CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ecaade2011_122
id ecaade2011_122
authors Chronis, Angelos; Jagannath, Prarthana; Siskou, Vasiliki Aikaterini; Jones, Jonathan
year 2011
title Sensing digital co-presence and digital identity: Visualizing the Bluetooth landscape of the City of Bath
source RESPECTING FRAGILE PLACES [29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-9-4912070-1-3], University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture (Slovenia) 21-24 September 2011, pp.87-92
summary The impact of ubiquitous digital technologies on the analysis and synthesis of our urban environment is undoubtedly great. The urban topography is overlaid by an invisible, yet very tangible digital topography that is increasingly affecting our urban life. As W. J. Mitchell (Mitchell 2005) pointed out, the digital revolution has filled our world with “electronic instruments of displacement” that “embed the virtual in the physical, and weave it seamlessly into daily urban life”. The mobile phone, the most integrated mobile device is closely related to the notion of a digital identity, our personal identity on this digital space. The Bluetooth is the mainly used direct communication protocol between mobile phones today and in this scope, each device has its own unique ID, its “MAC address”. This paper investigates the potential use of recording and analysing Bluetooth enabled devices in the urban scale in understanding the interrelation between the physical and the digital topographies.
wos WOS:000335665500009
keywords Pervasive systems; digital presence; urban encounter; digital identity
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id cf2011_p019
id cf2011_p019
authors Haeusler, Matthias Hank; Beilharz Kirsty
year 2011
title Architecture = Computer‚ from Computational to Computing Environments
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 217-232.
summary Drawing on architecture, urban digital media, engineering, IT and interaction design, the research presented in this paper outlines a possible shift from architecture designed through computation (any type of process, algorithm or measurement done in a computational matter) towards architecture capable of computing (developing, using and improving computer technology, computer hardware and software as a space-defining element). The research is driven by recent developments in four fields, as follows: (a) Architecture in its recent development has shifted from a planar box, as was the ideal in the modernist movement, towards complex and non-standard forms. (b) The design concepts of non-standard surfaces have been adopted into media facades and media architecture by liberating the pixel from its planar position on a screen [1]. (c) Advancements in pervasive computing applications are now able both to receive information from the environment in which they are used and to detect other devices that enter this environment [2]. (d) Developments in advanced autonomous systems such as Human Computer Interaction (HCI) or Human Robot Interaction (HRI), have produced intelligent systems capable of observing human cues and using these cues as the basis for intelligent decision-making [3]. Media fa_ßade developments work in the direction of the above-mentioned four fields, but often come with limitations in architectural integration; they need additional components to interact with their environment and their interactions are both often limited to visual interactions and require the user to act first. The researched system, Polymedia Pixel [4] discussed in this paper, can overcome these limitations and fulfil the need for a space-defining material capable of computing, thus enabling a shift from architecture designed by computation towards architecture capable of active computing. The Polymedia Pixel architecture merges digital technology with ubiquitous computing. This allows the built environment and its relation with digital technology to develop from (a) architecture being represented by computer to (b) computation being used to develop architecture and then further to where (c) architecture and the space-defining objects have computing attributes. Hence the study presented aims to consider and answer this key question: ‚ÄòWhen building components with computing capacity can define space and function as a computer at the same time, what are the constraints for the building components and what are the possible advantages for the built environment?‚Äô The conceptual framework, design and methods used in this research combine three fields: (a) hardware (architecture and design, electronic engineering) (b) software (content design and IT) and (c) interaction design (HCI and HRI). Architecture and urban design determinates the field of application. Media architecture and computer science provide the technological foundation, while the field of interaction design defines the methodology to link space and computing [5]. The conceptual starting point is to rethink the application of computers in architecture and, if architecture is capable of computing, what kind of methodology and structure would find an answer to the above core research question, and what are the implications of the question itself? The case study discusses opportunities for applying the Polymedia Pixel as an architectural component by testing it on: (a) constraint testing ‚Äì applying computational design methodologies to design space (b) singular testing - discussing the advantages for an individual building, and (c) plural testing ‚Äì investigating the potential for an urban context. The research aims to contribute to the field of knowledge through presenting first steps of a System < - > System mode where buildings can possibly watch and monitor each other, additional to the four primary interactive modes of operation. This investigation, its proposed hypothesis, methodology, implications, significance and evaluation are presented in the paper.
keywords media architecture, computational environments, ubiquitous computing, interaction design, computer science
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ecaade2011_021
id ecaade2011_021
authors Asanowicz, Aleksander
year 2011
title Digital “serial vision” - new approach in urban composition teaching
source RESPECTING FRAGILE PLACES [29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-9-4912070-1-3], University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture (Slovenia) 21-24 September 2011, pp.716-724
summary The paper discusses the following problem: How can digital technology are integrated with urban composition teaching to provide a better understanding of the aesthetical and emotional aspects of the city? It argues for the current need for an integration of computer modelling and the approaches developed form the work of K. Lynch, G. Cullen, R. Krier, F. Ching. The paper is based on the experience in design studio teaching and an experiment completed with students. The exercise shows the students that different spatial organization may cause different emotions according to the treatment of space-defining elements. The paper presents the background and context as well as describes the experimental environment and the student work.
wos WOS:000335665500083
keywords Urban composition; serial vision; computer animation
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id cf2011_p049
id cf2011_p049
authors Hii Jun Chung, Daniel; Chye Kiang Heng, Lai Choo Malone Lee, Ji Zhang
year 2011
title Analyzing the Ventilation Performance of Tropical High Density Residential Precincts using Computational Fluid Dynamics
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 351-366.
summary Major cities in the world are getting bigger as they continue to grow to cater for more population increase. These cities normally forced the urban planning to go high density. In the tropical context, high density cities like Singapore and Hong Kong do not have the luxury of space to go low rise and compact. These cities have to build to the floor area ratio of 4 and above to cater for the population. Their only solution is to go up, as high as possible, to the extent that the natural wind flow pattern will be altered, which brings environmental impact to the people. This is generally not good since wind flow helps to maintain the thermal comfort of the people as heat and pollutants are being channeled out of the city to avoid Urban Heat Island effect. In the tropical context, wind flow is crucial to maintain people’s comfort as the temperature is generally very high from the exposure of the sun for the entire year. Studies have shown that wind flow plays the most significant part in maintaining human comfort despite exposing to direct sunlight in the tropics. Therefore, wind flow analysis is extremely crucial to make the design sustainable and energy efficient, as people will not have to depend on mechanical ventilation to compensate for the lack of wind flow. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has always been used in the field of architecture, urban design and urban planning to understand the patterns of wind flow through the built environment apart from wind tunnel tests. The availability of more powerful hardware for the mainstream computer users as well as the lowering costs of these computers made CFD more possible to be adopted in the design world today. This also means using CFD in the design process, especially to analyze the impact of the design to the current site conditions and annual wind patterns will help the new design to be more responsive to the site. The interest of this paper is to analyze the high density typologies to see how well they respond to the local wind flow pattern. A typology is considered acceptable when the wind flow going through the site is still maintaining acceptable wind speed. This means it does not block off the wind and create stagnant spaces. Different designs generate different typologies which will respond differently to the wind pattern. The study aims at comparing the local high density typologies in terms of their response to the wind. Changes to a typology can be explored too to see if the performance will be different. For a typology which is considered a total failure in terms of response to wind, it may improve its performance if the orientation is altered. The CFD software can also parametrically respond to the changes of the typologies’ dimensions. This is helpful to see how much more a typology can still be performing well before failure by increasing the floor area index. The easiest way to do this is to pump up the building height. In conclusion, designing in response to wind is extremely important as it is more sustainable and responsive to Urban Heat Island effect. A design which responds well to the wind patterns will help save cost of cooling load and fan expenditure. The people will also be more willing to use the outdoor spaces which will as a whole generate more vibrant city spaces. As a result, a high density city with huge population count can still enjoy good thermal comfort if the general urban planning and design respond well to wind.
keywords computational fluid dynamics, sustainability, high density, urban design, airflow, ventilation
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id eaea2015_t1_paper05
id eaea2015_t1_paper05
authors Lobo de Carvalho, Jose Maria; Heitor, Teresa
year 2015
title The Adaptive Reuse of the Arco do Cego ancient Car-Barn Structure in Lisbon
source ENVISIONING ARCHITECTURE: IMAGE, PERCEPTION AND COMMUNICATION OF HERITAGE [ISBN 978-83-7283-681-6],Lodz University of Technology, 23-26 September 2015, pp.61-70
summary This paper presents the example of the reconversion of an important tram station from the origins of electricity in Portugal that was still in use until the late 1990’s but became redundant since then. Its significant urban presence and the importance of preserving the memory of the old trams that were still in use some years ago in Lisbon, led to an innovative solution, combining public value and heritage protection. In 2011, the Lisbon City Council agreed to give the building and its site for university use, namely to be transformed into a student’s facility, as a study, leisure, recreational and cultural space of the IST, open 24h a day. This new university building, located just one block away from the traditional IST compound, was called IST Learning Center and extended the notion of campus outside its walls and into the city’s urban fabric.
keywords reconversion; university; tram
series EAEA
last changed 2016/04/22 09:52

_id caadria2011_032
id caadria2011_032
authors Barker, Tom; Nicole Gardner, M. Hank Haeusler and Martin Tomitsch
year 2011
title Last train to trancentral: From infrastructure to ‘info’structure: a case study of embedding digital technology into existing public transport infrastructures
source Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / The University of Newcastle, Australia 27-29 April 2011, pp. 335-344
summary The research presented in this paper is an investigation into how ubiquitous computing technologies can contribute to improving the quality of existing public transport environments through the integration of responsive technologies. The paper argues that given the significant challenges associated with transport infrastructure expansion including cost, disruption, energy use, and implementation periods augmenting existing transport environments offers alternate measures to manage demand and improve the user experience. The paper proposes improving transport environments by integrating smart, or responsive, digital information into the existing physical fabric in a coherent architectural and spatial context. This approach offers an opportunity to shift away from the static nature of public transport infrastructure to the dynamic notion of public transport ‘info’structure. The research uses an architecture graduate studio as a foundation to investigate the objectives. The contribution of this paper is an investigation of ways in which digital technologies and networked communications can transform and augment public transport infrastructure, allowing new forms of intelligent, adaptive, interactive and self-aware architecture to be developed.
keywords Urban Informatics; media facades; public transport; responsive technologies; smart environments
series CAADRIA
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id caadria2011_035
id caadria2011_035
authors Roudavski, Stanislav and Sonya Parton
year 2011
title Architectural creativity in commercialised cyberspace
source Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / The University of Newcastle, Australia 27-29 April 2011, pp. 365-374
summary This paper is written for architectural researchers, practitioners and educators who explore the potentials of networked, location- aware, rich-media computing. Augmented and networked environments open new possibilities in urban and architectural design. At the same time, their adoption by the mainstream is underpinned – and constrained – by commercial motivations. To be able to counter the consumerist interpretation of inhabitable augmented environments, the field of architecture needs to foster a critical discussion of cyberspace. In turn, architectural education needs to provide students with the knowledge necessary to adopt cyberspace for creative purposes. The purpose of this paper is to invite further discussion and experimentation in this area.
keywords Cyberspace, context-aware computing, locative media, ubiquitous computing, architectural creativity
series CAADRIA
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id ijac20109103
id ijac20109103
authors Jun Chung, Daniel Hii; Malone-Lee Lai Choo
year 2011
title Computational Fluid Dynamics for Urban Design: The Prospects for Greater Integration
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 9 - no. 1, 33-54
summary Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has always been used in the field of architecture, urban design and urban planning to understand the patterns of wind flow through the built environment. Its analysis is important to evaluate whether the natural ventilation through a site is adequate to mitigate heat and pollutant to achieve better human comfort in dense urban environments. However, given the complex operational requirements, the response to wind flow is not always done early enough to support planning and design. This paper seeks to illustrate how CFD analysis can aid planning and design of urban areas and investigates the workflow requirements, in the hope of making the CFD simulations more accessible to the practices and contribute to design decisions. It also looks at the present technological advancements and future prospects to assess the scenarios where emerging technologies can make CFD simulation more readily available with affordable and even mobile hardware installations.
series journal
last changed 2019/05/24 07:55

_id ecaade2011_050
id ecaade2011_050
authors Beirão, José N.; Nourian, Pirouz; Mashhoodi, Bardia
year 2011
title Parametric urban design: An interactive sketching system for shaping neighborhoods
source RESPECTING FRAGILE PLACES [29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-9-4912070-1-3], University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture (Slovenia) 21-24 September 2011, pp.225-234
summary In this paper we show the structure of an urban design parametric system. The system is dynamic and builds an interactive relation with the designer updating the layout and related data at each input change. The responsiveness of the system allows the designer to gain awareness on the qualitative consequences of each design move by comparing a design state with a set of urban indicators and density measures which are automatically calculated along with the geometrical updates.
wos WOS:000335665500025
keywords Parametric urban design; city modelling; urban planning
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ecaaderis2018_103
id ecaaderis2018_103
authors Davidová, Marie and Prokop, Šimon
year 2018
title TreeHugger - The Eco-Systemic Prototypical Urban Intervention
source Odysseas Kontovourkis (ed.), Sustainable Computational Workflows [6th eCAADe Regional International Workshop Proceedings / ISBN 9789491207143], Department of Architecture, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus, 24-25 May 2018, pp. 75-84
keywords The paper discusses co-design, development, production, application of TreeHugger (see Figure 1). The co-design among community and trans-disciplinary participants with different expertise required scope of media mix, switching between analogue, digital and back again. This involves different degrees of physical and digital 'GIGA-Mapping' (Sevaldson, 2011, 2015), 'Grasshopper3d' (Davidson, 2017) scripting and mix of digital and analogue fabrication to address the real life world. The critical participation of this 'Time-Based Design' (Sevaldson, 2004, 2005) process is the interaction of the prototype with eco-systemic agency of the adjacent environment - the eco-systemic performance. The TreeHugger is a responsive solid wood insect hotel, generating habitats and edible landscaping (Creasy, 2004) on bio-tope in city centre of Prague. To extend the impact, the code was uploaded for communities to download, local-specifically edit and apply worldwide. Thus, the fusion of discussed processes is multi-scaled and multi-layered, utilised in emerging design field: Systemic Approach to Architectural Performance.
series eCAADe
last changed 2018/05/29 12:33

_id sigradi2011_271
id sigradi2011_271
authors Gonçalves, Marly de Menezes
year 2011
title O uso da realidade aumentada no espaço urbano [Augmented Reality use in Urban Area]
source SIGraDi 2011 [Proceedings of the 15th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Argentina - Santa Fe 16-18 November 2011, pp. 512-515
summary New technologies have lead to significant changes in man's relationship with spaces, both real and virtual. In this regard, this article seeks to show how augmented reality use in urban areas may complement physical space perception, without spoiling cultural, historical, artistic and scenic city heritage.
keywords Augmented Reality; Visual Identity; Urban Space
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id ecaade2011_104
id ecaade2011_104
authors Jorge Gil, Júlio Almeida, José Pinto Duarte
year 2011
title The backbone of a City Information Model (CIM): Implementing a spatial data model for urban design
source RESPECTING FRAGILE PLACES [29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-9-4912070-1-3], University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture (Slovenia) 21-24 September 2011, pp.143-151
summary We have been witnessing an increased interest in a more holistic approach to urban design practice and education. In this paper we present a spatial data model for urban design that proposes the combination of urban environment feature classes with design process feature classes. This data model is implemented in a spatial database that becomes the backbone of a City Information Model (CIM), integrating urban neighbourhood formulation, design, and evaluation methods into a comprehensive urban design support system. We demonstrate its application to urban design analysis and evaluation through the development of a tool for AutoCAD Map 3D that is integrated with the PostGIS spatial database.
wos WOS:000335665500016
keywords Urban design; data model; GIS; design support tools; urban design evaluation
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ecaade2012_113
id ecaade2012_113
authors Jutraz, Anja ; Zupancic, Tadeja
year 2012
title Digital system of tools for public participation and education in urban design: Exploring 3D ICC
source Achten, Henri; Pavlicek, Jiri; Hulin, Jaroslav; Matejovska, Dana (eds.), Digital Physicality - Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1 / ISBN 978-9-4912070-2-0, Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture (Czech Republic) 12-14 September 2012, pp. 383-392
summary This article is a starting point for the development of experiential urban co-design interfaces to enhance public participation in local urban projects and to be also used as a communication and collaboration tool in urban design. It is based on the previous research involving 3D city models utilized as understandable design interfaces for the non-technical public (Jutraz, Zupancic, 2011), where we have already explored different views (pedestrian, intermediate and bird’s-eye view), as well as the means by which the information obtained from these different views may be combined by shifting between viewpoints. Previous work was conducted in the “street lab” as well as the Urban Experimental Lab, which was developed specifi cally for the public’s participation in urban planning (Voigt, Kieferle, Wössner, 2009). Presented in this article is the next step that explores the immersive collaboration environment 3D ICC [1], formerly known as Teleplace. The environment was developed for effi cient collaboration and remote communication and shifts the research focus towards questions regarding how to employ both labs as interfaces between the non-technical public and design professionals. As we are facing the lack of digital systems for public participation and education in urban design, different digital tools for communication and collaboration should be combined into a new holistic platform for design. A digital system of tools needs to be developed that supports the urban design decision-making process and focuses on improved final solutions and increased satisfaction amongst all participants. In this article the system of digital tools for public participation, which include communication, collaboration and education, will be also defi ned, with its basic characteristics and its elements.
wos WOS:000330322400039
keywords Digital system of tools; collaboration; 3D model; public participation; urban design
series eCAADe
last changed 2014/04/14 11:07

_id sigradi2011_100
id sigradi2011_100
authors Kutschat Hanns, Daniela; De Marchi, Polise Moreira
year 2011
title Estratégias de reconfiguração do espaço urbano – cidade superfície: diálogos entre arte e cidade mediados por intervenções artísticas em fachadas e muros na cidade de São Paulo [Urban space reconfiguration strategies - surface city: dialogs between art and city mediated through artistic interventions on facades and walls in the city of São Paulo]
source SIGraDi 2011 [Proceedings of the 15th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Argentina - Santa Fe 16-18 November 2011, pp. 526-529
summary This paper discusses multiple aspects of the city through examples of artistic interventions which see the city as complex and dynamic layers in constant change. This paper investigates the spatial configuration changes of São Paulo city in material surfaces as facades and walls. The understanding of urban surfaces as "'mediative' spatiality" (Ferrara, 2008) assigns communication categories to urban surfaces; the visual condition is discussed in this paper.
keywords Surface city; art; urban intervention; urban landscape
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:54

_id ijac20109305
id ijac20109305
authors Martens, Bob and Herbert Peter
year 2011
title A Long-term Scope of Actions for Reconstructed Cultural Heritage: Maintaining a Virtual Archive of Nonexisting Synagogues
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 9 - no. 3, 285-302
summary Reconstruction work on more than twenty synagogues in Vienna has been ongoing for more than a decade. The fact that these sacred buildings no longer exist is a pivotal aspect in this undertaking. Research revealed archived material, however, which served as reliable basis for the reconstruction work. The authors discuss details of the process of handling archival research as well as the decision-making process during reconstruction. The paper focuses on the possibilities and limits of this exploration and discusses the long-term options of handling 3D models, also in the light of continuous changes in the software environments used. The dissemination of results to a large audience and the appropriate illustration of spatial contexts is another aspect that has been explored. The publication of results in the form of a city guide is in line with the objective of conveying the reconstruction results to a large audience.
keywords Virtual reconstruction; destroyed synagogue; 3D-Modelling; visual representation; urban context
series journal
last changed 2019/05/24 07:55

_id ecaade2011_070
id ecaade2011_070
authors Montenegro, Nuno; Beirão, José N.; Duarte, José P.
year 2011
title Public Space Patterns: Towards a CIM standard for urban public space
source RESPECTING FRAGILE PLACES [29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-9-4912070-1-3], University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture (Slovenia) 21-24 September 2011, pp.79-86
summary This paper describes public space patterns (PSP) used as basic elements of the City Information Modelling (CIM) model proposed within a larger research project that aims to develop an urban design support tool.
wos WOS:000335665500008
keywords Urban Patterns; CIM; Description Grammars; Ontologies
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id caadria2011_067
id caadria2011_067
authors Neisch, Paulina
year 2011
title Colour-code models: The concept of spatial network
source Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / The University of Newcastle, Australia 27-29 April 2011, pp. 707-716
summary The main goal for the architects or planners is to understand a perspective of the user. The foundation of the design process is to create buildings and environments, which will be both innovative and functional for all types of users, including adults and children. While planning the environments for children the particular aspects should be considered. The important questions are: What kind of contact does child have with the city, urban places and buildings? How does the child construct the picture of the city? What kind of urban or architectural spaces contributes to the relation that a child has with the environment? Most of the previous studies concentrating on creation of spaces for children have focused on the perspectives that have adults. According to CAADRIA 2010 paper, the objective of our study was to “learn about” (get to know the) children’s perception of everyday places. The main goal of the project was to define an appropriate tool for the design process. We identified three elements, which were considered to be the most important for child’s identification with environment: home, school, and the journey from home to school. For this purpose, children living in a residential community in Bangkok were surveyed. Contrariwise to the quantitative approach (Neisch, 2010), the concept of Colour – Code Models of space propose a qualitative development of this research – a graphic language which allow to understand the children’s spatial world, the novel way to analyze and present space, useful for educate architects and planners.
keywords Spatial network; perception and representation of environment; drawing processing; data analyses; design for children
series CAADRIA
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id ecaade2011_154
id ecaade2011_154
authors Piga, Barbara E. A.; Morello, Eugenio; Signorelli, Valerio
year 2011
title The experience of an academic simulation laboratory: The use of visual simulations for education and research
source RESPECTING FRAGILE PLACES [29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-9-4912070-1-3], University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture (Slovenia) 21-24 September 2011, pp.734-742
summary An overview of the research activities of a university simulation laboratory is presented. The mission of the laboratory is to anticipate the design and to support the evaluation process of urban design projects from a perceptual viewpoint through the use of digital and physical models. We have research and educational purposes. Founded five years ago, the laboratory has implemented different simulation tools, often combining existing techniques and finding new applications of existing ones. In particular, we focused our interest on visual perception tools, investigating the use of physical models and digital ones, and combining them in different ways in order to enhance the experience offered by the perceptual simulation.
wos WOS:000335665500085
keywords Visual simulation; city modelling; augmented reality; game engine; simulation laboratory
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id eaea2009_piga
id eaea2009_piga
authors Piga, Barbara E.A.
year 2011
title The Urban Simulation and Projects Evaluation Laboratory at the Politecnico di Milano: An Educational and Research Facility
source Projecting Spaces [Proceedings of the 9th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 978-3-942411-31-8 ], pp. 115-120
summary At the beginning of 2007 an Italian Urban Simulation Laboratory was founded at the Politecnico di Milano. The laboratory, coordinated by prof. Fausto Curti, has been developed thanks to the one year presence of the visiting professor Peter Bosselmann, director of the Environmental Simulation Laboratory at the University of California at Berkeley. The laboratory has an interdisciplinary approach and a threefold mission: experiment, using the laboratory setting to study urban projects at different scales; communicate, aiding public communication by making urban projects understandable to everyone; integrate and innovate, working on different kind of simulations techniques in an integrated way. In its initial experience the laboratory is primarily a didactic and research facility. Students can join the work and participate actively to the research. Until now about 40 students have worked with us, more than a half were foreign students from all over the world. The majority of the students did an internship of about 150 (three-year degree) or 300 (master degree) hours and some of them have continued working after this period developing a thesis. At the moment the case study, used as a pilot research, is about the Porta Nuova project at the Garibaldi- Repubblica area in Milan. The 300.000 mq of the total area and its well served central position make this place strategic for Milan. In this area the adopted urban transformation plan is creating a new business center that affects redevelopment projects, new infrastructures, and a park. The overall project will overhanging the surroundings city center with some of the highest buildings of its skyline. The importance of the site and the dimension of the project make this case significant to test the use of simulation for supporting evaluations about morphological aspects, comfort conditions, visual impacts, and other aspects that directly influence the quality of the new urban spaces. We are now applying different simulation methodologies in order to better understand the peculiar usefulness of each kind as a tool to support evaluation. As any kind has its own limits we work with different typologies at the same time. We are working with 1:500 scale physical model of a 1 km square of the area and different kind of static and dynamic simulations. We developed, with an external office, a micro-car to move a micro-camera in the maquette. We use this equipment to better explain the project implications to the students by producing subjective shot videos or showing a walk in real-time. To reproduce in a better way some relevant walks through the transformed site we have also produced some videos made of a superimposition of the real existing context and the virtual projects. To do this we used a rendered video of the project superimposed to the filmed promenade of the today condition, previously recorded using steadycam. A lot of static simulations has been employed to better understand the new city configuration from some representative points of view, as for example the roof of the Duomo cathedral. We are now developing some other kinds of analysis such as shadows impact; this is done by using a 1:1000 scale maquette in the Heliodon, but also with some digital tools. In the next future a work with the wind tunnel will help to understand some other comfort implications of the project at the micro-urban scale. The multilayer approach is the main aim of the laboratory and is an important tool to clarify the multidimensional project impacts to the students. In this way the laboratory can be a learning tool, it can stimulate the project process and support decision-making while improving the knowledge about the correct use of simulations for evaluating the cumulative implications of the proposed urban processes.
series other
last changed 2011/03/04 07:45

_id cf2011_p152
id cf2011_p152
authors Plume, Jim; Mitchell John
year 2011
title An Urban Information Framework to support Planning, Decision-Making & Urban Design
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 653-668.
summary This paper reports on a 2-year research project undertaken in collaboration with a state planning authority, a major city municipal council and a government-owned development organisation. The project has involved the design of an urban information model framework with the aim of supporting more informed urban planning by addressing the intersection where an individual building interfaces with its urban context. This adopted approach enables new techniques that better model the city and its processes in a transparent and accessible manner. The primary driver for this project was the challenge provided by the essential incompatibility between legacy GIS (geographic information system) datasets and BIM (building information model) representations of the built form. When dealing with urban scale information, GIS technologies use an overlay mapping metaphor linked to traditional relational database technologies to identify features or regions in the urban landscape and attach attribute data to those in order to permit analysis and informed assessment of the urban form. On the other hand, BIM technologies adopt an object-oriented approach to model the full three-dimensional characteristics of built forms in a way that captures both the geometric and physical attributes of the parts that make up a building, as well as the relationships between those parts and the spaces defined by the building fabric. The latter provides a far richer semantic structure to the data, while the former provides robust tools for a wide range of urban analyses. Both approaches are widely recognised as serving well the needs of their respective domains, but there is a widespread belief that we need to reconcile the two disparate approaches to modelling the real world. This project has sought to address that disjunction between modelling approaches. The UrbanIT project concentrated on two aspects of this issue: the development of a framework for managing information at the precinct and building level through the adoption of an object-oriented database technology that provides a platform for information management; and an exploration of ontology tools and how they can be adopted to facilitate semantic information queries across diverse data sources based on a common urban ontology. This paper is focussed on the first of those two agendas, examining the context of the work, the challenges addressed by the framework and the structure of our solution. A prototype implementation of the framework is illustrated through an urban precinct currently undergoing renewal and redevelopment, finishing with a discussion of future work that comes out of this project. Our approach to the implementation of the urban information model has been to propose extensions to ISO/PAS 16739, the international standard for modelling building information that is commonly known as IFC (Industry Foundation Classes). Our reason for adopting that approach is primarily our deep commitment to the adoption of open standards to facilitate the exchange of information across the built environment professions, but also because IFC is based on a robust object schema that can be used to construct a internet-accessible database able, theoretically, to handle the vast quantity of data needed to model urban-scale information. The database solution comes with well-established protocols for handling data security, integrity, versioning and transaction processing or querying. A central issue addressed through this work is concerned with level of detail. An urban information model permits a very precise and detailed representation of an urban precinct, while many planning analyses rely on simplified object representations. We will show that a key benefit of our approach is the ability to simultaneously maintain multiple representations of objects, making use of the concept of model view definitions to manage diverse analysis needs.
keywords urban information modelling, geographic information systems, city models, interoperability, urban planning, open standards
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

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