CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 551

_id cf2011_p049
id cf2011_p049
authors Hii Jun Chung, Daniel; Chye Kiang Heng, Lai Choo Malone Lee, Ji Zhang
year 2011
title Analyzing the Ventilation Performance of Tropical High Density Residential Precincts using Computational Fluid Dynamics
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 351-366.
summary Major cities in the world are getting bigger as they continue to grow to cater for more population increase. These cities normally forced the urban planning to go high density. In the tropical context, high density cities like Singapore and Hong Kong do not have the luxury of space to go low rise and compact. These cities have to build to the floor area ratio of 4 and above to cater for the population. Their only solution is to go up, as high as possible, to the extent that the natural wind flow pattern will be altered, which brings environmental impact to the people. This is generally not good since wind flow helps to maintain the thermal comfort of the people as heat and pollutants are being channeled out of the city to avoid Urban Heat Island effect. In the tropical context, wind flow is crucial to maintain people’s comfort as the temperature is generally very high from the exposure of the sun for the entire year. Studies have shown that wind flow plays the most significant part in maintaining human comfort despite exposing to direct sunlight in the tropics. Therefore, wind flow analysis is extremely crucial to make the design sustainable and energy efficient, as people will not have to depend on mechanical ventilation to compensate for the lack of wind flow. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has always been used in the field of architecture, urban design and urban planning to understand the patterns of wind flow through the built environment apart from wind tunnel tests. The availability of more powerful hardware for the mainstream computer users as well as the lowering costs of these computers made CFD more possible to be adopted in the design world today. This also means using CFD in the design process, especially to analyze the impact of the design to the current site conditions and annual wind patterns will help the new design to be more responsive to the site. The interest of this paper is to analyze the high density typologies to see how well they respond to the local wind flow pattern. A typology is considered acceptable when the wind flow going through the site is still maintaining acceptable wind speed. This means it does not block off the wind and create stagnant spaces. Different designs generate different typologies which will respond differently to the wind pattern. The study aims at comparing the local high density typologies in terms of their response to the wind. Changes to a typology can be explored too to see if the performance will be different. For a typology which is considered a total failure in terms of response to wind, it may improve its performance if the orientation is altered. The CFD software can also parametrically respond to the changes of the typologies’ dimensions. This is helpful to see how much more a typology can still be performing well before failure by increasing the floor area index. The easiest way to do this is to pump up the building height. In conclusion, designing in response to wind is extremely important as it is more sustainable and responsive to Urban Heat Island effect. A design which responds well to the wind patterns will help save cost of cooling load and fan expenditure. The people will also be more willing to use the outdoor spaces which will as a whole generate more vibrant city spaces. As a result, a high density city with huge population count can still enjoy good thermal comfort if the general urban planning and design respond well to wind.
keywords computational fluid dynamics, sustainability, high density, urban design, airflow, ventilation
series CAAD Futures
email sdedhjc@nus.edu.sg
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p020
id cf2011_p020
authors Kabre, Chitrarekha
year 2011
title A Computer Aided Design Model for Climate Responsive Dwelling Roof
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 315-332.
summary Computer-Aided Design models have generated new possibilities in the sustainable design of buildings. Computer models assisting different aspects of architectural design have been developed and used for several decades. A review of contributions of computing to architectural design is given by Gero. Most of the conventional simulation computer programs do not actively support design development and optimization, specially at the formative design stages. It is well established that most decisions that affect comfort and building energy use occur during the formative design stages of the project. Furthermore, the efforts required to implement those decisions at the beginning of the design process are small compared to the effort that would be necessary later on in the design process. Therefore, if sustainable design issues are going to receive an appropriate level of consideration at the beginning of the design process, they must be presented in a way which is useful to the architect and fits with other things the architect is considering at that time. Design is seen as a problem-solving process of searching through a space of design solutions. The process of finding a solution to a design problem involves, identifying one or more objectives, making design decisions based on the objectives, predicting and evaluating the performance to find the acceptable decisions. Each of these activities can be performed inside or outside the formal model. In designing a roof, an architect or building designer has to make many decisions on the materials. The arrangement of these materials determines the aesthetic appearance of the roof and the house. Other considerations that affect the choice of roofing materials are thermal performance, rain, fire protection, cost, availability and maintenance. Recyclability of materials, hazardous materials, life-cycle expectancy, solutions, and design options as they relate to the environment also need to be considered. Consequently, the design of roof has become quite a complex and multifaceted problem. The principal need is for a direct design aid which can generate feasible solutions and tradeoff performance in conflicting requirements and prescribe the optimum solution. This paper presents a conceptual Computer Aided Design model for dwelling roof. It is based on generation and optimization paradigms of Computer Aided Design; which is diametrically opposite to conventional simulation. The design of roof (design goal) can be defined in terms of design objective as "control radiant and conduction heat." This objective must be satisfied to achieve the design goal. The performance variables, such as roof ceiling surface temperature or new thermal performance index (TPI*) must acquire values within certain ranges which will satisfy the objective. Given the required inputs, this computer model automatically generates prescriptive quantitative information to design roof to achieve optimum thermal comfort in warm humid tropics. The model first generates feasible solutions based on the decision rules; next it evaluates the thermal performance of the roof taking into account design variables related to the building’s roof and finally it applies numerical optimization techniques to automatically determine the optimum design variables, which achieve the best thermal performance. The rational and methodology used to develop the proposed model is outlined and the implementation of model is described with examples for climatic and technological contexts of India and Australia.
keywords Computer aided design, sustainable design, generation, optimization, dwelling roof, thermal performance
series CAAD Futures
email crekha969@gmail.com
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id caadria2011_020
id caadria2011_020
authors Lonsing, Werner and Peter Anders
year 2011
title Three-dimensional computational structures and the real world
source Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / The University of Newcastle, Australia 27-29 April 2011, pp. 209-218
summary In this paper, we describe a system of composite images to design virtual three-dimensional structures in an outdoor environment. The system, called AmbiViewer, consists of a modeler for three-dimensional on-site sketching, and overlapping locative technologies to orient virtual objects in a real-space, real-time setting. The system employs both GPS orientation and a visual marker system to provide a realistic and interactive augmented reality interface. While it is still under development, the authors believe it can bridge the gap between sketching on site, and creating virtual models in the office.
keywords Augmented reality; mixed reality, locative design; interactive mModeler; visualisation; GPS; cybrids
series CAADRIA
email caadria2011@lonsing.com
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id acadiaregional2011_019
id acadiaregional2011_019
authors Peters, Troy
year 2011
title Simulation by Design: A Parametric Design Tool for Zero Energy Buildings
source Parametricism (SPC) ACADIA Regional 2011 Conference Proceedings
summary To address the shortcomings of integrating building simulation in architectural design and to make it more appealing to students, a simple interface to Energyplus was created. This interface models a simple rectangular building that is passively heated by direct gain and cooled by ventilation. A simple photovoltaic interface has also been added to supply fan energy. This tool has an OpenGL modeler for visualization and uses Energyplus for calculations. The interface will run a full year simulation and graph the results. The results are reported in a yearly graph that shows the outdoor and indoor temperature. The indoor temperature range is based on adaptive comfort level. The interface was tested and used in an introductory design studio in order to comply with the 2010 imperative. The students simulated a simple box and changed the buildings parameters until the building fell within the adaptive comfort zone for most of the year. The climate simulated was Chicago, IL. Using these parameters the students then designed the building. The resulting designs show that even though the students were restricted in parameters, such as window percentage, they were still able to creatively design unique buildings that use zero to negative net energy for heating and cooling in a climate such as Chicago.
series ACADIA
last changed 2011/07/08 09:17

_id caadria2011_025
id caadria2011_025
authors Watanabe, Shun
year 2011
title Simulating 3d architecture and urban landscapes in real space
source Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / The University of Newcastle, Australia 27-29 April 2011, pp. 261-270
summary In the present research, we have developed a system by which to simulate three-dimensional architecture and urban landscapes in any outdoor space. As the basic AR environment, we used Vizard running on a laptop PC, where the urban model component, location tracking component, and image display component work together using original Python scripts. For the urban model component, digital maps data were converted. For the location tracking component, portable DGPS and a high-precision gyroscope were introduced in order to minimize the locational error. For the image display component, optical see-through HMD was used. Stereovision was also realized with the functions of GPU on the PC. A walking experiment was performed to test the proposed system on a redevelopment plan for our university campus.
keywords AR; GIS; DGPS; Optical see-through HMD; Stereovision
series CAADRIA
email shun@sk.tsukuba.ac.jp
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id b339
id b339
authors Bunster, Victor
year 2011
title Tropism-oriented generative design: Analogical models for heterogeneous goal integration
source Master of Philosophy (MPhil) Thesis. Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, The University of Melbourne.
summary Architecture often requires integration between heterogeneous objectives. Both empirical requirements and speculative aspirations inform design in ways that resist ready formalization under computerizable logic. This thesis explores the possibilities of tropism-analogy as strategy for tackling some of these diverse objectives in a generative system. The feasibility of addressing heterogeneous goals with a computerizable design system is established by reviewing the role of rule-based strategies in vernacular tradition and the possibilities of analogies in recent generative methods. Then, the concept of tropism is analysed in depth, starting from its origins to its manifestation in a broad range of disciplines. This analysis leads to the definition of tropism as a ‘process of turn’ that enables purposeful connections between a system and its environment, an invariant property that may result in different levels of adaptation. These generalized conditions are used as conceptual foundation to explore analogical connections between divergent dimensions of architectural problems, and to define a feedback-enabled generative system that uses tropism-inspired rules in tackling contrasting design objectives. This system is implemented as a proof-of-concept for the Chilean social housing program, where is used to generate façade prototypes that respond simultaneously to thermal comfort and formal expression criteria. The outcomes of this thesis suggest that tropism-analogy can be used in tackling heterogeneous façade objectives and, therefore, to define novel design methods to explore goal-integration in computer-based generative architecture systems.
keywords generative architecture, design computation, tropism analogy, goal integration, social housing
series thesis:MSc
type normal paper
email v.bunster@student.unimelb.edu.au
more http://dtl.unimelb.edu.au/R/98KH7M6SLEUI1J2GUA82K5A1AQSR7NK9HMI4GPCRJGFAEYDGHF-01472?func=dbin-jump-full&object_id=277253&local_base=GEN01&pds_handle=GUEST
last changed 2012/07/06 15:57

_id cf2011_p012
id cf2011_p012
authors Chen, Liang; Ng Edward
year 2011
title PedNaTAS: An Integrated Multi-Agent Based Pedestrian Thermal Comfort Assessment System
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 735-750.
summary Pedestrian’s thermal comfort is of great importance in urban planning. To develop effective planning standards that prompt pedestrian comfort, a comprehensive assessment framework that takes into account pedestrian’s individual perception and behavioral is in great need. Computer simulation tools in this respect are still sparse. This paper presents the PedNaTAS system, an agent-based integrated decision support system that assesses pedestrian thermal comfort from bottom-up.
keywords thermal comfort, pedestrian simulation, multi-agent based modeling, geographical information system, Repast
series CAAD Futures
email chenliang@cuhk.edu.hk
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id caadria2013_195
id caadria2013_195
authors Park, Jihyun; Azizan Aziz, Kevin Li and Carl Covington
year 2013
title Energy Performance Modeling of an Office Building and Its Evaluation – Post-Occupancy Evaluation and Energy Efficiency of the Building
source Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2013) / Singapore 15-18 May 2013, pp. 209-218
summary Energy performance modelling can provide insights into the efficiency and sustainability of commercial buildings, and also the achievement of certification standards such as USGBC LEED. However, the results from the modelling must be validated via a post-construction evaluation, which quantifies any discrepancies between the predicted energy usage and the actual energy consumed. In this study, an existing office building was examined to test how well the model predicts energy usage. The results from the model were compared with the actual usage of gas and electricity over two years (2010-2011). Our study showed a 123% higher gas usage,and a 36% lower electricity, compared with the simulation. This difference presents that occupant behaviour and building construction practices have significant impact on the energy usage of a building. For instance, the large discrepancy among gas usage is due to the office building’s thermal envelope, which identifies the spots at which heat leaks out of the building, thereby forcing the heating unit to work more. Additionally, the post occupancy evaluation study identified that indoor environmental conditions impact on energy consumption of the building. 
wos WOS:000351496100021
keywords Building performance evaluation, Energy modelling, Energy usage, User behaviour, Post occupancy evaluation
series CAADRIA
email jihp@cmu.edu
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id acadia11_326
id acadia11_326
authors Velikov, Kathy; Thün, Geoffrey; O’Malley, Mary; Ripley, Colin
year 2011
title Toward Responsive Atmospheres: Prototype Exploration through Material and Computational Systems
source ACADIA 11: Integration through Computation [Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA)] [ISBN 978-1-6136-4595-6] Banff (Alberta) 13-16 October, 2011, pp. 326-333
summary The Stratus Project is an ongoing body of design research investigating the potential for kinetic, sensing and environment-responsive interior envelope systems. The research emerges from a consideration of our attunement to the soft systems of architecture – light, thermal gradients, air quality and noise – paired with a desire to develop and prototype envelopes that not only perform to affect these atmospheres, but also to promote continual information and material exchange, and eventually dialogue, between occupant and atmosphere. Stratus v1.0 included the construction of a modest prototype using simple open source technologies, aimed to explore the formal, operational and technological possibilities, as well as potential operability and control conflicts, as part of the first phase of thinking around these questions. It deploys a distributed approach to structural, mechanical and communications systems design and delivery, where localized response is prioritized. The project works to reclaim the environmentally performative elements of architecture – in this case, specifically, interior mechanical delivery and interface systems – to within the purview of the discipline, as territories of material, formal, technological and experiential innovation and exploration. This paper will describe both the development of the current prototype as well as future research and investigation trajectories. The Stratus Project begins by situating itself at the crossroads of the disciplinary territories of architecture, technology, environmental control and cybernetics. Through the use of computational technologies and in collaboration with researchers in the fields of computer science, mechanical engineering and materials science, this project aims to advance the development of responsive environmental design and performative building skins.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email kvelikov@umich.edu
last changed 2011/10/06 04:05

_id acadiaregional2011_024
id acadiaregional2011_024
authors Hillukka, Daniel
year 2011
title Interior Climate Optimization by Volumetric Adjustment
source Parametricism (SPC) ACADIA Regional 2011 Conference Proceedings
summary This research focuses primarily on the functionality of software, specifically Rhinoceros (McNeel & Assoc.) and a few associated PlugIns (Grasshopper, Rhino Assembly), to create and control a model of a building to study the environmental effects of modulation of space. Has technology been completely utilized in addressing comfort maintenance within a dwelling space? For example, animals have a similarities based upon their surface to volume relationship, yet they are able to adjust the ratios based on a reaction to their environmental circumstances. For example, when cold, they are able to “fluff” their fur in order to minimize their surface area in comparison to an increasing “interior” volume. Historically, abilities to influence temperature change within a space have been relegated to passive air exchange systems and more recently completely active air exchange means of control. Technological advances have raised significant questions towards methods and means for this control. Through use of 3D models and simulations, the topic of climate maintenance in spatial conditions was addressed using environmental controls. Thus modulation of the interior climate as well as the space could simultaneously occur to create a radically different space of habitation. The preparation and writing of this abstract addressed various areas of the SPC requirements, which become apparent during the digestion of the paper.
keywords Rhinoceros, Grasshopper, Rhino-Assembly, volume, operable architecture, parametric components, climate optimization, dynamic constructs
series ACADIA
last changed 2011/07/08 09:17

_id acadia11_334
id acadia11_334
authors Khoo, Chin Koi; Burry, Jane; Burry, Mark
year 2011
title Soft Responsive Kinetic System: An Elastic Transformable Architectural Skin for Climatic and Visual Control
source ACADIA 11: Integration through Computation [Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA)] [ISBN 978-1-6136-4595-6] Banff (Alberta) 13-16 October, 2011, pp. 334-341
summary Most designers of dynamic building skins that reconfigure themselves in changing conditions have utilised mechanical systems. However, when designing for dynamic responsiveness, these systems often involve intricate and high-tech mechanistic joints, actuators and control. This research investigates the possibility of the ‘soft’ form-changing material systems to minimise the use of ‘hard’ mechanical components for kinetic responsive architectural skins. The research goal is to develop a prototype system that can be used to retrofit an existing building with an application of a ‘second skin’ that performs well in various climate conditions and is visually compelling. This approach is tested by the prototype, namely “Curtain”. It serves two fundamental purposes: Comfort and Cosmetic, to improve the existing interior and exterior spatial conditions. As an early proposition, the significance of this research offers a practical method for realising a ‘soft’ transformable architectural skin that synthesises passive cooling, manipulates sunlight and is set as an active shading device. Parametric design is used to explore and simulate these climatic and visual design constraints.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email mosphosis@hotmail.com
last changed 2011/10/06 04:05

_id ijac20119405
id ijac20119405
authors Koi Khoo, Chin; Flora Salim and Jane Burry
year 2011
title Designing Architectural Morphing Skins with Elastic Modular Systems
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 9 - no. 4, 379-419
summary This paper discusses the issues of designing architectural skins that can be physically morphed to adapt to changing needs.To achieve this architectural vision, designers have focused on developing mechanical joints, components, and systems for actuation and kinetic transformation. However, the unexplored approach of using lightweight elastic form-changing materials provides an opportunity for designing responsive architectural skins and skeletons with fewer mechanical operations. This research aims to develop elastic modular systems that can be applied as a second skin or brise-soleil to existing buildings.The use of the second skin has the potential to allow existing buildings to perform better in various climatic conditions and to provide a visually compelling skin.This approach is evaluated through three design experiments with prototypes, namely Tent, Curtain and Blind, to serve two fundamental purposes: Comfort and Communication.These experimental prototypes explore the use of digital and physical computation embedded in form-changing materials to design architectural morphing skins that manipulate sunlight and act as responsive shading devices.
series journal
last changed 2019/07/30 08:55

_id acadiaregional2011_008
id acadiaregional2011_008
authors Krietemeyer,Elizabeth A.; Anna H. Dyson
year 2011
title Electropolymeric Technology for Dynamic Building Envelopes
source Parametricism (SPC) ACADIA Regional 2011 Conference Proceedings
summary Human health and energy problems associated with the lack of control of natural light in contemporary buildings have necessitated research into dynamic windows for energy efficient buildings. Existing dynamic glazing technologies have made limited progress towards greater energy performance for curtain wall systems because they are still unable to respond to dynamic solar conditions, fluctuating building demands, and a range of user preferences for visual comfort and individual control. Recent breakthroughs in the field of information display provide opportunities to transfer electropolymeric technology to building envelopes that can achieve geometric and spectral selectivity in concert with pattern variation within the façade. Integrating electroactive polymers within the surfaces of an insulated glazing unit (IGU) could dramatically improve the energy performance of windows while enabling user empowerment through the control of the visual quality of this micro-material assembly, in addition to allowing for the switchable patterning of information display. Using parametric modeling as a generative design and analysis tool, this paper examines the technical intricacies linking system variables with visual comfort, daylight quality, and pattern design of the proposed electropolymeric dynamic facade technology.
series ACADIA
last changed 2011/07/08 09:17

_id eaea2009_piga
id eaea2009_piga
authors Piga, Barbara E.A.
year 2011
title The Urban Simulation and Projects Evaluation Laboratory at the Politecnico di Milano: An Educational and Research Facility
source Projecting Spaces [Proceedings of the 9th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 978-3-942411-31-8 ], pp. 115-120
summary At the beginning of 2007 an Italian Urban Simulation Laboratory was founded at the Politecnico di Milano. The laboratory, coordinated by prof. Fausto Curti, has been developed thanks to the one year presence of the visiting professor Peter Bosselmann, director of the Environmental Simulation Laboratory at the University of California at Berkeley. The laboratory has an interdisciplinary approach and a threefold mission: experiment, using the laboratory setting to study urban projects at different scales; communicate, aiding public communication by making urban projects understandable to everyone; integrate and innovate, working on different kind of simulations techniques in an integrated way. In its initial experience the laboratory is primarily a didactic and research facility. Students can join the work and participate actively to the research. Until now about 40 students have worked with us, more than a half were foreign students from all over the world. The majority of the students did an internship of about 150 (three-year degree) or 300 (master degree) hours and some of them have continued working after this period developing a thesis. At the moment the case study, used as a pilot research, is about the Porta Nuova project at the Garibaldi- Repubblica area in Milan. The 300.000 mq of the total area and its well served central position make this place strategic for Milan. In this area the adopted urban transformation plan is creating a new business center that affects redevelopment projects, new infrastructures, and a park. The overall project will overhanging the surroundings city center with some of the highest buildings of its skyline. The importance of the site and the dimension of the project make this case significant to test the use of simulation for supporting evaluations about morphological aspects, comfort conditions, visual impacts, and other aspects that directly influence the quality of the new urban spaces. We are now applying different simulation methodologies in order to better understand the peculiar usefulness of each kind as a tool to support evaluation. As any kind has its own limits we work with different typologies at the same time. We are working with 1:500 scale physical model of a 1 km square of the area and different kind of static and dynamic simulations. We developed, with an external office, a micro-car to move a micro-camera in the maquette. We use this equipment to better explain the project implications to the students by producing subjective shot videos or showing a walk in real-time. To reproduce in a better way some relevant walks through the transformed site we have also produced some videos made of a superimposition of the real existing context and the virtual projects. To do this we used a rendered video of the project superimposed to the filmed promenade of the today condition, previously recorded using steadycam. A lot of static simulations has been employed to better understand the new city configuration from some representative points of view, as for example the roof of the Duomo cathedral. We are now developing some other kinds of analysis such as shadows impact; this is done by using a 1:1000 scale maquette in the Heliodon, but also with some digital tools. In the next future a work with the wind tunnel will help to understand some other comfort implications of the project at the micro-urban scale. The multilayer approach is the main aim of the laboratory and is an important tool to clarify the multidimensional project impacts to the students. In this way the laboratory can be a learning tool, it can stimulate the project process and support decision-making while improving the knowledge about the correct use of simulations for evaluating the cumulative implications of the proposed urban processes.
series other
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea
last changed 2011/03/04 07:45

_id sigradi2011_084
id sigradi2011_084
authors Alves, Gilfranco; Pratschke, Anja
year 2011
title Mediação digital e revisão dos processos de design em Arquitetura [Digital mediation and review of design processes in Architecture]
source SIGraDi 2011 [Proceedings of the 15th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Argentina - Santa Fe 16-18 November 2011, pp. 35-38
summary This paper presents partial results of doctoral research entitled Architecture, Semiotics and Second Order Cybernetics: observation, representation and performance in design process. The research is linked to the Nomads.usp research group and proposes a review of design process, considering the mediation of digital media by using concepts of Second order Cybernetics. This work start with the hypothesis that in a contemporary context, professional demands of architects and designers requires a different approach in relation to the concept of emergence in architecture, and also describes an experiment during the AA Visiting School SP 2011, the Strings / Supple Pavilion project.
keywords Design processes; digital media; emergence; performance.; Second-order Cybernetics
series SIGRADI
email gilfranco@sc.usp.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id cf2011_p098
id cf2011_p098
authors Bernal, Marcelo; Eastman Charles
year 2011
title Top-down Approach for Interaction of Knowledge-Based Parametric Objects and Preliminary Massing Studies for Decision Making in Early Design Stages
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 149-164.
summary Design activities vary from high-degree of freedom in early concept design stages to highly constrained solution spaces in late ones. Such late developments entail large amount of expertise from technical domains. Multiple parallel models handle different aspects of a project, from geometric master models to specific building components. This variety of models must keep consistency with the design intent while they are dealing with specific domains of knowledge such as architectural design, structure, HVAC, MEP, or plumbing systems. Most of the expertise embedded within the above domains can be translated into parametric objects by capturing design and engineering knowledge through parameters, constraints, or conditionals. The aim of this research is capturing such expertise into knowledge-based parametric objects (KPO) for re-usability along the design process. The proposed case study ‚Äì provided by SOM New York‚ is the interaction between a massing study of a high-rise and its building service core, which at the same time handles elevators, restrooms, emergency stairs, and space for technical systems. This project is focused on capturing design expertise, involved in the definition of a building service core, from a high-rise senior designer, and re-using this object for interaction in real-time with a preliminary massing study model of a building, which will drive the adaption process of the service core. This interaction attempts to provide an integrated design environment for feedback from technical domains to early design stages for decision-making, and generate a well-defined first building draft. The challenges addressed to drive the instantiation of the service core according to the shifting characteristics of the high-rise are automatic instantiation and adaptation of objects based on decision rules, and updating in real-time shared parameters and information derived from the high-rise massing study. The interaction between both models facilitates the process from the designer‚Äôs perspective of reusing previous design solutions in new projects. The massing study model is the component that handles information from the perspective of the outer shape design intent. Variations at this massing study model level drive the behavior of the service core model, which must adapt its configuration to the shifting geometry of the building during design exploration in early concept design stages. These variations depend on a list of inputs derived from multiple sources such as variable lot sizes, building type, variable square footage of the building, considerations about modularity, number of stories, floor-to-floor height, total building height, or total building square footage. The shifting combination of this set of parameters determines the final aspect of the building and, consequently, the final configuration of the service core. The service core is the second component involved in the automatic generation of a building draft. In the context of BIM, it is an assembly of objects, which contains other objects representing elevators, restrooms, emergency stairs, and space for several technical systems. This assembly is driven by different layouts depending on the building type, a drop-off sequence, which is the process of continuous reduction of elevators along the building, and how this reduction affects the re-arrangement of the service core layout. Results from this research involves a methodology for capturing design knowledge, a methodology for defining the architecture of smart parametric objects, and a method for real-time-feedback for decision making in early design stages. The project also wants to demonstrate the feasibility of continuous growth on top of existing parametric objects allowing the creation of libraries of smart re-usable objects for automation in design.
keywords design automation, parametric modeling, design rules, knowledge-based design
series CAAD Futures
email marcelo.bernal@gatech.edu
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p157
id cf2011_p157
authors Boton, Conrad; Kubicki Sylvain, Halin Gilles
year 2011
title Understanding Pre-Construction Simulation Activities to Adapt Visualization in 4D CAD Collaborative Tools
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 477-492.
summary Increasing productivity and efficiency is an important issue in the AEC field. This area is mainly characterized by fragmentation, heterogeneous teams with low lifetimes and many uncertainties. 4D CAD is one of the greatest innovations in recent years. It consists in linking a 3D model of the building with the works planning in order to simulate the construction evolution over time. 4D CAD can fill several needs from design to project management through constructivity analysis and tasks planning (Tommelein 2003). The literature shows that several applications have been proposed to improve the 4D CAD use (Chau et al. 2004; Lu et al. 2007; Seok & al. 2009). In addition, studies have shown the real impact of 4D CAD use in construction projects (Staub-French & Khanzode 2007; Dawood & Sika 2007). More recently, Mahalingam et al. (2010) showed that the collaborative use of 4D CAD is particularly useful during the pre-construction phase for comparing the constructability of working methods, for visually identifying conflicts and clashes (overlaps), and as visual tool for practitioners to discuss and to plan project progress. So the advantage of the 4D CAD collaborative use is demonstrated. Moreover, several studies have been conducted both in the scientific community and in the industrial world to improve it (Zhou et al. 2009; Kang et al. 2007). But an important need that remains in collaborative 4D CAD use in construction projects is about the adaptation of visualization to the users business needs. Indeed, construction projects have very specific characteristics (fragmentation, variable team, different roles from one project to another). Moreover, in the AEC field several visualization techniques can represent the same concept and actors choose one or another of these techniques according to their specific needs related to the task they have to perform. For example, the tasks planning may be represented by a Gantt chart or by a PERT network and the building elements can be depicted with a 3D model or a 2D plan. The classical view (3D + Gantt) proposed to all practitioners in the available 4D tools seems therefore not suiting the needs of all. So, our research is based on the hypothesis that adapting the visualization to individual business needs could significantly improve the collaboration. This work relies on previous ones and aim to develop a method 1) to choose the best suited views for performed tasks and 2) to compose adapted multiple views for each actor, that we call “business views”. We propose a 4 steps-method to compose business views. The first step identifies the users’ business needs, defining the individual practices performed by each actor, identifying his business tasks and his information needs. The second step identifies the visualization needs related to the identified business needs. For this purpose, the user’s interactions and visualization tasks are described. This enables choosing the most appropriate visualization techniques for each need (step 3). At this step, it is important to describe the visualization techniques and to be able to compare them. Therefore, we proposed a business view metamodel. The final step (step 4) selects the adapted views, defines the coordination mechanisms and the interaction principles in order to compose coordinated visualizations. A final step consists in a validation work to ensure that the composed views really match to the described business needs. This paper presents the latest version of the method and especially presents our latest works about its first and second steps. These include making more generic the business tasks description in order to be applicable within most of construction projects and enabling to make correspondence with visualization tasks.
keywords Pre-construction, Simulation, 4D CAD, Collaboration, Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Human-Computer Interface, Information visualization, Business view, Model driven engineering
series CAAD Futures
email conrad.boton@tudor.lu
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id sigradi2011_172
id sigradi2011_172
authors Castañé, Dora; Tessier, Carlos
year 2011
title Estrategias Implementales en la Investigación Patrimonial. 3 casos de modelos urbanos digitales [Implementales strategies in the heritage research. 3 Cases of digital urban models]
source SIGraDi 2011 [Proceedings of the 15th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Argentina - Santa Fe 16-18 November 2011, pp. 86-89
summary This paper shows 3 digital models implemented in two research product of a team of researchers of CONICET, CEDODAL projects who have been developing various annual proposals. The objective of this work is to show the implementales strategies used in each case. With the digital technological tools of three-dimensional modelling and its interfaces from spatial databases with different levels of complexity representational 2d-3d-4 d-5 d, applied to the recognition and research of this cultural and urban architectural heritage. Who allowed to store and retrieve information in multiple formats with a diversity of views to the review and analysis.
series SIGRADI
email dcastane05@fibertel.com.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:48

_id ecaade2011_167
id ecaade2011_167
authors Celento, David; Henn, Rebecca
year 2011
title Nimble Urban Dwellings: Re-enabling Permanent Impermanence
source RESPECTING FRAGILE PLACES [29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-9-4912070-1-3], University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture (Slovenia) 21-24 September 2011, pp.635-644
summary This paper considers an evolutionary type of urban dwelling—where permanent impermanence may be a preferred state for those who favor nimble dwellings that are better able to respond to change. These changes may be socio-economic, geographic, technological, environmental, cultural, employment-related, or simply the result of unanticipated disruptions. The goal of this research is to describe a system which enables improved functionality, flexibility, and desirability for modest, yet highly diverse, urban dwelling solutions based upon an evolving, open-source system of digital design standards. Given that consumer product designers have, for more than a decade, successfully utilized digital technology to design and produce highly desirable products, this paper asks whether urban dwellings might benefit from concerns more in keeping with those of consumer products.
wos WOS:000335665500074
keywords Emergency Dwellings; Mass Customization; Open Source Architecture; Urban Housing; Architecture
series eCAADe
email dcelento@gmail.com
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id sigradi2011_423
id sigradi2011_423
authors Chiarella, Mauro; Dalla Costa, Matias
year 2011
title Patrones Generativos Dinámicos (URDIR.Lab). Estrategias proyectuales paramétricas simples para el ejercicio profesional cotidiano [Dynamic Generative Patterns (URDIR.Lab). Simple Parametric Design Strategies for Everyday Practice]
source SIGraDi 2011 [Proceedings of the 15th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Argentina - Santa Fe 16-18 November 2011, pp. 210-214
summary The international architecture of the past decade adds parametric design to the project as a new variable dynamic strategy in the design process. Generative patterns meet a way of achieving parameterization from the computational geometry. The experimental developments of URDIR.Lab (FADU-UNL) group, ranges from: the current projective exercises with dynamic materials and forms to the development of simple formulas applied to everyday practice. The proposed challenge is to merge the local available technological resources - pre-industrial and industrial - with the ideation systems of post-industrial technologies.
series SIGRADI
email mchiarella@hotmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:48

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