, nowadays strongly stimulated by the use of digital tools, design and fabrication. At the same time, it expresses the need to develop interdisciplinary processes when analyzing the conception and construction of complex forms in the architecture, focusing on creating a computer application in charge of the unfold of NURBS surfaces, carried out for this study.
series SIGRADI
email anajuliaclaro@hotmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:49

_id ecaade2011_020
id ecaade2011_020
authors de la Barrera Poblete, Carlos Ignacio
year 2011
title Evolutionary Strategy to Design Optimized Architecture
source RESPECTING FRAGILE PLACES [29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-9-4912070-1-3], University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture (Slovenia) 21-24 September 2011, pp.293-301
summary The purpose of the present experiment consists in optimizing a building modifying its apertures (windows) and its geometry to reduce heating and air conditioning consumption. The optimization is performed using a Micro-Genetic Algorithm (Micro-GAs) programmed in C# embedded like a series of functions into GenerativeComponents (GC). EnergyPlus (E+) software is used to evaluate the HVAC consumption levels of the building. The aim of the optimization is to keep the temperature at 20ºC on the hottest and coldest day using the least possible energy (Jules). In conclusion, this article proposes a new technique based on parametric modelling, evaluation and evolutionary optimization to generate efficient buildings with HVAC consumptions.
wos WOS:000335665500033
keywords Optimization; Parametric design; Genetic Algorithms; Energy Consumption; Architecture
series eCAADe
email cidelab@gmail.com
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ecaade2011_036
id ecaade2011_036
authors Gmelin, Sebastian; Agger, Kristian; Lassen, Michael Henry
year 2011
title Simulation Design Tools: Using Parametric Building Information Modeling and Physical Simulation for Form Finding of Double Curved Surfaces
source RESPECTING FRAGILE PLACES [29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-9-4912070-1-3], University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture (Slovenia) 21-24 September 2011, pp.215-224
summary Parametric modeling is a powerful tool to create variations of a design following specified criteria. Physical modeling provides flexible relationships between design elements and can simulate the behavior of hanging chain models. Building Information Modeling can contain geometry and design properties and relations. In this paper it is proposed to join all three to create a Simulation Design Tool that allows the intuitive creation of double curved surfaces which follow the rules of funicular systems. This tool is implemented in B-Processor, open-source Building Information Modeling software to bridge the break that occurs when moving from a design software package to Building Information Modeling. It is shown how the tool balances intuitive sculpting and accurate simulation and how the user can interact to mediate different design requirements.
wos WOS:000335665500024
keywords Form Finding; Parametric Building Information Modeling; B-Processor; Particle Spring System; Grid Shell
series eCAADe
email sebastian@gmelin.li
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

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