CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id cf2011_p051
id cf2011_p051
authors Cote, Pierre; Mohamed-Ahmed Ashraf, Tremblay Sebastien
year 2011
title A Quantitative Method to Compare the Impact of Design Mediums on the Architectural Ideation Process.
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 539-556.
summary If we compare the architectural design process to a black box system, we can assume that we now know quite well both inputs and outputs of the system. Indeed, everything about the early project either feasibility studies, programming, context integration, site analysis (urban, rural or natural), as well as the integration of participants in a collaborative process can all be considered to initiate and sustain the architectural design and ideation process. Similarly, outputs from that process are also, and to some extent, well known and identifiable. We are referring here, among others, to the project representations or even to the concrete building construction and its post-evaluation. But what about the black box itself that produces the ideation. This is the question that attempts to answer the research. Currently, very few research works linger to identify how the human brain accomplishes those tasks; how to identify the cognitive functions that are playing this role; to what extent they operate and complement each other, and among other things, whether there possibly a chain of causality between these functions. Therefore, this study proposes to define a model that reflects the activity of the black box based on the cognitive activity of the human brain. From an extensive literature review, two cognitive functions have been identified and are investigated to account for some of the complex cognitive activity that occurs during a design process, namely the mental workload and mental imagery. These two variables are measured quantitatively in the context of real design task. Essentially, the mental load is measured using a Bakan's test and the mental imagery with eyes tracking. The statistical software G-Power was used to identify the necessary subject number to obtain for significant variance and correlation result analysis. Thus, in the context of an exploratory research, to ensure effective sample of 0.25 and a statistical power of 0.80, 32 participants are needed. All these participants are students from 3rd, 4th or 5th grade in architecture. They are also very familiar with the architectural design process and the design mediums used, i.e., analog model, freehand drawing and CAD software, SketchUp. In three experimental sessions, participants were asked to design three different projects, namely, a bus shelter, a recycling station and a public toilet. These projects were selected and defined for their complexity similarity, taking into account the available time of 22 minutes, using all three mediums of design, and this in a randomly manner to avoid the order effect. To analyze the two cognitive functions (mental load and mental imagery), two instruments are used. Mental imagery is measured using eye movement tracking with monitoring and quantitative analysis of scan paths and the resulting number and duration of participant eye fixations (Johansson et al, 2005). The mental workload is measured using the performance of a modality hearing secondary task inspired by Bakan'sworks (Bakan et al.; 1963). Each of these three experimental sessions, lasting 90 minutes, was composed of two phases: 1. After calibrating the glasses for eye movement, the subject had to exercise freely for 3 minutes while wearing the glasses and headphones (Bakan task) to get use to the wearing hardware. Then, after reading the guidelines and criteria for the design project (± 5 minutes), he had 22 minutes to execute the design task on a drawing table allowing an upright posture. Once the task is completed, the subject had to take the NASA TLX Test, on the assessment of mental load (± 5 minutes) and a written post-experimental questionnaire on his impressions of the experiment (± 10 minutes). 2. After a break of 5-10 minutes, the participant answered a psychometric test, which is different for each session. These tests (± 20 minutes) are administered in the same order to each participant. Thus, in the first experimental session, the subject had to take the psychometric test from Ekstrom et al. (1978), on spatial performance (Factor-Referenced Cognitive Tests Kit). During the second session, the cognitive style is evaluated using Oltman's test (1971). Finally, in the third and final session, participant creativity is evaluated using Delis-Kaplan test (D-KEFS), Delis et al. (2001). Thus, this study will present the first results of quantitative measures to establish and validate the proposed model. Furthermore, the paper will also discuss the relevance of the proposed approach, considering that currently teaching of ideation in ours schools of architecture in North America is essentially done in a holistic manner through the architectural project.
keywords design, ideation process, mental workload, mental imagery, quantitative mesure
series CAAD Futures
email pierre.cote@arc.ulaval.ca
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p020
id cf2011_p020
authors Kabre, Chitrarekha
year 2011
title A Computer Aided Design Model for Climate Responsive Dwelling Roof
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 315-332.
summary Computer-Aided Design models have generated new possibilities in the sustainable design of buildings. Computer models assisting different aspects of architectural design have been developed and used for several decades. A review of contributions of computing to architectural design is given by Gero. Most of the conventional simulation computer programs do not actively support design development and optimization, specially at the formative design stages. It is well established that most decisions that affect comfort and building energy use occur during the formative design stages of the project. Furthermore, the efforts required to implement those decisions at the beginning of the design process are small compared to the effort that would be necessary later on in the design process. Therefore, if sustainable design issues are going to receive an appropriate level of consideration at the beginning of the design process, they must be presented in a way which is useful to the architect and fits with other things the architect is considering at that time. Design is seen as a problem-solving process of searching through a space of design solutions. The process of finding a solution to a design problem involves, identifying one or more objectives, making design decisions based on the objectives, predicting and evaluating the performance to find the acceptable decisions. Each of these activities can be performed inside or outside the formal model. In designing a roof, an architect or building designer has to make many decisions on the materials. The arrangement of these materials determines the aesthetic appearance of the roof and the house. Other considerations that affect the choice of roofing materials are thermal performance, rain, fire protection, cost, availability and maintenance. Recyclability of materials, hazardous materials, life-cycle expectancy, solutions, and design options as they relate to the environment also need to be considered. Consequently, the design of roof has become quite a complex and multifaceted problem. The principal need is for a direct design aid which can generate feasible solutions and tradeoff performance in conflicting requirements and prescribe the optimum solution. This paper presents a conceptual Computer Aided Design model for dwelling roof. It is based on generation and optimization paradigms of Computer Aided Design; which is diametrically opposite to conventional simulation. The design of roof (design goal) can be defined in terms of design objective as "control radiant and conduction heat." This objective must be satisfied to achieve the design goal. The performance variables, such as roof ceiling surface temperature or new thermal performance index (TPI*) must acquire values within certain ranges which will satisfy the objective. Given the required inputs, this computer model automatically generates prescriptive quantitative information to design roof to achieve optimum thermal comfort in warm humid tropics. The model first generates feasible solutions based on the decision rules; next it evaluates the thermal performance of the roof taking into account design variables related to the building’s roof and finally it applies numerical optimization techniques to automatically determine the optimum design variables, which achieve the best thermal performance. The rational and methodology used to develop the proposed model is outlined and the implementation of model is described with examples for climatic and technological contexts of India and Australia.
keywords Computer aided design, sustainable design, generation, optimization, dwelling roof, thermal performance
series CAAD Futures
email crekha969@gmail.com
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p060
id cf2011_p060
authors Sheward, Hugo; Eastman Charles
year 2011
title Preliminary Concept Design (PCD) Tools for Laboratory Buildings, Automated Design Optimization and Assessment Embedded in Building Information Modeling (BIM) Tools.
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 451-476.
summary The design of laboratory buildings entails the implementation of a variety of design constraints such as building codes; design guidelines and technical requirements. The application of these requires from designers the derivation of data not explicitly available at early stages of design, at the same time there is no precise methodology to control the consistency, and accuracy of their application. Many of these constraints deal with providing secure environmental conditions for the activities inside laboratories and their repercussions both for the building occupants and population in general, these constraints mandate a strict control over the building’s Mechanical Equipment (MEP), in particular the Heating Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system. Due to the importance of these laboratory designers are expected to assess their designs not only according spatial relationships, but also design variables such as HVAC efficiency, air pressure hierarchies, operational costs, and the possible implications of their design decisions in the biological safety of the facility. At this point in time, there are no practical methods for making these assessments, without having constant interaction with HVAC specialists. The assessment of laboratory design variables, particularly those technical in nature, such as dimensioning of ducts or energy consumption are usually performed at late stages of design. They are performed by domain experts using data manually extracted from design information, with the addition of domain specific knowledge, the evaluation is done mostly through manual calculations or building simulations. In traditional practices most expert evaluations are performed once the architectural design have been completed, the turn around of the evaluation might take hours or days depending on the methods used by the engineer, therefore reducing the possibility for design alternatives evaluation. The results of these evaluations will give clues about sizing of the HVAC equipment, and might generate the need for design reformulations, causing higher development costs and time delays. Several efforts in the development of computational tools for automated design evaluation such as wheel chair accessibility (Han, Law, Latombe, Kunz, 2002) security and circulation (Eastman, 2009), and construction codes (ww.Corenet.gov.sg) have demonstrated the capabilities of rule or parameter based building assessment; several computer applications capable of supporting HVAC engineers in system designing for late concept or design development exist, but little has been done to assess the capabilities of computer applications to support laboratory design during architectural Preliminary Concept Design(PCD) (Trcka, Hensen, 2010). Developments in CAD technologies such as Building Information Modeling (BIM) have opened doors to formal explorations in generative design using rule based or parametric modeling [7]. BIM represents buildings as a collection of objects with their own geometry, attributes, and relations. BIM also allows for the definition of objects parametrically including their relation to other model objects. BIM has enabled the development of automated rule based building evaluation (Eastman, 2009). Most of contemporary BIM applications contemplate in their default user interfaces access to design constraints and object attribute manipulations. Some even allow for the application of rules over these. Such capabilities make BIM viable platforms for automation of design data derivation and for the implementation of generative based design assessment. In this paper we analyze the possibilities provided by contemporary BIM for implementing generative based design assessment in laboratory buildings. In this schema, domain specific knowledge is embedded in to the BIM system as to make explicit design metrics that can help designers and engineers to assess the performance of design alternatives. The implementation of generative design assessments during PCD can help designers and engineers to identify design issues early in the process, reducing the number of revisions and reconfigurations in later stages of design. And generally improving design performance.
keywords Heating ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC), Building Information Models (BIM), Generative Design Assessment
series CAAD Futures
email hshewardga3@gatech.edu
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id caadria2011_002
id caadria2011_002
authors Bernal, Marcelo
year 2011
title Analysis model for incremental precision along design stages
source Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / The University of Newcastle, Australia 27-29 April 2011, pp. 19-18
summary With current energy analysis tools, architects and engineers cannot rely on the results of energy analyses because they do not report their level of precision. In addition, current tools also do not deliver feedback in real time. Thus, this research addresses the challenge of obtaining feedback in real-time while gradually increasing precision along design stages. For this purpose, this study merges parametric modelling (PM) technologies and the performance-based design (PBD) paradigm into a general design model. The model is based on a parametric and an energy analysis model that share the parameters of a building. The modular architecture of the model involves four main function types: an input processor, optional analysis functions embedding different calculation methods, a decision-maker, and a report generator function. For every step of the design evolution, the decisionmaker function generates a specific tree of analysis functions.
keywords Performance; decision-making; extensibility; knowledgebased design; design automation
series CAADRIA
email marcelo.bernal@gatech.edu
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id ijac20109301
id ijac20109301
authors Biloria, Nimish
year 2011
title InfoMatters, a multi-agent systems approach for generating performative architectural formations
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 9 - no. 3, 205-222
summary The research paper exemplifies upon a computationally intensive inter-disciplinary research driven design investigation into spatializing the relationship between digital information and physical matter. Focusing on the development of architectural scale urban inserts, the design-research work operates on the intersection of information technology, environmental design, architecture, and computer aided manufacturing domains.The research framework revolves around developing a seamless integration of the aforementioned disciplines in order to establish iterative simulation driven methodologies for generating bottom-up sustainable architectural formations. This is achieved by establishing parametrically driven relational linkages between differential data sets (environmental, social, topological, material etc), which formulate the context (both global and local) within which the proposed project has to be designed. A selforganizing multi-agent system based simulation methodology for generating resultant spatial formations, in time, based on the impacts of the parametric relationships between the aforementioned data sets is eventually embarked upon. This implies, understanding the site as a dynamic information field within which interdependent ecology of agents (representing typology of people, program, structure, speed, desired social interaction etc) with multi-level relational affinities amongst each other as well as the dynamic urban information field. The resultant self-organized multi-agent formations are iteratively mined for identifying logical three-dimensional structural patterns or subjected to programmatic and environmental need driven additional layer of structural simulation with pre-embedded material restraints. An optimized system of multi-performative components that not only populates but also serves as an integrated structural + skin system of the results obtained from the agent based simulations (based upon the degree of inclusion/exclusion of parameters such as the amount of light, sound, wind etc) is subsequently generated. These experimental projects attained the status of self-evolving ecologies of multi-dimensional agents with embodied behavioural profiles, thus providing engaged, highly interdependent design by simulation outputs. The outputs showcase a dynamic system's driven approach towards sustainable design by stressing upon the idea of cohesively binding information and material systems from the very beginning of the design process. Such approaches help in reducing post-optimization of built form and consequently allow for rational understanding of performance criteria and its impact on formal articulations throughout the design process.
series journal
last changed 2019/05/24 07:55

_id cf2011_p165
id cf2011_p165
authors Chasznar, Andre
year 2011
title Navigating Complex Models in Collaborative Work for (Sustainably) Integrated Design
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 619-636.
summary Increasingly intensive use of computational techniques such as parametric-associative modeling, algorithmic design, performance simulations and generative design in architecture, engineering and construction are leading to increasingly large and complex 3D building models which in turn require increasingly powerful techniques in order to be manipulated and interpreted effectively. Further complexities are of course due also to the multi-disciplinary nature of building projects, in which there can be significant variation and even conflict among the aims of architects, engineers and builders, as well as owners, occupants and other stakeholders in the process. Effective use of model information depends to a large extent on sense-making, which can in some ways be helped but also hindered by schemes for organizing the information contained. Common techniques such as layering, labeling (aka ‘tagging’) and assignment of various other attributes to model objects have significant limitations – especially those arising from general problems of language, ontology and standardization, as well as but distinct from issues of interoperability – both with respect to locating the desired items in a 3D building model and also with respect to displaying the objects in informative ways which effectively assist collaborative design and decision-making. Sustainable design in particular is an area generally requiring a high level of inter-disciplinary collaboration to achieve highly integrated designs which make multiple use of the elements and systems incorporated (though integrated design may also be pursued without explicit aims of sustainability). The proposed paper describes ongoing research concerning alternatives to the currently common techniques for locating and displaying information in 3D building models in support of sense-making to promote collaborative and integrated design. These alternatives comprise on the one hand interactive geometric-content-based methods for search and classification of model objects – as an alternative or complement to common assigned-attribute-based methods – and on the other hand visual analytic techniques – in contrast to existing, relatively static tabular and "physical" views – which can help to increase the informativeness of the geometric data within the model, as well as the non-geometric data that is attached to geometric objects (e.g. as in the cases of BIM and various types of CAE performance simulations). Tests undertaken with architects and engineers in practice and academia to evaluate the proposed methods are also described. Finally conclusions are drawn regarding these methods’ positive present performance and some of their shortcomings, as well as indicating directions for future research concerning the methods’ refinement and extension to help 3D building models become more effective components of the design process than they are at present, both with respect to these models’ present levels of complexity and especially with respect to their anticipated increasing complexity in future.
keywords CAD/CAE/BIM, content-based search, visual analytics
series CAAD Futures
email a.t.chaszar@tudelft.nl
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ecaade2011_020
id ecaade2011_020
authors de la Barrera Poblete, Carlos Ignacio
year 2011
title Evolutionary Strategy to Design Optimized Architecture
source RESPECTING FRAGILE PLACES [29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-9-4912070-1-3], University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture (Slovenia) 21-24 September 2011, pp.293-301
summary The purpose of the present experiment consists in optimizing a building modifying its apertures (windows) and its geometry to reduce heating and air conditioning consumption. The optimization is performed using a Micro-Genetic Algorithm (Micro-GAs) programmed in C# embedded like a series of functions into GenerativeComponents (GC). EnergyPlus (E+) software is used to evaluate the HVAC consumption levels of the building. The aim of the optimization is to keep the temperature at 20ºC on the hottest and coldest day using the least possible energy (Jules). In conclusion, this article proposes a new technique based on parametric modelling, evaluation and evolutionary optimization to generate efficient buildings with HVAC consumptions.
wos WOS:000335665500033
keywords Optimization; Parametric design; Genetic Algorithms; Energy Consumption; Architecture
series eCAADe
email cidelab@gmail.com
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id cf2011_p027
id cf2011_p027
authors Herssens, Jasmien; Heylighen Ann
year 2011
title A Framework of Haptic Design Parameters for Architects: Sensory Paradox Between Content and Representation
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 685-700.
summary Architects—like other designers—tend to think, know and work in a visual way. In design research, this way of knowing and working is highly valued as paramount to design expertise (Cross 1982, 2006). In case of architecture, however, it is not only a particular strength, but may as well be regarded as a serious weakness. The absence of non-visual features in traditional architectural spatial representations indicates how these are disregarded as important elements in conceiving space (Dischinger 2006). This bias towards vision, and the suppression of other senses—in the way architecture is conceived, taught and critiqued—results in a disappearance of sensory qualities (Pallasmaa 2005). Nevertheless, if architects design with more attention to non visual senses, they are able to contribute to more inclusive environments. Indeed if an environment offers a range of sensory triggers, people with different sensory capacities are able to navigate and enjoy it. Rather than implementing as many sensory triggers as possible, the intention is to make buildings and spaces accessible and enjoyable for more people, in line with the objective of inclusive design (Clarkson et al. 2007), also called Design for All or Universal Design (Ostroff 2001). Within this overall objective, the aim of our study is to develop haptic design parameters that support architects during design in paying more attention to the role of haptics, i.e. the sense of touch, in the built environment by informing them about the haptic implications of their design decisions. In the context of our study, haptic design parameters are defined as variables that can be decided upon by designers throughout the design process, and the value of which determines the haptic characteristics of the resulting design. These characteristics are based on the expertise of people who are congenitally blind, as they are more attentive to non visual information, and of professional caregivers working with them. The parameters do not intend to be prescriptive, nor to impose a particular method. Instead they seek to facilitate a more inclusive design attitude by informing designers and helping them to think differently. As the insights from the empirical studies with people born blind and caregivers have been reported elsewhere (Authors 2010), this paper starts by outlining the haptic design parameters resulting from them. Following the classification of haptics into active, dynamic and passive touch, the built environment unfolds into surfaces that can act as “movement”, “guiding” and/or “rest” plane. Furthermore design techniques are suggested to check the haptic qualities during the design process. Subsequently, the paper reports on a focus group interview/workshop with professional architects to assess the usability of the haptic design parameters for design practice. The architects were then asked to try out the parameters in the context of a concrete design project. The reactions suggest that the participating architects immediately picked up the underlying idea of the parameters, and recognized their relevance in relation to the design project at stake, but that their representation confronts us with a sensory paradox: although the parameters question the impact of the visual in architectural design, they are meant to be used by designers, who are used to think, know and work in a visual way.
keywords blindness, design parameters, haptics, inclusive design, vision
series CAAD Futures
email jherssens@gmail.com
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id acadia11_52
id acadia11_52
authors Iwamoto, Lisa; Scott, Craig
year 2011
title Material Computation: Voussoir cloud
source ACADIA 11: Integration through Computation [Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA)] [ISBN 978-1-6136-4595-6] Banff (Alberta) 13-16 October, 2011, pp. 52-55
summary In contrast to such structurally pure models, the power of computation has opened possibilities for at once muddying and synthesizing geometry, structure and material performance. Where the earlier twentieth century experiments employed a more or less uniform tectonic based on symmetrical structural diagrams, contemporary analysis and design techniques can efficiently adapt a material system to address variable, localized, and non-symmetrical loading conditions. This has resulted in projects characterized by non-optimized structural forms that register the impacts of geometry on material behavior with a deviated tectonic system.
series ACADIA
type keynote paper
email liwamoto@berkeley.edu
last changed 2011/10/06 04:05

_id cf2011_p075
id cf2011_p075
authors Janssen, Patrick; Chen Kian Wee
year 2011
title Visual Dataflow Modelling: A Comparison of Three Systems
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 801-816.
summary Visual programming languages enable users to create computer programs by manipulating graphical elements rather than by entering text. The difference between textual languages and visual languages is that most textual languages use a procedural programming model, while most visual languages use a dataflow programming model. When visual programming is applied to design, it results in a new modelling approach that we refer to 'visual dataflow modelling' (VDM). Recently, VDM has becoming increasingly popular within the design community, as it can accelerate the iterative design process, thereby allowing larger numbers of design possibilities to be explored. Furthermore, it is now also becoming an important tool in performance-based design approaches, since it may potentially enable the closing of the loop between design development and design evaluation. A number of CAD systems now provide VDM interfaces, allowing designers to define form generating procedures without having to resort to scripting or programming. However, these environments have certain weaknesses that limit their usability. This paper will analyse these weaknesses by comparing and contrasting three VDM environments: McNeel Grasshopper, Bentley Generative Components, and Sidefx Houdini. The paper will focus on five key areas: * Conditional logic allow rules to be applied to geometric entities that control how they behave. Such rules will typically be defined as if-then-else conditions, where an action will be executed if a particular condition is true. A more advanced version of this is the while loop, where the action within the loop will be repeatedly executed while a certain condition remains true. * Local coordinate systems allow geometric entities to be manipulated relative to some convenient local point of reference. These systems may be either two-dimensional or three-dimensional, using either Cartesian, cylindrical, or spherical systems. Techniques for mapping geometric entities from one coordinate system to another also need to be considered. * Duplication includes three types: simple duplication, endogenous duplication, and exogenous duplication. Simple duplication consists of copying some geometric entity a certain number of times, producing identical copies of the original. Endogenous duplication consist of copying some geometric entity by applying a set of transformations that are defined as part of the duplication process. Lastly, exogenous duplication consists of copying some geometric entity by applying a set of transformations that are defined by some other external geometry. * Part-whole relationships allow geometric entities to be grouped in various ways, based on the fundamental set-theoretic concept that entities can be members of sets, and sets can be members of other sets. Ways of aggregating data into both hierarchical and non-hierarchical structures, and ways of filtering data based on these structures need to be considered. * Spatial queries include relationships between geometric entities such as touching, crossing, overlapping, or containing. More advanced spatial queries include various distance based queries and various sorting queries (e.g. sorting all entities based on position) and filtering queries (e.g. finding all entities with a certain distance from a point). For each of these five areas, a simple benchmarking test case has been developed. For example, for conditional logic, the test case consists of a simple room with a single window with a condition: the window should always be in the longest north-facing wall. If the room is rotated or its dimensions changed, then the window must re-evaluate itself and possibly change position to a different wall. For each benchmarking test-case, visual programs are implemented in each of the three VDM environments. The visual programs are then compared and contrasted, focusing on two areas. First, the type of constructs used in each of these environments are compared and contrasted. Second, the cognitive complexity of the visual programming task in each of these environments are compared and contrasted.
keywords visual, dataflow, programming, parametric, modelling
series CAAD Futures
email patrick@janssen.name
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ecaade2012_046
id ecaade2012_046
authors Juvancic, Matevz ; Zupancic, Tadeja
year 2012
title Evaluation system for Content and Language Integrated Learning in Architecture Using Immersive Environments
source Achten, Henri; Pavlicek, Jiri; Hulin, Jaroslav; Matejovska, Dana (eds.), Digital Physicality - Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1 / ISBN 978-9-4912070-2-0, Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture (Czech Republic) 12-14 September 2012, pp. 115-123
summary Based on the experience from EU project ARCHI21 (Hunter et al, 2011) and long-term commitment to research of architectural presentations and educational approaches to expert and non-expert public (i.e. Juvancic, Mullins & Zupancic, 2012), the paper aims to clarify the terms used in CLIL-architecture context, identify the variables that have, in practice so far, proven to infl uence the learning outcome and learning experience both in architectural and language sense, and systematize the findings into the useful system. The result can be envisioned as the potential ‘ladder of the CLIL & architecture integration‘. The system would be of help to anyone trying to integrate language learning at different stages of architectural education, pointing out the required fundamentals, predicting the possible learning outcomes or benchmarking them after the experience. The basic terms/variables divided into three major infl uencing groups - competence, work environment and course settings - are described first, proceeded with the scheme connecting them into the system and two actual examples ‘run’ through the matrix for illustrative purposes. The paper also looks specifi cally into the use of different immersive environments and digital communication tools for teaching the architecture/design–other language combination and adapts the system to this segment, while also briefly comments on learners and teachers responses to CLIL-architecture integration.
wos WOS:000330322400011
keywords Architecture; immersive environments; CLIL; evaluation; teaching; Archi21
series eCAADe
email matevz.juvancic@fa.uni-lj.si
last changed 2014/04/14 11:07

_id ecaade2011_172
id ecaade2011_172
authors Okuda, Shinya; Ping, Chua Liang
year 2011
title Form Follows Performance: Structural Optimisation and the Cost-effectiveness of Digital Fabrication
source RESPECTING FRAGILE PLACES [29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-9-4912070-1-3], University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture (Slovenia) 21-24 September 2011, pp.837-842
summary The presented paper describes a series of studio-based research projects on structural optimisation and the cost-effectiveness of digital fabrication that aim to balance stress distribution across thick walls or a rib density of slabs. As a consequence of the structural optimisations, the results tend to be non-uniform shapes that are not ideal for cost-effective fabrication. This paper introduces a few simple models to balance structural optimisation and fabrication cost-effectiveness. It involves relatively simple structural simulations as the design inputs, and then converts the simulation results into various architectural forms using parametric 3D modelling tool (McNeel Rhinoceros v4, Grasshopper v0.8) before fabricating them using digital fabrication technologies. The major challenge of this study is how to translate simulation results into architectural components/overall building shapes and how to fabricate complex forms in a cost-effective manner.
wos WOS:000335665500096
keywords Digital Fabrication; Mass Customisation; Cost-effectiveness; Structural Optimization; Parametric
series eCAADe
email akiso@nus.edu.sg
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id cf2011_p116
id cf2011_p116
authors Stavric, Milena; Wiltsche Albert
year 2011
title Ornamental Plate Shell Structures
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 817-832.
summary The development of digital technologies in the last twenty years has led to an unprecedented formal freedom in design and in the representation in virtual space. Combining non-standard geometry with CAD tools enables a new way of expression and realization of architectural ideas and conceptions. The transformation of a virtual double-curved surface into a buildable physical structure and object is always accompanied by huge costs and big problems like geometric and statical ones. Our structure is a type of shell structure consisting of plane panels. The load bearing system is organized in a way so that the forces are distributed along the edges of the plane elements. A structure with plane elements supports a high stiffness in combination with a relatively small overall weight. This is due to smooth curved shape of the geometry. We show geometric methods how to control the construction of curved surfaces out of planar building elements. The approach is based on the discretization of the surfaces by plane elements derived from tangent planes. The novel process in this work is that we take the surface curvature at local points into account. This solves former problems which occurred when intersecting the planes. The fact that there is an infinite number of possibilities when selecting tangent planes on a surface raises the issue of the way and conditions which make it possible to select specific tangent planes whose intersection would produce a desired three-dimensional shape. In order to satisfy also aesthetical requirements we engage plane geometrical patterns and ornaments and transfer them into spatial shape. So a three-dimensional ornamental shape is deduced from a two-dimensional ornament. Another task which will be showed is how to limit the infinite range of possibilities to generate a preferred spatial ornament and on what conditions surface tessellation would be ornamental in character, i.e. it would generate not only the functional, but also the aesthetic component of a free-form surface.
keywords ornament, discretization, free-form surfaces
series CAAD Futures
email mstavric@tugraz.at
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ijac20109202
id ijac20109202
authors van Embden, Maria Vera; Andres, Michela Turrin, Peter von Buelow
year 2011
title ARCHITECTURAL DNA: A genetic exploration of complex structures
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 9 - no. 2, 133-150
summary The approach demonstrated in this paper uses Evolutionary Computation (EC) to enhance and modify structural form based on biological micro structures.The forms are modified to conform to new boundary conditions associated with architectural structures.The process is based on a Genetic Algorithm (GA) which visually exposes for the designer a range of good performing solutions within thedesign space. The application of the GA is combined with parametric software, in this case Generative Components (GC). The program described here as ParaGen (Parametric Genetic Algorithm), uses a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to determine the structural performance of the forms.This allows the designer to manipulate and optimize a parametrically defined model based on predefined criteria and parameters.The opportunities and limitations of this design process are explored and evaluated based on an experimental case study using topologies based on radiolarian skeletons.The design procedure described includes user interaction in the exploration of solutions that perform well both for the explicitly defined programmatic criteria (structural) as well as for the implicit criteria provided by the designer (visual aesthetic).
keywords structural morphology, parametric design, genetic algorithm, structural optimization.
series journal
last changed 2019/05/24 07:55

_id ijac201310105
id ijac201310105
authors Agkathidis, Asterios and Andre_ Brown
year 2013
title Tree-Structure Canopy:A Case Study in Design and Fabrication of Complex Steel Structures using Digital Tools
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 11 - no. 1, 87-104
summary This paper describes and reflects on the design and manufacturing process of the Tree-Structure canopy for the WestendGate Tower in Frankfurt upon Main, completed early 2011.The project investigated fabrication and assembly principles of complex steel structures as well as the integration of contemporary computational design, engineering, optimization and simulation techniques in a collaborative design approach. This paper focuses on the notion of modular standardization as opposed to non standard customized components. It also engages with issues relating to digital production tools and their impact on construction cost, material performance and tolerances. In addition it examines the reconfiguration of liability during a planning and construction process, an aspect which can be strongly determined by fabrication companies rather than the architect or designer.This paper is written as a reflection on the complete building process when contemporary digital tools are used from design through to fabrication. It studies both the generation of the steel structure as well the ETFE cushion skin. It reports on a collaborative project, where the main author was responsible for the canopies design, parameterization, digitalization and fabrication, as well as for the dissemination of the outcomes and findings during the design and realization process.As such it represents an example of research through design in a contemporary and evolving field.The canopy received a design award by the Hellenic Architecture Association.
series journal
last changed 2019/05/24 07:55

_id acadiaregional2011_032
id acadiaregional2011_032
authors Castellano, Devan
year 2011
title Humanizing Parametricism
source Parametricism (SPC) ACADIA Regional 2011 Conference Proceedings
summary As we increase the complexity and correlations of variables that are critical to the design of a project, we are becoming increasingly aware of the possibilities emerging from a computer integrated design process. There is such great opportunity to use these tools to manage and analyze multi variable design information, yet there is still much criticism of the design solutions created from computational design. These design solutions have been said to be “lacking any character, cultural influence, human engagement, or communication” and that “most of our contemporary architecture has forsaken this dimension of architectural discourse and it’s potential for exceptional spaces.” The current focus of computational investigation is primarily limited to building performance and optimization. Buildings that are designed from a purely optimizational construct without acknowledging the users desires and needs are falling short in creating “places”. Optimization can be the end result, but the constructs that are being optimized must be broadened to address all facets of a project. Computational design has emerged because it has the capacity to resolve multiple constraints and deal with extreme complexity of variables. By optimizing a more holistic set of constraints, computational architecture can truly provide comprehensive design solutions.
series ACADIA
last changed 2011/07/08 09:17

_id acadiaregional2011_018
id acadiaregional2011_018
authors Vrana, Andrew; Joe Meppelink
year 2011
title Perforating Material Performance: Ceiling Cloud
source Parametricism (SPC) ACADIA Regional 2011 Conference Proceedings
summary The focus of this project was to design a ceiling system within a new Materials Resource Center in the Architecture Building that would embody the potential of parametric design and digital fabrication to rethink a generic interior architectural system. The instructors and students in a combined design studio and digital fabrication seminar developed a Ceiling Cloud that clips on to a modified suspended ceiling grid using lightweight folded aluminum panels that are designed to incrementally change dimension and drape into the space below. Constraints and variables within the parametric models allowed for the optimization and extraction of 150 unique panels that are also perforated with their own individual pattern. The variations in the folded surface disburse and dissipate sound through refraction and absorption created by the corrugation in the panels and their perforation. The holes are also calibrated as a gradient to allow more light to penetrate in the center of the space away from the perimeter walls. The project was prototyped by the students as the College of Architecture and partially realized with the help of industrial partners in Houston. The studio was co-directed with Visiting Critic Scott Marble who provided a framework to conduct the studio’s exploration and several successful projects as precedent.
series ACADIA
last changed 2011/07/08 09:17

_id c04a
id c04a
authors Krause D, Derix C and Gamlesaeter A
year 2011
title The Virtual Building Simulator: a Post-Parametric Spatial Planning Environment
source Proceedings of Construction Applications of Virtual Reality, Weimar, 2011
summary The described research of Fraunhofer IAO and AEDAS CDR examines the potential of post-parametric computational design together with immersive methods like Virtual Reality. The industrial approach of frontloading identifies the early design stage as crucial for all subsequent processes and the overall sustainability of future building projects. There VR together with innovative planning simulation methods allow to manage building models as complex systems for long-term planning reliability from construction to building operation. The Virtual Building Simulator represents a prototype of a design platform where the designer-user can immersive himself via VR into the interactive spatial formation process. The process synthesizes parametric constraints with design intent and algorithmic behavioural logics.
keywords Knowledge-based Processes, Algorithmic Design, Spatial Planning, VRfx
series other
type normal paper
email christian.derix@aedas.com
more http://aedasresearch.com/files/publications/CONVR_2011_Paper_Virtual_Building_Simulator_finish.pdf
last changed 2012/09/20 15:19

_id cf2011_p109
id cf2011_p109
authors Abdelmohsen, Sherif; Lee Jinkook, Eastman Chuck
year 2011
title Automated Cost Analysis of Concept Design BIM Models
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 403-418.
summary AUTOMATED COST ANALYSIS OF CONCEPT DESIGN BIM MODELS Interoperability: BIM models and cost models This paper introduces the automated cost analysis developed for the General Services Administration (GSA) and the analysis results of a case study involving a concept design courthouse BIM model. The purpose of this study is to investigate interoperability issues related to integrating design and analysis tools; specifically BIM models and cost models. Previous efforts to generate cost estimates from BIM models have focused on developing two necessary but disjoint processes: 1) extracting accurate quantity take off data from BIM models, and 2) manipulating cost analysis results to provide informative feedback. Some recent efforts involve developing detailed definitions, enhanced IFC-based formats and in-house standards for assemblies that encompass building models (e.g. US Corps of Engineers). Some commercial applications enhance the level of detail associated to BIM objects with assembly descriptions to produce lightweight BIM models that can be used by different applications for various purposes (e.g. Autodesk for design review, Navisworks for scheduling, Innovaya for visual estimating, etc.). This study suggests the integration of design and analysis tools by means of managing all building data in one shared repository accessible to multiple domains in the AEC industry (Eastman, 1999; Eastman et al., 2008; authors, 2010). Our approach aims at providing an integrated platform that incorporates a quantity take off extraction method from IFC models, a cost analysis model, and a comprehensive cost reporting scheme, using the Solibri Model Checker (SMC) development environment. Approach As part of the effort to improve the performance of federal buildings, GSA evaluates concept design alternatives based on their compliance with specific requirements, including cost analysis. Two basic challenges emerge in the process of automating cost analysis for BIM models: 1) At this early concept design stage, only minimal information is available to produce a reliable analysis, such as space names and areas, and building gross area, 2) design alternatives share a lot of programmatic requirements such as location, functional spaces and other data. It is thus crucial to integrate other factors that contribute to substantial cost differences such as perimeter, and exterior wall and roof areas. These are extracted from BIM models using IFC data and input through XML into the Parametric Cost Engineering System (PACES, 2010) software to generate cost analysis reports. PACES uses this limited dataset at a conceptual stage and RSMeans (2010) data to infer cost assemblies at different levels of detail. Functionalities Cost model import module The cost model import module has three main functionalities: generating the input dataset necessary for the cost model, performing a semantic mapping between building type specific names and name aggregation structures in PACES known as functional space areas (FSAs), and managing cost data external to the BIM model, such as location and construction duration. The module computes building data such as footprint, gross area, perimeter, external wall and roof area and building space areas. This data is generated through SMC in the form of an XML file and imported into PACES. Reporting module The reporting module uses the cost report generated by PACES to develop a comprehensive report in the form of an excel spreadsheet. This report consists of a systems-elemental estimate that shows the main systems of the building in terms of UniFormat categories, escalation, markups, overhead and conditions, a UniFormat Level III report, and a cost breakdown that provides a summary of material, equipment, labor and total costs. Building parameters are integrated in the report to provide insight on the variations among design alternatives.
keywords building information modeling, interoperability, cost analysis, IFC
series CAAD Futures
email sherif.morad@gatech.edu
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ecaade2011_099
id ecaade2011_099
authors Ahlquist, Sean; Menges, Achim
year 2011
title Methodological Approach for the Integration of Material Information and Performance in the Design Computation for Tension-Active Architectural Systems
source RESPECTING FRAGILE PLACES [29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-9-4912070-1-3], University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture (Slovenia) 21-24 September 2011, pp.799-808
summary As computational design processes have moved from representation to simulation, the focus has shifted towards advanced integration of performance as a form defining measure. Performance, though, is often assessed purely on the level of geometry and stratified between hierarchically independent layers. When looking at tension-active membrane systems, performance is integrated across multiple levels and with only the membrane material itself, defining the structural, spatial and atmospheric qualities. The research described in this paper investigates the integrative nature of this type of lightweight structure and proposes methodologies for generating highly articulated and differentiated systems. As material is a critical component, the research focuses on a system-based approach which places priority on the inclusion of material research and parameterization into a behavior-based computational process.
wos WOS:000335665500092
keywords Material behavior; material computation; system; gestalt; tension-active system
series eCAADe
email sean.ahlquist@icd.uni-stuttgart.de
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

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