CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id cf2011_p024
id cf2011_p024
authors Tidafi, Temy; Charbonneau Nathalie, Khalili-Araghi Salman
year 2011
title Backtracking Decisions within a Design Process: a Way of Enhancing the Designer's Thought Process and Creativity
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 573-587.
summary This paper proposes a way computer sciences could contribute to stimulate the designer’s reflexive thought. We explore the possibility of making use of backtracking devices in order to formalize the designer’s thought process. Design, as a process of creating an object, cannot be represented by means of a linear timeline. Accordingly, the backtracking processes we are discussing here are not based on a linear model but rather on a non-linear structure. Beyond the notion of undoing and redoing commands within CAD packages, the backtracking process is seen as a way to explore and record several alternate options. The branches of the non-linear model can be seen as pathways made of sequential decisions. The designer creates and explores these pathways while making tentative moves towards an architectural solution. Within the design process, backtracking enables the designer to establish and act on a network of interrelated decisions. This notion is fundamental. It is quite obvious that information, in order to be meaningful, must occupy a specific place within an informational network. A data, separated from its context, is devoid of interest. By the same token, a decision takes on significance solely in combination with other decisions. In this paper, we examine what kinds of decisions are involved within a design process, how they are connected, and what could be the best ways to formalize the relationships. Our goal is to experiment ways that could enable the designer and his/her collaborators to get a clearer mental picture of the network of decisions aforementioned. The non-linear model can be seen as a graph structure. The user moves wherever he/she wants through the branches of the structure to establish the network of decisions or to get reacquainted with a previous design process. As a matter of fact, it can act in both ways: to reassess or to confirm a decision. On the one hand, the designer can go back to previous states, reconsider past choices, and eventually modify them. On the other hand, he/she can move forward and revisit a given sequence of decisions, so as to recapture the essence of a previous design process. It goes without saying that knowledge regarding the design process is constructed by the designer from his/her own experiences. Since the designer’s perception evolves as time goes by, the network of decisions constitutes a model that is continuously questioned and restructured. The designer does not elaborate solely an architectural object, but also an evolving model formalizing the way he/she achieved his/her aim. As Le Moigne (1995) pointed out, the model itself produces knowledge; afterwards, the designer can examine it so as to get a clearer mental picture of his/her own cognitive processes. Furthermore, it can be used by his/her collaborators in order to understand which thread of ideas led the designer to a given visual result, and eventually resume or reorient the design process. In addition to reflecting on the ideological implications inherent to this questioning, we take into account the feasibility of such a research project. From a more technical point of view, in this paper we will describe how we plane to take up the challenge of elaborating a digital environment enabling backtracking processes within graph structures. Furthermore, we will explain how we plane to test the first trial version of the new environment with potential users so as to observe how they respond to it. These experiments will be conducted in order to verify to what extend the methods we are proposing are able to i) enhance the designer’s creativity and ii) increase our understanding of designer’s thought process.
keywords backtracking, design process, digital environments, problem space, network of decisions, graph structure.
series CAAD Futures
email temy.tidafi@umontreal.ca
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p051
id cf2011_p051
authors Cote, Pierre; Mohamed-Ahmed Ashraf, Tremblay Sebastien
year 2011
title A Quantitative Method to Compare the Impact of Design Mediums on the Architectural Ideation Process.
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 539-556.
summary If we compare the architectural design process to a black box system, we can assume that we now know quite well both inputs and outputs of the system. Indeed, everything about the early project either feasibility studies, programming, context integration, site analysis (urban, rural or natural), as well as the integration of participants in a collaborative process can all be considered to initiate and sustain the architectural design and ideation process. Similarly, outputs from that process are also, and to some extent, well known and identifiable. We are referring here, among others, to the project representations or even to the concrete building construction and its post-evaluation. But what about the black box itself that produces the ideation. This is the question that attempts to answer the research. Currently, very few research works linger to identify how the human brain accomplishes those tasks; how to identify the cognitive functions that are playing this role; to what extent they operate and complement each other, and among other things, whether there possibly a chain of causality between these functions. Therefore, this study proposes to define a model that reflects the activity of the black box based on the cognitive activity of the human brain. From an extensive literature review, two cognitive functions have been identified and are investigated to account for some of the complex cognitive activity that occurs during a design process, namely the mental workload and mental imagery. These two variables are measured quantitatively in the context of real design task. Essentially, the mental load is measured using a Bakan's test and the mental imagery with eyes tracking. The statistical software G-Power was used to identify the necessary subject number to obtain for significant variance and correlation result analysis. Thus, in the context of an exploratory research, to ensure effective sample of 0.25 and a statistical power of 0.80, 32 participants are needed. All these participants are students from 3rd, 4th or 5th grade in architecture. They are also very familiar with the architectural design process and the design mediums used, i.e., analog model, freehand drawing and CAD software, SketchUp. In three experimental sessions, participants were asked to design three different projects, namely, a bus shelter, a recycling station and a public toilet. These projects were selected and defined for their complexity similarity, taking into account the available time of 22 minutes, using all three mediums of design, and this in a randomly manner to avoid the order effect. To analyze the two cognitive functions (mental load and mental imagery), two instruments are used. Mental imagery is measured using eye movement tracking with monitoring and quantitative analysis of scan paths and the resulting number and duration of participant eye fixations (Johansson et al, 2005). The mental workload is measured using the performance of a modality hearing secondary task inspired by Bakan'sworks (Bakan et al.; 1963). Each of these three experimental sessions, lasting 90 minutes, was composed of two phases: 1. After calibrating the glasses for eye movement, the subject had to exercise freely for 3 minutes while wearing the glasses and headphones (Bakan task) to get use to the wearing hardware. Then, after reading the guidelines and criteria for the design project (± 5 minutes), he had 22 minutes to execute the design task on a drawing table allowing an upright posture. Once the task is completed, the subject had to take the NASA TLX Test, on the assessment of mental load (± 5 minutes) and a written post-experimental questionnaire on his impressions of the experiment (± 10 minutes). 2. After a break of 5-10 minutes, the participant answered a psychometric test, which is different for each session. These tests (± 20 minutes) are administered in the same order to each participant. Thus, in the first experimental session, the subject had to take the psychometric test from Ekstrom et al. (1978), on spatial performance (Factor-Referenced Cognitive Tests Kit). During the second session, the cognitive style is evaluated using Oltman's test (1971). Finally, in the third and final session, participant creativity is evaluated using Delis-Kaplan test (D-KEFS), Delis et al. (2001). Thus, this study will present the first results of quantitative measures to establish and validate the proposed model. Furthermore, the paper will also discuss the relevance of the proposed approach, considering that currently teaching of ideation in ours schools of architecture in North America is essentially done in a holistic manner through the architectural project.
keywords design, ideation process, mental workload, mental imagery, quantitative mesure
series CAAD Futures
email pierre.cote@arc.ulaval.ca
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id sigradi2012_333
id sigradi2012_333
authors da Silva, Isabelle Maria Mensato; Viz, Simone Helena Tanoue
year 2012
title Ensino de Arquitetura e Urbanismo com auxilio de ferramentas digitais [Teaching Architecture and Urbanism with help of digital tools]
source SIGraDi 2012 [Proceedings of the 16th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Brasil - Fortaleza 13-16 November 2012, pp. 522-526
summary This article aims to discuss the importance of freehand drawings in the architectural projective process in the context of the digital age, through the use of tablets. It is intended to identify how these drawings, using tablets, keep the perception and the personal dash of each one. This research aims not only to review and update the drawing´s disciplines in the architecture courses - its practices and procedures - but also to discuss the actual role of representation - analogical or digital - and its interaction with others disciplines. The first research, done in 2011, indicated possibilities of interface with CAD, Revit and Sketch-up. The second part, in course in this year, 2012, is trying to experiment the use of tablets in three others disciplines: History of Architecture and Urbanism I, Landscaping and Project I, in the Instituto de Arquitetura e Urbanismo da USP, São Carlos, Brasil.
keywords freehand drawing, graphic, tablet, digital media
series SIGRADI
email isabelle.maria.silva@usp.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:50

_id cf2011_p147
id cf2011_p147
authors Erbas, Irem; Bittermann Michael, Stouffs Rudi
year 2011
title Use of a Knowledge Model for Integrated Performance Evaluation for Housing (re)design Towards Environmental Sustainability: A Case Study
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 281-296.
summary This paper focuses on the development of a knowledge model in the context of energy efficiency and indoor climate interventions, their impacts on each other and on architectural design preferences (for instance architectural expression or any spatial functionality aspect) via an existing house case study. In addition, it attempts to discuss how this type of model can be a reference for a decision support tool and be applied to the (re)design of dwellings. The model is considered to provide an integral knowledge base for the design professional both to evaluate existing designs and to use it as a support during design and decision making in order to reach the best possible solution, with optimal performance in terms of indoor comfort, energy-efficiency and overall design performance. In other words, its aim is to enable the assessment of the performance of the end result with respect to design choices, beforehand. In this paper, design performance is modeled by means of fuzzy logic operations. It is a method to deal with subjective and vague requirements such as low energy consumption, low overheating risk, high comfort, etc. The method of intelligent information processing is explained and a partial application is presented.
keywords energy efficiency, indoor comfort, design decision support, knowledge modeling, performance evaluation
series CAAD Futures
email i.erbas@tudelft.nl
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id sigradi2011_193
id sigradi2011_193
authors Garagnani, Simone; Mingucci, Roberto
year 2011
title A.I.M. Informative Archives for architectural renovation
source SIGraDi 2011 [Proceedings of the 15th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Argentina - Santa Fe 16-18 November 2011, pp. 94-97
summary The information technology applied to the architectural surveys makes the environment documentation pos- sible through multimedia data, which can be processed using a "Multimedia Informative Archive" (A.I.M.), designed for Institutions interested in cultural heritage preservation. An A.I.M. system can manage analytical information embedded into digital databases, referencing a visual exploration path to several technical data, documenting the context in which a monument, or an historical building, is placed. The framework can be ported to mobile devices in order to allow a wide number of data gathering stations, connected to the same central archive, making easier browsing and storing architectural information.
keywords Digital 3D modeling; architectural information technology; virtual heritage documentation; multimedial building database; immersive data modeling
series SIGRADI
email simone.garagnani@unibo.it
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id cf2011_p027
id cf2011_p027
authors Herssens, Jasmien; Heylighen Ann
year 2011
title A Framework of Haptic Design Parameters for Architects: Sensory Paradox Between Content and Representation
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 685-700.
summary Architects—like other designers—tend to think, know and work in a visual way. In design research, this way of knowing and working is highly valued as paramount to design expertise (Cross 1982, 2006). In case of architecture, however, it is not only a particular strength, but may as well be regarded as a serious weakness. The absence of non-visual features in traditional architectural spatial representations indicates how these are disregarded as important elements in conceiving space (Dischinger 2006). This bias towards vision, and the suppression of other senses—in the way architecture is conceived, taught and critiqued—results in a disappearance of sensory qualities (Pallasmaa 2005). Nevertheless, if architects design with more attention to non visual senses, they are able to contribute to more inclusive environments. Indeed if an environment offers a range of sensory triggers, people with different sensory capacities are able to navigate and enjoy it. Rather than implementing as many sensory triggers as possible, the intention is to make buildings and spaces accessible and enjoyable for more people, in line with the objective of inclusive design (Clarkson et al. 2007), also called Design for All or Universal Design (Ostroff 2001). Within this overall objective, the aim of our study is to develop haptic design parameters that support architects during design in paying more attention to the role of haptics, i.e. the sense of touch, in the built environment by informing them about the haptic implications of their design decisions. In the context of our study, haptic design parameters are defined as variables that can be decided upon by designers throughout the design process, and the value of which determines the haptic characteristics of the resulting design. These characteristics are based on the expertise of people who are congenitally blind, as they are more attentive to non visual information, and of professional caregivers working with them. The parameters do not intend to be prescriptive, nor to impose a particular method. Instead they seek to facilitate a more inclusive design attitude by informing designers and helping them to think differently. As the insights from the empirical studies with people born blind and caregivers have been reported elsewhere (Authors 2010), this paper starts by outlining the haptic design parameters resulting from them. Following the classification of haptics into active, dynamic and passive touch, the built environment unfolds into surfaces that can act as “movement”, “guiding” and/or “rest” plane. Furthermore design techniques are suggested to check the haptic qualities during the design process. Subsequently, the paper reports on a focus group interview/workshop with professional architects to assess the usability of the haptic design parameters for design practice. The architects were then asked to try out the parameters in the context of a concrete design project. The reactions suggest that the participating architects immediately picked up the underlying idea of the parameters, and recognized their relevance in relation to the design project at stake, but that their representation confronts us with a sensory paradox: although the parameters question the impact of the visual in architectural design, they are meant to be used by designers, who are used to think, know and work in a visual way.
keywords blindness, design parameters, haptics, inclusive design, vision
series CAAD Futures
email jherssens@gmail.com
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id caadria2011_010
id caadria2011_010
authors Jowers, Iestyn; Miquel Prats, Nieves Pedreira, Alison Mcay and Steve Garner
year 2011
title Supporting shape reinterpretation with eye tracking
source Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / The University of Newcastle, Australia 27-29 April 2011, pp. 101-110
summary It has been argued that reinterpretation is an essential process in design generation and idea exploration. However, computational design tools, such as computer-aided design systems, offer poor support for shape reinterpretation, and as such are not well suited to ideation in conceptual design. One of the key difficulties in implementing computational systems that support shape reinterpretation is the issue of interface – how can a user intuitively guide a system with respect to their interpretation of a designed shape? In this paper, a software prototype is presented that uses an eye tracking interface to support reinterpretation of shapes according to recognised subshapes. The prototype is based on eye tracking studies, and uses gaze data and user input to restructure designed shapes so that they afford manipulation according to users’ interpretations.
keywords Eye tracking; shape interpretation; computer-aided design; design generation; design exploration
series CAADRIA
email i.jowers@leeds.ac.uk
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id ecaade2012_046
id ecaade2012_046
authors Juvancic, Matevz ; Zupancic, Tadeja
year 2012
title Evaluation system for Content and Language Integrated Learning in Architecture Using Immersive Environments
source Achten, Henri; Pavlicek, Jiri; Hulin, Jaroslav; Matejovska, Dana (eds.), Digital Physicality - Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1 / ISBN 978-9-4912070-2-0, Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture (Czech Republic) 12-14 September 2012, pp. 115-123
summary Based on the experience from EU project ARCHI21 (Hunter et al, 2011) and long-term commitment to research of architectural presentations and educational approaches to expert and non-expert public (i.e. Juvancic, Mullins & Zupancic, 2012), the paper aims to clarify the terms used in CLIL-architecture context, identify the variables that have, in practice so far, proven to infl uence the learning outcome and learning experience both in architectural and language sense, and systematize the findings into the useful system. The result can be envisioned as the potential ‘ladder of the CLIL & architecture integration‘. The system would be of help to anyone trying to integrate language learning at different stages of architectural education, pointing out the required fundamentals, predicting the possible learning outcomes or benchmarking them after the experience. The basic terms/variables divided into three major infl uencing groups - competence, work environment and course settings - are described first, proceeded with the scheme connecting them into the system and two actual examples ‘run’ through the matrix for illustrative purposes. The paper also looks specifi cally into the use of different immersive environments and digital communication tools for teaching the architecture/design–other language combination and adapts the system to this segment, while also briefly comments on learners and teachers responses to CLIL-architecture integration.
wos WOS:000330322400011
keywords Architecture; immersive environments; CLIL; evaluation; teaching; Archi21
series eCAADe
email matevz.juvancic@fa.uni-lj.si
last changed 2014/04/14 11:07

_id cf2011_p018
id cf2011_p018
authors Sokmenoglu, Ahu; Cagdas Gulen, Sariyildiz Sevil
year 2011
title A Multi-dimensional Exploration of Urban Attributes by Data Mining
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 333-350.
summary The paper which is proposed here will introduce an ongoing research project aiming to research data mining as a methodology of knowledge discovery in urban feature analysis. To address the increasing multi-dimensional and relational complexity of urban environments requires a multidisciplinary approach to urban analysis. This research is an attempt to establish a link between knowledge discovery methodologies and automated urban feature analysis. Therefore, in the scope of this research we apply data mining methodologies for urban analysis. Data mining is defined as to extract important patterns and trends from raw data (Witten and Frank, 2005). When applied to discover relationships between urban attributes, data mining can constitute a methodology for the analysis of multi-dimensional relational complexity of urban environments (Gil, Montenegro, Beirao and Duarte, 2009) The theoretical motivation of the research is derived by the lack of explanatory urban knowledge which is an issue since 1970’s in the area of urban research. This situation is mostly associated with deductive methods of analysis. The analysis of urban system from the perspective of few interrelated factors, without considering the multi-dimensionality of the system in a deductive fashion was not been explanatory enough. (Jacobs, 1961, Lefebvre, 1970 Harvey, 1973) To address the multi-dimensional and relational complexity of urban environments requires the consideration of diverse spatial, social, economic, cultural, morphological, environmental, political etc. features of urban entities. The main claim is that, in urban analysis, there is a need to advance from traditional one dimensional (Marshall, 2004) description and classification of urban forms (e.g. Land-use maps, Density maps) to the consideration of the simultaneous multi-dimensionality of urban systems. For this purpose, this research proposes a methodology consisting of the application of data mining as a knowledge discovery method into a GIS based conceptual urban database built out of official real data of Beyoglu. Generally, the proposed methodology is a framework for representing and analyzing urban entities represented as objects with properties (attributes). It concerns the formulation of an urban entity’s database based on both available and non-available (constructed from available data) data, and then data mining of spatial and non-spatial attributes of the urban entities. Location or position is the primary reference basis for the data that is describing urban entities. Urban entities are; building floors, buildings, building blocks, streets, geographically defined districts and neighborhoods etc. Urban attributes are district properties of locations (such as land-use, land value, slope, view and so forth) that change from one location to another. Every basic urban entity is unique in terms of its attributes. All the available qualitative and quantitative attributes that is relavant (in the mind of the analyst) and appropriate for encoding, can be coded inside the computer representation of the basic urban entity. Our methodology is applied by using the real and official, the most complex, complete and up-to-dataset of Beyoglu (a historical neighborhood of Istanbul) that is provided by the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (IBB). Basically, in our research, data mining in the context of urban data is introduced as a computer based, data-driven, context-specific approach for supporting analysis of urban systems without relying on any existing theories. Data mining in the context of urban data; • Can help in the design process by providing site-specific insight through deeper understanding of urban data. • Can produce results that can assist architects and urban planners at design, policy and strategy levels. • Can constitute a robust scientific base for rule definition in urban simulation applications such as urban growth prediction systems, land-use simulation models etc. In the paper, firstly we will present the framework of our research with an emphasis on its theoretical background. Afterwards we will introduce our methodology in detail and finally we will present some of important results of data mining analysis processed in Rapid Miner open-source software. Specifically, our research define a general framework for knowledge discovery in urban feature analysis and enable the usage of GIS and data mining as complementary applications in urban feature analysis. Acknowledgments I would like to thank to Nuffic, the Netherlands Organization for International Cooperation in Higher Education, for funding of this research. I would like to thank Ceyhun Burak Akgul for his support in Data Mining and to H. Serdar Kaya for his support in GIS.
keywords urban feature analysis, data mining, urban database, urban complexity, GIS
series CAAD Futures
email ahusokmenoglu@yahoo.com
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id acadia11_22
id acadia11_22
authors Taron, Joshua M
year 2011
title On the Integrative Program
source ACADIA 11: Integration through Computation [Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA)] [ISBN 978-1-6136-4595-6] Banff (Alberta) 13-16 October, 2011, pp. 22-25
summary The ACADIA 2011 conference, “integration through computation,” constitutes the latest achievements in architectural research toward the integrative program. This program is one in which “methods, processes, and techniques are discovered, appropriated, adapted, and altered from ‘elsewhere,’ and often ‘digitally’ pursued.” As such, integrative violence presents itself as the empowering agent for research that employs computation toward purposefully violating boundaries, hybridizing processes and instrumentalizing nature in the name of architecture. It is at once easy and impossible to imagine the extraordinary power necessary to undertake such a task, yet we find ourselves thoroughly immersed in processes that exploit the world as we know it so that we might be able to design worlds that have not yet been imagined. But what makes the integrative program possible, how is it administered, and what constitutes “an effective digital exchange of information?” While the best answers to these questions lie in the research presented and projects exhibited at this conference, I’d like to take a moment to examine how the integrative program operates and how its operation has evolved programmatic violence.
keywords integrative design; program; violence; biopolitics; architecture
series ACADIA
type introduction
email jmtaron@ucalgary.ca
last changed 2011/10/06 04:05

_id cf2011_p047
id cf2011_p047
authors Vermeersch, Peter-Willem; Nijs Greg, Heylighen Ann
year 2011
title Mediating Objects in Architectural Design: a Non-Visual Exploration
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 721-734.
summary Through their daily interactions with the built environment, people with disabilities become able to appreciate spatial qualities or detect obstacles that architects may not be attuned to. This observation motivated us to explore scenarios for involving people with sensory disabilities as experts in the design process. An architecture office participating in a real-world design competition is teamed up with two blind persons. The design process is studied in real time through a team ethnography. The analysis in this paper focuses on the mediating aspects of objects in the actions, perception and cognition in one collaborative design meeting in particular. In general, disability situations can teach us something about fixed ways of doing by making perceivable, or questioning practices that seem self-evident. In this particular situation, the blind person’s involvement in a design meeting that relies heavily on representational artifacts, makes perceivable or questions everyday practices in architects’ design process that are taken for granted. Examples include knowing and indicating to others where design elements are on the site, knowing what design element is being talked about, holding the element and its environment ‘in place’, or spatially exploring the design’s spatial configuration. As such, our study shows that exploring inclusivity ‘upstream’, i.e. in the design process, may contribute not only to inclusive design, but also to a more articulate understanding of the working of mediating objects and their use in architects’ design processes tout court.
keywords architectural design, blindness, disability, participant observation, users
series CAAD Futures
email peterwillem.vermeersch@asro.kuleuven.be
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p092
id cf2011_p092
authors Bittermann, Michael S.
year 2011
title Sustainable Conceptual Building Design using a Cognitive System
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 297-314.
summary A cognitive system for conceptual building design is presented. It is based on an adaptive multi-objective evolutionary algorithm. The adaptive approach is novel and, in contrast with conventional multi-objective evolutionary algorithms, it explores the solution space effectively, while maintaining diversity among the solutions. The suitability of the approach for conceptual design of a multi-purpose building complex is demonstrated in an application. In the application, the goal of maximizing sustainability is treated by means of a model, which is established using neural computations. The approach is found to be suitable for treating the soft nature of the sustainability concept. Also, the capability of the approach to compare the performance of alternative solutions from an unbiased viewpoint, i.e. without committing a-priori to a relative importance among the performance aspects, is demonstrated.
keywords computational design, sustainable design, adaptive evolutionary algorithm, Pareto optimality, neural computation
series CAAD Futures
email m.s.bittermann@tudelft.nl
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id caadria2011_059
id caadria2011_059
authors Fischer, Thomas
year 2011
title One-behind-the-many metaphysics and the myriad things
source Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / The University of Newcastle, Australia 27-29 April 2011, pp. 623-632
summary In this paper I identify the metaphysical assumptions underlying much of the science, technology, education and design thinking practiced in contemporary CAAD research in Asia as a Western import. Citing some traditional Asian complements to such assumptions and offering an alternative model, I hope to enable a discussion about assumptions underlying our field as well as an awareness of different standards of thought and responsibility between which CAAD research in Asia may operate.
keywords CAAD philosophy; blueprint; general; particular
series CAADRIA
type normal paper
email tfischer@mail.ncku.edu.tw
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id acadia11_90
id acadia11_90
authors Fure, Adam
year 2011
title Digital Materiallurgy: On the productive force of deep codes and vital matter
source ACADIA 11: Integration through Computation [Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA)] [ISBN 978-1-6136-4595-6] Banff (Alberta) 13-16 October, 2011, pp. 90-97
summary This paper expands the discourse surrounding digital forms of making by scrutinizing the role of materials within computation, ultimately proposing a speculative working model that charts new territory. The growing importance of materials within technological research makes this an appropriate time to consider the nuance of their role within it. Currently, material innovation is happening along two central tracks: the customized cutting, sculpting, and forming of conventional materials with Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) fabrication equipment and the development of new materials through innovations in material science. Both tracks rely on a limited set of material protocols which enable process-based control and eliminate the intrusion of any unpredictable material variable. Although efficient, such an approach limits architecture’s ability to procure novel material engagements. A few designers are developing an alternative model where computational codes are coupled with eccentric materials to produce unusual results. Digital materiallurgy, as I have called it, is part technique and part attitude; it relies on intentionally ceding limited design control to unpredictable matter—thus capitalizing on matter’s innate ability to produce unexpected formal and material complexity. Digital materiallurgy identifies the intersection of computation and eccentric materiality as a departure point for architectural innovation. By purposefully inserting material heterogeneity and inconsistency into computational means and methods, this work pries apart the apparently seamless relationship between digital design and physical production. By blurring the distinction between physical material and digital form, this work offers an integrated aesthetic experience, one that fetishizes neither the virtual nor the vintage but fuses both into a richer, wilder present.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email afure@umich.edu
last changed 2011/10/06 04:05

_id acadiaregional2011_005
id acadiaregional2011_005
authors Griffiths, Jason
year 2011
title Repurposed Political Ply
source Parametricism (SPC) ACADIA Regional 2011 Conference Proceedings
summary This paper describes a building envelope that has been formed from recycled political campaign boards. It explores its formation as a deviation from one cycle of production and consumption (manufacture, implementation, removal and disposal of the campaign board) to another i.e. a re-purposed shade canopy.
series ACADIA
last changed 2011/07/08 09:17

_id acadia11_70
id acadia11_70
authors Gutierrez, Maria-Paz
year 2011
title Innovative Puzzles
source ACADIA 11: Integration through Computation [Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA)] [ISBN 978-1-6136-4595-6] Banff (Alberta) 13-16 October, 2011, pp. 70-71
summary Matter and information; information and matter. A puzzle unveiled little by little. Hardly surprising since every atom, molecule, and basic particle in the universe registers bits of information. All interactions between these components, inert and alive, owe their existence to matter’s intrinsic ability to process information. Such aptitude explains how complex systems can arise from fundamentally simple organizational laws. In fact, the world’s almost infinite material combinations, viable through such few basic elements, are one of the most visible expressions of these capabilities. Triggered by the developments in quantum physics across the twentieth century, our understanding of material processes radically shifted our impressions of the world. For decades our scales of perception and manipulation have continued to expand into almost unfathomable boundaries. Yet, the study of the interdependencies between matter and information is still fundamentally part of the sciences and engineering. Only just recently did architecture venture into this inherently intricate field. The subsequent set of papers here presented posit fundamental interrogations of potential interdependencies between matter and information. Without fear to confront the obstacles of delving into a largely unexplored field of architecture, these researchers forge new frontiers of interrelating computational parameters to multi-physics in the complex settings of architectural scale. Unlike other epistemologies, architecture cannot be reduced to a single scale of exploration. We can neither restrict scalar boundaries (i.e., nano to micro), nor reduce morphologies to simplify the processing of multiple physics without compromising the design problem. By default, it is more difficult to conceptually and numerically articulate the abstract and numerical criteria of complex geometries and material variables.
series ACADIA
type moderator overview
email mpazgut@berkeley.edu
last changed 2011/10/06 04:05

_id acadia11_44
id acadia11_44
authors Hertz, Garnet
year 2011
title Arduino Microcontrollers and The Queen’s Hamlet: Utilitarian and Hedonized DIY Practices in Contemporary Electronic Culture
source ACADIA 11: Integration through Computation [Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA)] [ISBN 978-1-6136-4595-6] Banff (Alberta) 13-16 October, 2011, pp. 44-47
summary In this paper, I will pull together concepts of utility-driven do-it-yourself (DIY) culture and pleasure-oriented DIY practice to investigate a significant trend in contemporary computing culture, the “maker” movement, typified by an interest in building personalized and handmade electronic devices with sensors, motors and lights, usually controlled by microcontrollers like the Arduino. My argument is that maker culture has been co-opted by consumer hobby culture, but this is not necessarily detrimental because it provides an important outlet for personal exploration, increases an understanding of how electronic media actually works and assists individuals to be actors in a culture that is increasingly complex, technological and digitized.
series ACADIA
type keynote paper
email garnethertz@gmail.com
last changed 2011/10/06 04:05

_id acadiaregional2011_015
id acadiaregional2011_015
authors Holland, Nate
year 2011
title Inform Form Perform
source Parametricism (SPC) ACADIA Regional 2011 Conference Proceedings
summary Architects have developed and employed parametric design strategies to both address these performance related concerns and improve their production. Though these strategies have improved architectural design, they are not being used to their full extent in the design process. I propose taking the use of computers in aiding architectural design one step further; information and data should INFORM the project, driving the creation of a building FORM enabling it to PERFORM at higher levels than traditional design.
series ACADIA
last changed 2011/07/08 09:17

_id cf2011_p110
id cf2011_p110
authors Mcmeel, Dermott
year 2011
title I think Therefore i-Phone: The influence of Pervasive Media on Collaboration and Multi-Disciplinary Group Work
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 69-84.
summary The study of value and its transfer during the multi-disciplinary process of design is stable fodder for research; an entire issue of Design Studies has been devoted to Values in the Design Process. By scrutinising design meetings Dantec (2009) and Ball (2009) separately examine the mechanisms of value transfer between the agents involved in design (clients, designers, engineers). Dantec suggests this is best understood in terms of requirement, values and narrative; Ball proposes it should be viewed as a combination of "analogical reasoning" and "environmental simulation". If we look at Vitruvius and his primary architectural manual (Pollio 1960) we find values‚Äîin the form of firmitas, utilitas and venustas‚Äîembedded in this early codification of architectural practice. However, as much current research is restricted to design practice what occurs when value frameworks move between domains of cultural activity (such as design to construction and vice-versa) is not privileged with a comparably sizable body of research. This paper is concerned with the ongoing usage of pervasive media and cellular phones within communications and value transfer across the disciplinary threshold of design and construction. Through participation in a building project we analyse the subtleties of interaction between analogue communication such as sketches and digitally sponsored communication such as e-mail and mobile phone usage. Analysing the communications between the designer and builder during construction suggests it is also a creative process and the distinctions between design and construction processes are complex and often blurred. This work provides an observational basis for understanding mobile computing as a dynamic ‚Äòtuning‚Äô device‚Äîas hypothesized by Richard Coyne (2010)‚Äîthat ameliorates the brittleness of communication between different disciplines. A follow up study deploys ‚Äòdigital fieldnotes‚Äô (dfn) a bespoke iPhone application designed to test further suppositions regarding the influence exerted upon group working by mobile computing. Within collaboration individual communiqu_©s have different levels of importance depending on the specific topic of discussion and the contributing participant. This project furthers the earlier study; expanding upon what mobile computing is and enabling us to infer how these emergent devices affect collaboration. Findings from these two investigations suggest that the synchronous and asynchronous clamour of analogue and digital tools that surround design and construction are not exclusively inefficiencies or disruptions to be expunged. Observational evidence suggests they may provide contingency and continue to have value attending to the relationship between static components‚Äîand the avoidance of failure‚Äîwithin a complex system such as design and construction.
keywords collaboration, design, mobile computing, digital media
series CAAD Futures
email d.mcmeel@auckland.ac.nz
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id acadiaregional2011_017
id acadiaregional2011_017
authors Narahara, Taro
year 2011
title Beyond Quantitative Simulations: Local Control Strategy Using Architectural Comonents
source Parametricism (SPC) ACADIA Regional 2011 Conference Proceedings
summary Design of universal components that can tolerate technological, environmental, and circumstantial changes over time is a challenge for an architect. In this paper, I would like to propose a scaled prototype of architectural components that can reconfigure themselves into globally functional configurations based on feedback from locally distributed intelligence embedded inside the component. The project aims at demonstrating a design system that can respond to dynamically changing environment over time without imposing a static blueprint of the structure in a top-down manner from the outset of design processes. The control of the subunits are governed by the logic of a distributed system simulated by the use of multiple microcontrollers, and appropriate geometrical configurations will be computationally derived based on physical-environmental criteria such as solar radiation from various sensors and social-programmatic issues. The system’s goal is to provide qualitatively optimum results through the use of quantified information acquired from surrounding environmental conditions.
series ACADIA
last changed 2011/07/08 09:17

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