CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id cf2011_p060
id cf2011_p060
authors Sheward, Hugo; Eastman Charles
year 2011
title Preliminary Concept Design (PCD) Tools for Laboratory Buildings, Automated Design Optimization and Assessment Embedded in Building Information Modeling (BIM) Tools.
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 451-476.
summary The design of laboratory buildings entails the implementation of a variety of design constraints such as building codes; design guidelines and technical requirements. The application of these requires from designers the derivation of data not explicitly available at early stages of design, at the same time there is no precise methodology to control the consistency, and accuracy of their application. Many of these constraints deal with providing secure environmental conditions for the activities inside laboratories and their repercussions both for the building occupants and population in general, these constraints mandate a strict control over the building’s Mechanical Equipment (MEP), in particular the Heating Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system. Due to the importance of these laboratory designers are expected to assess their designs not only according spatial relationships, but also design variables such as HVAC efficiency, air pressure hierarchies, operational costs, and the possible implications of their design decisions in the biological safety of the facility. At this point in time, there are no practical methods for making these assessments, without having constant interaction with HVAC specialists. The assessment of laboratory design variables, particularly those technical in nature, such as dimensioning of ducts or energy consumption are usually performed at late stages of design. They are performed by domain experts using data manually extracted from design information, with the addition of domain specific knowledge, the evaluation is done mostly through manual calculations or building simulations. In traditional practices most expert evaluations are performed once the architectural design have been completed, the turn around of the evaluation might take hours or days depending on the methods used by the engineer, therefore reducing the possibility for design alternatives evaluation. The results of these evaluations will give clues about sizing of the HVAC equipment, and might generate the need for design reformulations, causing higher development costs and time delays. Several efforts in the development of computational tools for automated design evaluation such as wheel chair accessibility (Han, Law, Latombe, Kunz, 2002) security and circulation (Eastman, 2009), and construction codes (ww.Corenet.gov.sg) have demonstrated the capabilities of rule or parameter based building assessment; several computer applications capable of supporting HVAC engineers in system designing for late concept or design development exist, but little has been done to assess the capabilities of computer applications to support laboratory design during architectural Preliminary Concept Design(PCD) (Trcka, Hensen, 2010). Developments in CAD technologies such as Building Information Modeling (BIM) have opened doors to formal explorations in generative design using rule based or parametric modeling [7]. BIM represents buildings as a collection of objects with their own geometry, attributes, and relations. BIM also allows for the definition of objects parametrically including their relation to other model objects. BIM has enabled the development of automated rule based building evaluation (Eastman, 2009). Most of contemporary BIM applications contemplate in their default user interfaces access to design constraints and object attribute manipulations. Some even allow for the application of rules over these. Such capabilities make BIM viable platforms for automation of design data derivation and for the implementation of generative based design assessment. In this paper we analyze the possibilities provided by contemporary BIM for implementing generative based design assessment in laboratory buildings. In this schema, domain specific knowledge is embedded in to the BIM system as to make explicit design metrics that can help designers and engineers to assess the performance of design alternatives. The implementation of generative design assessments during PCD can help designers and engineers to identify design issues early in the process, reducing the number of revisions and reconfigurations in later stages of design. And generally improving design performance.
keywords Heating ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC), Building Information Models (BIM), Generative Design Assessment
series CAAD Futures
email hshewardga3@gatech.edu
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p157
id cf2011_p157
authors Boton, Conrad; Kubicki Sylvain, Halin Gilles
year 2011
title Understanding Pre-Construction Simulation Activities to Adapt Visualization in 4D CAD Collaborative Tools
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 477-492.
summary Increasing productivity and efficiency is an important issue in the AEC field. This area is mainly characterized by fragmentation, heterogeneous teams with low lifetimes and many uncertainties. 4D CAD is one of the greatest innovations in recent years. It consists in linking a 3D model of the building with the works planning in order to simulate the construction evolution over time. 4D CAD can fill several needs from design to project management through constructivity analysis and tasks planning (Tommelein 2003). The literature shows that several applications have been proposed to improve the 4D CAD use (Chau et al. 2004; Lu et al. 2007; Seok & al. 2009). In addition, studies have shown the real impact of 4D CAD use in construction projects (Staub-French & Khanzode 2007; Dawood & Sika 2007). More recently, Mahalingam et al. (2010) showed that the collaborative use of 4D CAD is particularly useful during the pre-construction phase for comparing the constructability of working methods, for visually identifying conflicts and clashes (overlaps), and as visual tool for practitioners to discuss and to plan project progress. So the advantage of the 4D CAD collaborative use is demonstrated. Moreover, several studies have been conducted both in the scientific community and in the industrial world to improve it (Zhou et al. 2009; Kang et al. 2007). But an important need that remains in collaborative 4D CAD use in construction projects is about the adaptation of visualization to the users business needs. Indeed, construction projects have very specific characteristics (fragmentation, variable team, different roles from one project to another). Moreover, in the AEC field several visualization techniques can represent the same concept and actors choose one or another of these techniques according to their specific needs related to the task they have to perform. For example, the tasks planning may be represented by a Gantt chart or by a PERT network and the building elements can be depicted with a 3D model or a 2D plan. The classical view (3D + Gantt) proposed to all practitioners in the available 4D tools seems therefore not suiting the needs of all. So, our research is based on the hypothesis that adapting the visualization to individual business needs could significantly improve the collaboration. This work relies on previous ones and aim to develop a method 1) to choose the best suited views for performed tasks and 2) to compose adapted multiple views for each actor, that we call “business views”. We propose a 4 steps-method to compose business views. The first step identifies the users’ business needs, defining the individual practices performed by each actor, identifying his business tasks and his information needs. The second step identifies the visualization needs related to the identified business needs. For this purpose, the user’s interactions and visualization tasks are described. This enables choosing the most appropriate visualization techniques for each need (step 3). At this step, it is important to describe the visualization techniques and to be able to compare them. Therefore, we proposed a business view metamodel. The final step (step 4) selects the adapted views, defines the coordination mechanisms and the interaction principles in order to compose coordinated visualizations. A final step consists in a validation work to ensure that the composed views really match to the described business needs. This paper presents the latest version of the method and especially presents our latest works about its first and second steps. These include making more generic the business tasks description in order to be applicable within most of construction projects and enabling to make correspondence with visualization tasks.
keywords Pre-construction, Simulation, 4D CAD, Collaboration, Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Human-Computer Interface, Information visualization, Business view, Model driven engineering
series CAAD Futures
email conrad.boton@tudor.lu
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ecaade2012_251
id ecaade2012_251
authors Marqueto, Priscilla; Tramontano, Marcelo
year 2012
title Among Communities: The Collective Construction of Hybrid Spatialities Through Remote Communication
source Achten, Henri; Pavlicek, Jiri; Hulin, Jaroslav; Matejovska, Dana (eds.), Digital Physicality - Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2 / ISBN 978-9-4912070-3-7, Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture (Czech Republic) 12-14 September 2012, pp. 309-316
summary This paper presents considerations and refl ections based on experiments conducted in the course of cultural activities within the Hybrids Territories Project for Public Policies, fi nanced by FAPESP and in force at Nomads.usp since March 2011. Starting from previous experiences using classical methods of qualitative research, such as semi-structured interviews and questionnaires, other ways of approaching and understanding the complexity of urban and social realities were sought. The reflections here presented were formed from the trial of methodological procedures, derived from other fields of knowledge and practices already recurrent in some communities. The aim is to verify the limits and potentialities of previously tested procedures and instruments, structured through digital media, to understand the diversity of ways of living in social housing estates with housing units similar to each other and located in the outskirts of two different cities.
wos WOS:000330320600031
keywords Communication; digital media; communities; diversity; ways of living
series eCAADe
email marchetto@sc.usp.br
last changed 2014/04/14 11:07

_id cf2011_p115
id cf2011_p115
authors Pohl, Ingrid; Hirschberg Urs
year 2011
title Sensitive Voxel - A reactive tangible surface
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 525-538.
summary Haptic and tactile sensations, the active or passive exploration of our built surroundings through our sense of touch, give us a direct feeling and detailed information of space, a sense of architecture (Pallasmaa 2005). This paper presents the prototype of a reactive surface system, which focuses its output on the sense of touch. It explains how touch sensations influence the perception of architecture and discusses potential applications that might arise from such systems in the future. A growing number of projects demonstrate the strong impact of interaction design on the human senses and perception. They offer new ways of sensing and experiencing architectural space. But the majority of these interaction concepts focus on visual and auditory output-effects. The sense of touch is typically used as an input generator, but neglected as as a potential receiver of stimuli. With all the possibilities of sensors and micro-devices available nowadays, there is no longer a technical reason for this. It is possible to explore a much wider range of sense responding projects, to broaden the horizon of sensitive interaction concepts (Bullivant 2006). What if the surfaces of our surroundings can actively change the way it feels to touch them? What if things like walls and furniture get the ability to interactively respond to our touch? What new dimensions of communication and esthetic experience will open up when we conceive of tangibility in this bi-directional way? This paper presents a prototype system aimed at exploring these very questions. The prototype consists of a grid of tangible embedded cells, each one combining three kinds of actuators to produce divergent touch stimuli. All cells can be individually controlled from an interactive computer program. By providing a layering of different combinations and impulse intensities, the grid structure enables altering patterns of actuation. Thus it can be employed to explore a sort of individual touch aesthetic, for which - in order to differentiate it from established types of aesthetic experiences - we have created the term 'Euhaptics' (from the Greek ευ = good and άπτω = touch, finger). The possibility to mix a wide range of actuators leads to blending options of touch stimuli. The sense of touch has an expanded perception- spectrum, which can be exploited by this technically embedded superposition. The juxtaposed arrangement of identical multilayered cell-units offers blending and pattern effects of different touch-stimuli. It reveals an augmented form of interaction with surfaces and interactive material structures. The combination of impulses does not need to be fixed a priori; it can be adjusted during the process of use. Thus the sensation of touch can be made personally unique in its qualities. The application on architectural shapes and surfaces allows the user to feel the sensations in a holistic manner – potentially on the entire body. Hence the various dimensions of touch phenomena on the skin can be explored through empirical investigations by the prototype construction. The prototype system presented in the paper is limited in size and resolution, but its functionality suggests various directions of further development. In architectural applications, this new form of overlay may lead to create augmented environments that let inhabitants experience multimodal touch sensations. By interactively controlling the sensual patterns, such environments could get a unique “touch” for every person that inhabit them. But there may be further applications that go beyond the interactive configuration of comfort, possibly opening up new forms of communication for handicapped people or applications in medical and therapeutic fields (Grunwald 2001). The well-known influence of touch- sensations on human psychological processes and moreover their bodily implications suggest that there is a wide scope of beneficial utilisations yet to be investigated.
keywords Sensitive Voxel- A reactive tangible surface
series CAAD Futures
email inge@sbox.tugraz.at
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ecaade2011_047
id ecaade2011_047
authors Wiertelarz, Kathrin M.
year 2011
title An exploration in teaching architectural design for construction and fabrication
source RESPECTING FRAGILE PLACES [29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-9-4912070-1-3], University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture (Slovenia) 21-24 September 2011, pp.35-42
summary The intent of this paper is to examine experimental design methods in the field of architecture and their implementation in academic settings. The projects emerged during design research studio at the institute of digital design techniques at the university of Kassel and collaborative workshops with several institutes. The starting point of the teaching concept was a divergence from the usual methods and ways of thinking, allowing for new, innovative solutions to emergence during the design process. The main point was a development of novel spatial modules in coherence with material and structural considerations. The question of materiality becomes a crucial consideration. The characteristics of different materials used for models development did not just influenced geometrical possibilities but also intensify, explore and organize spatial and structural qualities of the projects.
wos WOS:000335665500002
keywords Research; Education and Practise; Generative and Parametric Digital Design Aids, Tools for Construction and Production
series eCAADe
email wiertelarz.kathrin@googlemail.com
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id cf2011_p109
id cf2011_p109
authors Abdelmohsen, Sherif; Lee Jinkook, Eastman Chuck
year 2011
title Automated Cost Analysis of Concept Design BIM Models
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 403-418.
summary AUTOMATED COST ANALYSIS OF CONCEPT DESIGN BIM MODELS Interoperability: BIM models and cost models This paper introduces the automated cost analysis developed for the General Services Administration (GSA) and the analysis results of a case study involving a concept design courthouse BIM model. The purpose of this study is to investigate interoperability issues related to integrating design and analysis tools; specifically BIM models and cost models. Previous efforts to generate cost estimates from BIM models have focused on developing two necessary but disjoint processes: 1) extracting accurate quantity take off data from BIM models, and 2) manipulating cost analysis results to provide informative feedback. Some recent efforts involve developing detailed definitions, enhanced IFC-based formats and in-house standards for assemblies that encompass building models (e.g. US Corps of Engineers). Some commercial applications enhance the level of detail associated to BIM objects with assembly descriptions to produce lightweight BIM models that can be used by different applications for various purposes (e.g. Autodesk for design review, Navisworks for scheduling, Innovaya for visual estimating, etc.). This study suggests the integration of design and analysis tools by means of managing all building data in one shared repository accessible to multiple domains in the AEC industry (Eastman, 1999; Eastman et al., 2008; authors, 2010). Our approach aims at providing an integrated platform that incorporates a quantity take off extraction method from IFC models, a cost analysis model, and a comprehensive cost reporting scheme, using the Solibri Model Checker (SMC) development environment. Approach As part of the effort to improve the performance of federal buildings, GSA evaluates concept design alternatives based on their compliance with specific requirements, including cost analysis. Two basic challenges emerge in the process of automating cost analysis for BIM models: 1) At this early concept design stage, only minimal information is available to produce a reliable analysis, such as space names and areas, and building gross area, 2) design alternatives share a lot of programmatic requirements such as location, functional spaces and other data. It is thus crucial to integrate other factors that contribute to substantial cost differences such as perimeter, and exterior wall and roof areas. These are extracted from BIM models using IFC data and input through XML into the Parametric Cost Engineering System (PACES, 2010) software to generate cost analysis reports. PACES uses this limited dataset at a conceptual stage and RSMeans (2010) data to infer cost assemblies at different levels of detail. Functionalities Cost model import module The cost model import module has three main functionalities: generating the input dataset necessary for the cost model, performing a semantic mapping between building type specific names and name aggregation structures in PACES known as functional space areas (FSAs), and managing cost data external to the BIM model, such as location and construction duration. The module computes building data such as footprint, gross area, perimeter, external wall and roof area and building space areas. This data is generated through SMC in the form of an XML file and imported into PACES. Reporting module The reporting module uses the cost report generated by PACES to develop a comprehensive report in the form of an excel spreadsheet. This report consists of a systems-elemental estimate that shows the main systems of the building in terms of UniFormat categories, escalation, markups, overhead and conditions, a UniFormat Level III report, and a cost breakdown that provides a summary of material, equipment, labor and total costs. Building parameters are integrated in the report to provide insight on the variations among design alternatives.
keywords building information modeling, interoperability, cost analysis, IFC
series CAAD Futures
email sherif.morad@gatech.edu
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ijac201310105
id ijac201310105
authors Agkathidis, Asterios and Andre_ Brown
year 2013
title Tree-Structure Canopy:A Case Study in Design and Fabrication of Complex Steel Structures using Digital Tools
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 11 - no. 1, 87-104
summary This paper describes and reflects on the design and manufacturing process of the Tree-Structure canopy for the WestendGate Tower in Frankfurt upon Main, completed early 2011.The project investigated fabrication and assembly principles of complex steel structures as well as the integration of contemporary computational design, engineering, optimization and simulation techniques in a collaborative design approach. This paper focuses on the notion of modular standardization as opposed to non standard customized components. It also engages with issues relating to digital production tools and their impact on construction cost, material performance and tolerances. In addition it examines the reconfiguration of liability during a planning and construction process, an aspect which can be strongly determined by fabrication companies rather than the architect or designer.This paper is written as a reflection on the complete building process when contemporary digital tools are used from design through to fabrication. It studies both the generation of the steel structure as well the ETFE cushion skin. It reports on a collaborative project, where the main author was responsible for the canopies design, parameterization, digitalization and fabrication, as well as for the dissemination of the outcomes and findings during the design and realization process.As such it represents an example of research through design in a contemporary and evolving field.The canopy received a design award by the Hellenic Architecture Association.
series journal
last changed 2019/05/24 07:55

_id cf2011_p170
id cf2011_p170
authors Barros, Mário; Duarte José, Chaparro Bruno
year 2011
title Thonet Chairs Design Grammar: a Step Towards the Mass Customization of Furniture
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 181-200.
summary The paper presents the first phase of research currently under development that is focused on encoding Thonet design style into a generative design system using a shape grammar. The ultimate goal of the work is the design and production of customizable chairs using computer assisted tools, establishing a feasible practical model of the paradigm of mass customization (Davis, 1987). The current research step encompasses the following three steps: (1) codification of the rules describing Thonet design style into a shape grammar; (2) implementing the grammar into a computer tool as parametric design; and (3) rapid prototyping of customized chair designs within the style. Future phases will address the transformation of the Thonet’s grammar to create a new style and the production of real chair designs in this style using computer aided manufacturing. Beginning in the 1830’s, Austrian furniture designer Michael Thonet began experimenting with forming steam beech, in order to produce lighter furniture using fewer components, when compared with the standards of the time. Using the same construction principles and standardized elements, Thonet produced different chairs designs with a strong formal resemblance, creating his own design language. The kit assembly principle, the reduced number of elements, industrial efficiency, and the modular approach to furniture design as a system of interchangeable elements that may be used to assemble different objects enable him to become a pioneer of mass production (Noblet, 1993). The most paradigmatic example of the described vision of furniture design is the chair No. 14 produced in 1858, composed of six structural elements. Due to its simplicity, lightness, ability to be stored in flat and cubic packaging for individual of collective transportation, respectively, No. 14 became one of the most sold chairs worldwide, and it is still in production nowadays. Iconic examples of mass production are formally studied to provide insights to mass customization studies. The study of the shape grammar for the generation of Thonet chairs aimed to ensure rules that would make possible the reproduction of the selected corpus, as well as allow for the generation of new chairs within the developed grammar. Due to the wide variety of Thonet chairs, six chairs were randomly chosen to infer the grammar and then this was fine tuned by checking whether it could account for the generation of other designs not in the original corpus. Shape grammars (Stiny and Gips, 1972) have been used with sucesss both in the analysis as in the synthesis of designs at different scales, from product design to building and urban design. In particular, the use of shape grammars has been efficient in the characterization of objects’ styles and in the generation of new designs within the analyzed style, and it makes design rules amenable to computers implementation (Duarte, 2005). The literature includes one other example of a grammar for chair design by Knight (1980). In the second step of the current research phase, the outlined shape grammar was implemented into a computer program, to assist the designer in conceiving and producing customized chairs using a digital design process. This implementation was developed in Catia by converting the grammar into an equivalent parametric design model. In the third phase, physical models of existing and new chair designs were produced using rapid prototyping. The paper describes the grammar, its computer implementation as a parametric model, and the rapid prototyping of physical models. The generative potential of the proposed digital process is discussed in the context of enabling the mass customization of furniture. The role of the furniture designer in the new paradigm and ideas for further work also are discussed.
keywords Thonet; furniture design; chair; digital design process; parametric design; shape grammar
series CAAD Futures
email m.barros@ipt.pt
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p098
id cf2011_p098
authors Bernal, Marcelo; Eastman Charles
year 2011
title Top-down Approach for Interaction of Knowledge-Based Parametric Objects and Preliminary Massing Studies for Decision Making in Early Design Stages
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 149-164.
summary Design activities vary from high-degree of freedom in early concept design stages to highly constrained solution spaces in late ones. Such late developments entail large amount of expertise from technical domains. Multiple parallel models handle different aspects of a project, from geometric master models to specific building components. This variety of models must keep consistency with the design intent while they are dealing with specific domains of knowledge such as architectural design, structure, HVAC, MEP, or plumbing systems. Most of the expertise embedded within the above domains can be translated into parametric objects by capturing design and engineering knowledge through parameters, constraints, or conditionals. The aim of this research is capturing such expertise into knowledge-based parametric objects (KPO) for re-usability along the design process. The proposed case study ‚Äì provided by SOM New York‚ is the interaction between a massing study of a high-rise and its building service core, which at the same time handles elevators, restrooms, emergency stairs, and space for technical systems. This project is focused on capturing design expertise, involved in the definition of a building service core, from a high-rise senior designer, and re-using this object for interaction in real-time with a preliminary massing study model of a building, which will drive the adaption process of the service core. This interaction attempts to provide an integrated design environment for feedback from technical domains to early design stages for decision-making, and generate a well-defined first building draft. The challenges addressed to drive the instantiation of the service core according to the shifting characteristics of the high-rise are automatic instantiation and adaptation of objects based on decision rules, and updating in real-time shared parameters and information derived from the high-rise massing study. The interaction between both models facilitates the process from the designer‚Äôs perspective of reusing previous design solutions in new projects. The massing study model is the component that handles information from the perspective of the outer shape design intent. Variations at this massing study model level drive the behavior of the service core model, which must adapt its configuration to the shifting geometry of the building during design exploration in early concept design stages. These variations depend on a list of inputs derived from multiple sources such as variable lot sizes, building type, variable square footage of the building, considerations about modularity, number of stories, floor-to-floor height, total building height, or total building square footage. The shifting combination of this set of parameters determines the final aspect of the building and, consequently, the final configuration of the service core. The service core is the second component involved in the automatic generation of a building draft. In the context of BIM, it is an assembly of objects, which contains other objects representing elevators, restrooms, emergency stairs, and space for several technical systems. This assembly is driven by different layouts depending on the building type, a drop-off sequence, which is the process of continuous reduction of elevators along the building, and how this reduction affects the re-arrangement of the service core layout. Results from this research involves a methodology for capturing design knowledge, a methodology for defining the architecture of smart parametric objects, and a method for real-time-feedback for decision making in early design stages. The project also wants to demonstrate the feasibility of continuous growth on top of existing parametric objects allowing the creation of libraries of smart re-usable objects for automation in design.
keywords design automation, parametric modeling, design rules, knowledge-based design
series CAAD Futures
email marcelo.bernal@gatech.edu
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p043
id cf2011_p043
authors Boeykens, Stefan
year 2011
title Using 3D Design Software, BIM and Game Engines for Architectural Historical Reconstruction
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 493-509.
summary The use of digital tools has become a tremendous aid in the creation of digital, historical reconstructions of architectural projects. Regular visualization techniques have been used for quite some time and they still pose interesting approaches, such as following cinematic techniques [1]. While common visualizations focus on pre-rendered graphics, it is possible to apply Game Engines [2] for real-time architectural visualization, as witnessed by [3] and [4]. In the course of our teaching and research efforts, we have collected experience with several visualization and modeling techniques, including the use of gaming engines. While the modeling of qualitative geometry for use in regular visualization already poses an elaborate effort, the preparation of models for different uses is often not trivial. Most modeling systems only support the creation of models for a single amount of detail, whereas an optimized model for a real-time system will have fairly different constraints when compared to non-real-time models for photorealistic rendering and animation. The use of parametric methods is one usable approach to tackle this complexity, as illustrated in [4]. One of the major advantages of using parametric approaches lies precisely in the possibility of using a single model to generate different geometry with control over the amount of detail. We explicitly tackle this in a Building Information Modeling (BIM) context, as to support much more than purely 3D geometry and visualization purposes. An integrated approach allows the same model to be used for technical drawings in 2D and an optimized 3D model in varying levels of detail for different visualization purposes. However, while most Building Information Modeling applications are targeted to current architectural practice, they seldom provide sufficient content for the recreation of historical models. This thus requires an extensive library of parametric, custom objects to be used and re-used for historically accurate models, which can serve multiple purposes. Finally, the approach towards the historical resources also poses interpretation problems, which we tackled using a reasonably straightforward set up of an information database, collecting facts and accuracies. This helps in the visualization of color-coded 3D models, depicting the accuracy of the model, which is a valuable graphical approach to discuss and communicate information about the historical study in an appealing format. This article will present the results of different reconstruction case studies, using a variety of design applications and discuss the inherent complexity and limitations in the process of translating an active, evolving model into an environment suitable for use in a real-time system. Especially workflow issues are identified, as the translation of the model into the game engine should be repeated several times, when the model is further refined and adapted. This used to involve a large amount of repetitive work, but the current crop of game engines have much better approaches to manage the updating of the geometry.
keywords Real-time architecture, game engines, cultural heritage, digital reconstruction, parametric modeling, Building Information Modeling
series CAAD Futures
email stefan.boeykens@asro.kuleuven.be
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id acadia11_138
id acadia11_138
authors Buell, Samantha; Shaban, Ryan; Corte, Daniel; Beorkrem, Christopher
year 2011
title Zero-waste, Flat Pack Truss Work: An Investigation of Responsive Structuralism
source ACADIA 11: Integration through Computation [Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA)] [ISBN 978-1-6136-4595-6] Banff (Alberta) 13-16 October, 2011, pp. 138-143
summary The direct and rapid connections between scripting, modeling and prototyping allow for investigations of computation in fabrication. The manipulation of planar materials with two-dimensional CNC cuts can easily create complex and varied forms, volumes, and surfaces. However, the bulk of research on folding using CNC fabrication tools is focused upon surfaces, self-supporting walls and shell structures, which do not integrate well into more conventional building construction models.This paper attempts to explain the potential for using folding methodologies to develop structural members through a design-build process. Conventional building practice consists of the assembly of off-the-shelf parts. Many times, the plinth, skeleton, and skin are independently designed and fabricated, integrating multiple industries. Using this method of construction as an operative status quo, this investigation focused on a single structural component: the truss. A truss is defined as: “A triangulated arrangement of structural members that reduces nonaxial external forces to a set of axial forces in its members.” (Allen and Iano 2004)Using folding methodologies and sheet steel to create a truss, this design investigation employed a recyclable and prolific building material to redefine the fabrication of a conventional structural member. The potential for using digital design and two-dimensional CNC fabrication tools in the design of a foldable truss from sheet steel is viable in the creation of a flat-packed, minimal waste structural member that can adapt to a variety of aesthetic and structural conditions. Applying new methods to a component of the conventional ‘kit of parts’ allowed for a novel investigation that recombines zero waste goals, flat-packing potential, structural expression and computational processes.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email srbuell2@gmail.com
last changed 2011/10/06 04:05

_id acadia11_234
id acadia11_234
authors Chok, Kermin
year 2011
title Progressive Spheres of Innovation: Efficiency, communication and collaboration
source ACADIA 11: Integration through Computation [Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA)] [ISBN 978-1-6136-4595-6] Banff (Alberta) 13-16 October, 2011, pp. 234-241
summary Over the last few years, a large majority of construction work has moved overseas. In response to this, our engineering practice has been involved in a large number of Asian and Middle East design competitions, usually executed in a compressed timeframe. Building codes usually include very specific requirements regarding the lateral performance of a building under seismic and wind loads. This is especially true in China. Our structural engineering practice has thus developed a variety of digital tools customized to building code requirements, in order to provide relevant structural feedback in an appropriate design time frame. The paper will discuss our recent digital design work in the context of building code requirements and information sharing. Our innovations have centered on three progressive spheres of innovation: internal efficiency, communication and collaboration. We propose that only with closer and more transparent collaboration will the building industry be effective and efficient in meeting clients’ needs. However, without first addressing a firm’s internal capabilities of efficiency and communication, the firm will be unable to effectively participate in the collaborative process. This paper begins by discussing various custom Rhino-Grasshopper components to facilitate our internal design process. We then touch on the communication realm discussing work in lowering the barriers for information sharing. Lastly, we explore the necessary shifts in thinking required to move beyond linear design exploration and the exciting opportunity to deliver truly innovative design solutions.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email kermin.chok@gmail.com
last changed 2011/10/06 04:05

_id sigradi2011_391
id sigradi2011_391
authors Claro, Ana Julia
year 2011
title Herramientas digitales para la ideación y desarrollo de formas complejas [Digital tools for conception and development of complex forms]
source SIGraDi 2011 [Proceedings of the 15th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Argentina - Santa Fe 16-18 November 2011, pp. 197-200
summary The aim of this investigation is to study the connection between geometry and architecture, nowadays strongly stimulated by the use of digital tools, design and fabrication. At the same time, it expresses the need to develop interdisciplinary processes when analyzing the conception and construction of complex forms in the architecture, focusing on creating a computer application in charge of the unfold of NURBS surfaces, carried out for this study.
series SIGRADI
email anajuliaclaro@hotmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:49

_id ecaade2012_261
id ecaade2012_261
authors Feringa, Jelle; Sondergaard, Asbjorn
year 2012
title Design and Fabrication of Topologically Optimized Structures; An Integral Approach - A Close Coupling Form Generation and Fabrication
source Achten, Henri; Pavlicek, Jiri; Hulin, Jaroslav; Matejovska, Dana (eds.), Digital Physicality - Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2 / ISBN 978-9-4912070-3-7, Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture (Czech Republic) 12-14 September 2012, pp. 495-500
summary Integral structural optimization and fabrication seeks the synthesis of two original approaches; that of topological optimization (TO) and robotic hotwire cutting (HWC) (Mcgee 2011). TO allows for the reduction of up to 70% of the volume of concrete to support a given structure (Sondergaard & Dombernowsky 2011). A strength of the method is that it allows to come up with structural designs that lie beyond the grasp of traditional means of design. A design space is a discretized volume, delimiting where the optimization will take place. The number of cells used to discretize the design space thus sets the resolution of the TO. While the approach of the application of TO as a constitutive design tool centers on structural aspects in the design phase (Xie 2010), the outcome of this process are structures that cannot be realized within a conventional budget. As such the ensuing design is optimal in a narrow sense; whilst optimal structurally though, construction can be prove to be prohibitively expensive.
wos WOS:000330320600052
keywords Topology optimization; robotics; hotwire cutting; EPS formwork; concrete structures
series eCAADe
email jelleferinga@gmail.com
last changed 2014/04/14 11:07

_id sigradi2011_223
id sigradi2011_223
authors Girnos Elias de Souza, Gabriel
year 2011
title Narrativa, diagrama e database: considerações sobre a experiência da informação de apresentações de arquitetura e urbanismo em websites [Narrative, diagram and database: considerations about information experience in architecture presentations in websites]
source SIGraDi 2011 [Proceedings of the 15th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Argentina - Santa Fe 16-18 November 2011, pp. 110-113
summary As part of an ongoing research about technical, rhetorical and aesthetical characteristics of architecture presentations in websites, this paper presents considerations about the means of representation and public diffusion of architecture and urbanism, focusing the specificities of digital media through the keywords “narrative”, “diagram” and “database”. In search for basis to think the structuring of information experience in architectural discourses, the text punctuates the profession’s peculiar needs for presentation and visualization, and its links with the three keywords. Then, it presents a case study (the Bjarke Ingels Group website) to illustrate aspects of the analysis intended by the research.
series SIGRADI
email gabrielgirnos@gmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id cf2011_p108
id cf2011_p108
authors Iordanova, Ivanka; Forgues Daniel, Chiocchio François
year 2011
title Creation of an Evolutive Conceptual Know-how Framework for Integrative Building Design
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 435-450.
summary Low productivity of the building sector today is attributed to the fragmentation of tasks, disciplines and responsibilities, as well as to the resistance to adopt integrative work processes and digital means. The increased complexity of architectural projects and the aroused social consciousness for sustainable environment calls for integrative design collaboration. Thus, there is need for a Conceptual Framework combining work processes, technological means and policy aspects. According to the literature, integrative multidisciplinary design is a strategy resulting in high performance buildings nurturing sustainable way of living (Reed et al. 2009, Krygiel & Nies 2008). Responding to the increased technological complexity of our built environment, as well as to the objective of meeting multiple criteria of quality, both necessitating multidisciplinary collaboration during design, Building Information Modeling (BIM) is seen as a powerful means for fostering quality, augmenting productivity and decreasing loss in construction. Based on recent research, we can propose that a sustainable building can be designed through an integrative design process (IDP) which is best supported by BIM. However, our ongoing research program and consultations with advanced practitioners underscore a number of limitations. For example, a large portion of the interviewed professionals and construction stakeholders do not necessarily see a link between sustainable building, integrative design process and BIM, while in our opinion, their joint use augments the power of each of these approaches taken separately. Thus, there is an urgent necessity for the definition of an IDP-BIM framework, which could guide the building industry to sustainable results and better productivity. This paper defines such a framework, whose theoretical background lays on studies in social learning (activity theory and situated action theories). These theories suggest that learning and knowledge generation occurs mainly within a social process defined as an activity. This corresponds to the context in which the IDP-BIM framework will be used, its final objective being the transformation of building design practices. The proposed IDP-BIM framework is based on previous research and developments. Thus, firstly, IDP process was well formalized in the Roadmap for the Integrated Design Process‚ (Reed et al.) which is widely used as a guideline for collaborative integrative design by innovating practices in USA and Canada. Secondly, the National Building Information Modeling Standard (NBIMS) of the USA is putting an enormous effort in creating a BIM standard, Succar (2008) recently proposed a conceptual framework for BIM, but BIM ontology is still under development (Gursel et al 2009). Thirdly, an iterative design process bound to gating reviews (inspired from software development processes) was found to be successful in the context of multidisciplinary design studios (reported in our previous papers). The feedback from this study allowed for modifications and adjustments included in the present proposal. The gating process assures the good quality of the project and its compliance to the client's requirements. The challenge of this research is to map the above mentioned approaches, processes and technologies into the design process, thus creating an integrated framework supporting and nurturing sustainable design. The IDP-BIM framework can be represented by a multidimensional matrix linked to a semantic network knowledge database: - the axes of the matrix being the project timeline, the design process actors and building stakeholders (architect, engineers, client, contractor, environmental biologist, etc.), or different aspects of building performance (environmental, functional, social, interior environment quality, cost, etc.); and - the knowledge database providing multiple layers of semantic support in terms of process, domain knowledge, technology and workflow at a given moment of the project and for a given actor or building aspect. The IDP-BIM framework is created as an evolutive digital environment for know-how and will have an established protocol for regular updates. The paper will firstly present the state of the art in IDP and BIM. Secondly, it will expose the methodology used for the definition of the Framework, followed by a description of its structure, contents and digital implementation. Then, some scenarios for the use of the Framework will be shown as validation.
keywords integrated design process, BIM, multidisciplinary design, conceptual framework
series CAAD Futures
email ivanka.iordanova@videotron.ca
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ecaade2012_113
id ecaade2012_113
authors Jutraz, Anja ; Zupancic, Tadeja
year 2012
title Digital system of tools for public participation and education in urban design: Exploring 3D ICC
source Achten, Henri; Pavlicek, Jiri; Hulin, Jaroslav; Matejovska, Dana (eds.), Digital Physicality - Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1 / ISBN 978-9-4912070-2-0, Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture (Czech Republic) 12-14 September 2012, pp. 383-392
summary This article is a starting point for the development of experiential urban co-design interfaces to enhance public participation in local urban projects and to be also used as a communication and collaboration tool in urban design. It is based on the previous research involving 3D city models utilized as understandable design interfaces for the non-technical public (Jutraz, Zupancic, 2011), where we have already explored different views (pedestrian, intermediate and bird’s-eye view), as well as the means by which the information obtained from these different views may be combined by shifting between viewpoints. Previous work was conducted in the “street lab” as well as the Urban Experimental Lab, which was developed specifi cally for the public’s participation in urban planning (Voigt, Kieferle, Wössner, 2009). Presented in this article is the next step that explores the immersive collaboration environment 3D ICC [1], formerly known as Teleplace. The environment was developed for effi cient collaboration and remote communication and shifts the research focus towards questions regarding how to employ both labs as interfaces between the non-technical public and design professionals. As we are facing the lack of digital systems for public participation and education in urban design, different digital tools for communication and collaboration should be combined into a new holistic platform for design. A digital system of tools needs to be developed that supports the urban design decision-making process and focuses on improved final solutions and increased satisfaction amongst all participants. In this article the system of digital tools for public participation, which include communication, collaboration and education, will be also defi ned, with its basic characteristics and its elements.
wos WOS:000330322400039
keywords Digital system of tools; collaboration; 3D model; public participation; urban design
series eCAADe
email anja.jutraz@fa.uni-lj.si
last changed 2014/04/14 11:07

_id ecaade2012_046
id ecaade2012_046
authors Juvancic, Matevz ; Zupancic, Tadeja
year 2012
title Evaluation system for Content and Language Integrated Learning in Architecture Using Immersive Environments
source Achten, Henri; Pavlicek, Jiri; Hulin, Jaroslav; Matejovska, Dana (eds.), Digital Physicality - Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1 / ISBN 978-9-4912070-2-0, Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture (Czech Republic) 12-14 September 2012, pp. 115-123
summary Based on the experience from EU project ARCHI21 (Hunter et al, 2011) and long-term commitment to research of architectural presentations and educational approaches to expert and non-expert public (i.e. Juvancic, Mullins & Zupancic, 2012), the paper aims to clarify the terms used in CLIL-architecture context, identify the variables that have, in practice so far, proven to infl uence the learning outcome and learning experience both in architectural and language sense, and systematize the findings into the useful system. The result can be envisioned as the potential ‘ladder of the CLIL & architecture integration‘. The system would be of help to anyone trying to integrate language learning at different stages of architectural education, pointing out the required fundamentals, predicting the possible learning outcomes or benchmarking them after the experience. The basic terms/variables divided into three major infl uencing groups - competence, work environment and course settings - are described first, proceeded with the scheme connecting them into the system and two actual examples ‘run’ through the matrix for illustrative purposes. The paper also looks specifi cally into the use of different immersive environments and digital communication tools for teaching the architecture/design–other language combination and adapts the system to this segment, while also briefly comments on learners and teachers responses to CLIL-architecture integration.
wos WOS:000330322400011
keywords Architecture; immersive environments; CLIL; evaluation; teaching; Archi21
series eCAADe
email matevz.juvancic@fa.uni-lj.si
last changed 2014/04/14 11:07

_id cf2011_p110
id cf2011_p110
authors Mcmeel, Dermott
year 2011
title I think Therefore i-Phone: The influence of Pervasive Media on Collaboration and Multi-Disciplinary Group Work
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 69-84.
summary The study of value and its transfer during the multi-disciplinary process of design is stable fodder for research; an entire issue of Design Studies has been devoted to Values in the Design Process. By scrutinising design meetings Dantec (2009) and Ball (2009) separately examine the mechanisms of value transfer between the agents involved in design (clients, designers, engineers). Dantec suggests this is best understood in terms of requirement, values and narrative; Ball proposes it should be viewed as a combination of "analogical reasoning" and "environmental simulation". If we look at Vitruvius and his primary architectural manual (Pollio 1960) we find values‚Äîin the form of firmitas, utilitas and venustas‚Äîembedded in this early codification of architectural practice. However, as much current research is restricted to design practice what occurs when value frameworks move between domains of cultural activity (such as design to construction and vice-versa) is not privileged with a comparably sizable body of research. This paper is concerned with the ongoing usage of pervasive media and cellular phones within communications and value transfer across the disciplinary threshold of design and construction. Through participation in a building project we analyse the subtleties of interaction between analogue communication such as sketches and digitally sponsored communication such as e-mail and mobile phone usage. Analysing the communications between the designer and builder during construction suggests it is also a creative process and the distinctions between design and construction processes are complex and often blurred. This work provides an observational basis for understanding mobile computing as a dynamic ‚Äòtuning‚Äô device‚Äîas hypothesized by Richard Coyne (2010)‚Äîthat ameliorates the brittleness of communication between different disciplines. A follow up study deploys ‚Äòdigital fieldnotes‚Äô (dfn) a bespoke iPhone application designed to test further suppositions regarding the influence exerted upon group working by mobile computing. Within collaboration individual communiqu_©s have different levels of importance depending on the specific topic of discussion and the contributing participant. This project furthers the earlier study; expanding upon what mobile computing is and enabling us to infer how these emergent devices affect collaboration. Findings from these two investigations suggest that the synchronous and asynchronous clamour of analogue and digital tools that surround design and construction are not exclusively inefficiencies or disruptions to be expunged. Observational evidence suggests they may provide contingency and continue to have value attending to the relationship between static components‚Äîand the avoidance of failure‚Äîwithin a complex system such as design and construction.
keywords collaboration, design, mobile computing, digital media
series CAAD Futures
email d.mcmeel@auckland.ac.nz
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id acadia11_72
id acadia11_72
authors Menges, Achim
year 2011
title Integrative Design Computation: Integrating material behaviour and robotic manufacturing processes in computational design for performative wood constructions
source ACADIA 11: Integration through Computation [Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA)] [ISBN 978-1-6136-4595-6] Banff (Alberta) 13-16 October, 2011, pp. 72-81
summary In contrast to most other building materials, wood is a naturally grown biological tissue. Today, the organic nature of wood is recognized as a major advantage. Wood is one of the very few naturally renewable, fully recyclable, extremely energy efficient and CO2-positive construction materials. On the other hand, compared to industrially produced, isotropic materials, the inherent heterogeneity and differentiated material makeup of wood’s anatomic structure is still considered problematic by architects and engineers alike. This is due to the fact that, even today, most design tools employed in architecture are still incapable of integrating and thus instrumentalizing the material properties and related complex behavior of wood. The research presented in this paper focuses on the development of a computational design approach that is based on the integration of material properties and characteristics. Understanding wood as a natural composite system of cellulose fibers embedded in a lignin and hemicelluloses matrix characterized by relatively high strain at failure, that is high load-bearing capacity with relatively low stiffness, the particular focus of this paper is the investigation of how the bending behavior of wood can become a generative design driver in such computational processes. In combination with the additional integration of the possibilities and constraints of robotic manufacturing processes, this enables the design and production of truly material-specific and highly performative wood architecture. The paper will provide a detailed explanation of such an integrative approach to design computation and the related methods and techniques. This is complemented by the description of three specific research projects, which were conducted as part of the overall research and all resulted in full scale prototype structures. The research projects demonstrate different approaches to the computational design integration of material behavior and robotic manufacturing constraints. Based on a solution space defined by the material itself, this enables novel ways of computationally deriving both material-specific gestalt and performative capacity of one of the oldest construction materials we have.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email achim.menges@icd.uni-stuttgart.de
last changed 2011/10/06 04:05

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