CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 551

_id cf2011_p127
id cf2011_p127
authors Benros, Deborah; Granadeiro Vasco, Duarte Jose, Knight Terry
year 2011
title Integrated Design and Building System for the Provision of Customized Housing: the Case of Post-Earthquake Haiti
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 247-264.
summary The paper proposes integrated design and building systems for the provision of sustainable customized housing. It advances previous work by applying a methodology to generate these systems from vernacular precedents. The methodology is based on the use of shape grammars to derive and encode a contemporary system from the precedents. The combined set of rules can be applied to generate housing solutions tailored to specific user and site contexts. The provision of housing to shelter the population affected by the 2010 Haiti earthquake illustrates the application of the methodology. A computer implementation is currently under development in C# using the BIM platform provided by Revit. The world experiences a sharp increase in population and a strong urbanization process. These phenomena call for the development of effective means to solve the resulting housing deficit. The response of the informal sector to the problem, which relies mainly on handcrafted processes, has resulted in an increase of urban slums in many of the big cities, which lack sanitary and spatial conditions. The formal sector has produced monotonous environments based on the idea of mass production that one size fits all, which fails to meet individual and cultural needs. We propose an alternative approach in which mass customization is used to produce planed environments that possess qualities found in historical settlements. Mass customization, a new paradigm emerging due to the technological developments of the last decades, combines the economy of scale of mass production and the aesthetics and functional qualities of customization. Mass customization of housing is defined as the provision of houses that respond to the context in which they are built. The conceptual model for the mass customization of housing used departs from the idea of a housing type, which is the combined result of three systems (Habraken, 1988) -- spatial, building system, and stylistic -- and it includes a design system, a production system, and a computer system (Duarte, 2001). In previous work, this conceptual model was tested by developing a computer system for existing design and building systems (Benr__s and Duarte, 2009). The current work advances it by developing new and original design, building, and computer systems for a particular context. The urgent need to build fast in the aftermath of catastrophes quite often overrides any cultural concerns. As a result, the shelters provided in such circumstances are indistinct and impersonal. However, taking individual and cultural aspects into account might lead to a better identification of the population with their new environment, thereby minimizing the rupture caused in their lives. As the methodology to develop new housing systems is based on the idea of architectural precedents, choosing existing vernacular housing as a precedent permits the incorporation of cultural aspects and facilitates an identification of people with the new housing. In the Haiti case study, we chose as a precedent a housetype called “gingerbread houses”, which includes a wide range of houses from wealthy to very humble ones. Although the proposed design system was inspired by these houses, it was decided to adopt a contemporary take. The methodology to devise the new type was based on two ideas: precedents and transformations in design. In architecture, the use of precedents provides designers with typical solutions for particular problems and it constitutes a departing point for a new design. In our case, the precedent is an existing housetype. It has been shown (Duarte, 2001) that a particular housetype can be encoded by a shape grammar (Stiny, 1980) forming a design system. Studies in shape grammars have shown that the evolution of one style into another can be described as the transformation of one shape grammar into another (Knight, 1994). The used methodology departs takes off from these ideas and it comprises the following steps (Duarte, 2008): (1) Selection of precedents, (2) Derivation of an archetype; (3) Listing of rules; (4) Derivation of designs; (5) Cataloguing of solutions; (6) Derivation of tailored solution.
keywords Mass customization, Housing, Building system, Sustainable construction, Life cycle energy consumption, Shape grammar
series CAAD Futures
email deborahbenros@gmail.com
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p147
id cf2011_p147
authors Erbas, Irem; Bittermann Michael, Stouffs Rudi
year 2011
title Use of a Knowledge Model for Integrated Performance Evaluation for Housing (re)design Towards Environmental Sustainability: A Case Study
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 281-296.
summary This paper focuses on the development of a knowledge model in the context of energy efficiency and indoor climate interventions, their impacts on each other and on architectural design preferences (for instance architectural expression or any spatial functionality aspect) via an existing house case study. In addition, it attempts to discuss how this type of model can be a reference for a decision support tool and be applied to the (re)design of dwellings. The model is considered to provide an integral knowledge base for the design professional both to evaluate existing designs and to use it as a support during design and decision making in order to reach the best possible solution, with optimal performance in terms of indoor comfort, energy-efficiency and overall design performance. In other words, its aim is to enable the assessment of the performance of the end result with respect to design choices, beforehand. In this paper, design performance is modeled by means of fuzzy logic operations. It is a method to deal with subjective and vague requirements such as low energy consumption, low overheating risk, high comfort, etc. The method of intelligent information processing is explained and a partial application is presented.
keywords energy efficiency, indoor comfort, design decision support, knowledge modeling, performance evaluation
series CAAD Futures
email i.erbas@tudelft.nl
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p019
id cf2011_p019
authors Haeusler, Matthias Hank; Beilharz Kirsty
year 2011
title Architecture = Computer‚ from Computational to Computing Environments
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 217-232.
summary Drawing on architecture, urban digital media, engineering, IT and interaction design, the research presented in this paper outlines a possible shift from architecture designed through computation (any type of process, algorithm or measurement done in a computational matter) towards architecture capable of computing (developing, using and improving computer technology, computer hardware and software as a space-defining element). The research is driven by recent developments in four fields, as follows: (a) Architecture in its recent development has shifted from a planar box, as was the ideal in the modernist movement, towards complex and non-standard forms. (b) The design concepts of non-standard surfaces have been adopted into media facades and media architecture by liberating the pixel from its planar position on a screen [1]. (c) Advancements in pervasive computing applications are now able both to receive information from the environment in which they are used and to detect other devices that enter this environment [2]. (d) Developments in advanced autonomous systems such as Human Computer Interaction (HCI) or Human Robot Interaction (HRI), have produced intelligent systems capable of observing human cues and using these cues as the basis for intelligent decision-making [3]. Media fa_ßade developments work in the direction of the above-mentioned four fields, but often come with limitations in architectural integration; they need additional components to interact with their environment and their interactions are both often limited to visual interactions and require the user to act first. The researched system, Polymedia Pixel [4] discussed in this paper, can overcome these limitations and fulfil the need for a space-defining material capable of computing, thus enabling a shift from architecture designed by computation towards architecture capable of active computing. The Polymedia Pixel architecture merges digital technology with ubiquitous computing. This allows the built environment and its relation with digital technology to develop from (a) architecture being represented by computer to (b) computation being used to develop architecture and then further to where (c) architecture and the space-defining objects have computing attributes. Hence the study presented aims to consider and answer this key question: ‚ÄòWhen building components with computing capacity can define space and function as a computer at the same time, what are the constraints for the building components and what are the possible advantages for the built environment?‚Äô The conceptual framework, design and methods used in this research combine three fields: (a) hardware (architecture and design, electronic engineering) (b) software (content design and IT) and (c) interaction design (HCI and HRI). Architecture and urban design determinates the field of application. Media architecture and computer science provide the technological foundation, while the field of interaction design defines the methodology to link space and computing [5]. The conceptual starting point is to rethink the application of computers in architecture and, if architecture is capable of computing, what kind of methodology and structure would find an answer to the above core research question, and what are the implications of the question itself? The case study discusses opportunities for applying the Polymedia Pixel as an architectural component by testing it on: (a) constraint testing ‚Äì applying computational design methodologies to design space (b) singular testing - discussing the advantages for an individual building, and (c) plural testing ‚Äì investigating the potential for an urban context. The research aims to contribute to the field of knowledge through presenting first steps of a System < - > System mode where buildings can possibly watch and monitor each other, additional to the four primary interactive modes of operation. This investigation, its proposed hypothesis, methodology, implications, significance and evaluation are presented in the paper.
keywords media architecture, computational environments, ubiquitous computing, interaction design, computer science
series CAAD Futures
email matthias.haeusler@uts.edu.au
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id caadria2011_014
id caadria2011_014
authors Khoo, Chin Koi and Flora Dilys Salim
year 2011
title Designing elastic transformable structures: Towards soft responsive architecture
source Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / The University of Newcastle, Australia 27-29 April 2011, pp. 143-152
summary This paper discusses the issues of designing and building environment involving spatial conditions that can be physically reconfigured to meet changing needs. To achieve this architectural vision, most current research focuses on the kinetic, mechanical systems and physical control mechanisms for actuation and structural transformation. Instead of the ‘hard’ mechanical joints and components, there is an unexplored ‘soft’ approach using lightweight elastic composite materials for designing responsive architectural skins and structures. This paper investigates the new possibilities for the manipulation of various architectural enclosures using ‘soft’ and elastic transformable structures, in response to environmental, communication and adapting to various contexts. This approach intends to minimise the mechanistic actuations and reduce weight for such operations. Therefore, this research introduces two modules (a tetrahedron and a cube) as responsive spatial models to test the potentials and limitations for the implementation of elastic materials with responsive capability towards reconfigurable architectural enclosure. Despite their individual differences, these experiments identify a trajectory for new possibilities for elastic architectural components that are more appropriate for ‘soft’ responsive architecture. We argue that this approach can provide an early hypothesis for design responsive architecture with a mix of passive and active design strategies.
keywords Elastic; transformable; soft; responsive
series CAADRIA
email mosphosis@hotmail.com
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id acadia11_82
id acadia11_82
authors Ahlquist, Sean; Menges, Achim
year 2011
title Behavior-based Computational Design Methodologies: Integrative processes for force defined material structures
source ACADIA 11: Integration through Computation [Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA)] [ISBN 978-1-6136-4595-6] Banff (Alberta) 13-16 October, 2011, pp. 82-89
summary With the introduction of physics-based algorithms and modeling environments, design processes have been shifting from the representation of materiality to the simulation of approximate material descriptions. Such computational processes are based upon enacting physical and material behavior, such as gravity, drag, tension, bending, and inflation, within a generative modeling environment. What is often lacking from this strategy is an overall understanding of computational design; that information of increasing value and precision is generated through the development and iterative execution of specific principles and integrative mechanisms. The value of a physics-based modeling method as an information engine is often overlooked, though, as they are primarily utilized for developing representational diagrams or static geometry – inevitably translated to function outside of the physical bounds and parameters defined with the modeling process. The definition of computational design provides a link between process and a larger approach towards architecture – an integrative behavior-based process which develops dynamic specific architectural systems interrelated in their material, spatial, and environmental nature. This paper, focusing on material integration, describes the relation of a computational design approach and the technical framework for a behavior-based integrative process. The application is in the development of complex tension-active architectural systems. The material behavior of tensile meshes and surfaces is integrated and algorithmically calibrated to allow for complex geometries to be materialized as physical systems. Ultimately, this research proposes a computational structure by which material and other sorts of spatial or structural behaviors can be activated within a generative design environment.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email sean.ahlquist@icd.uni-stuttgart.de
last changed 2011/10/06 04:05

_id cf2011_p170
id cf2011_p170
authors Barros, Mário; Duarte José, Chaparro Bruno
year 2011
title Thonet Chairs Design Grammar: a Step Towards the Mass Customization of Furniture
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 181-200.
summary The paper presents the first phase of research currently under development that is focused on encoding Thonet design style into a generative design system using a shape grammar. The ultimate goal of the work is the design and production of customizable chairs using computer assisted tools, establishing a feasible practical model of the paradigm of mass customization (Davis, 1987). The current research step encompasses the following three steps: (1) codification of the rules describing Thonet design style into a shape grammar; (2) implementing the grammar into a computer tool as parametric design; and (3) rapid prototyping of customized chair designs within the style. Future phases will address the transformation of the Thonet’s grammar to create a new style and the production of real chair designs in this style using computer aided manufacturing. Beginning in the 1830’s, Austrian furniture designer Michael Thonet began experimenting with forming steam beech, in order to produce lighter furniture using fewer components, when compared with the standards of the time. Using the same construction principles and standardized elements, Thonet produced different chairs designs with a strong formal resemblance, creating his own design language. The kit assembly principle, the reduced number of elements, industrial efficiency, and the modular approach to furniture design as a system of interchangeable elements that may be used to assemble different objects enable him to become a pioneer of mass production (Noblet, 1993). The most paradigmatic example of the described vision of furniture design is the chair No. 14 produced in 1858, composed of six structural elements. Due to its simplicity, lightness, ability to be stored in flat and cubic packaging for individual of collective transportation, respectively, No. 14 became one of the most sold chairs worldwide, and it is still in production nowadays. Iconic examples of mass production are formally studied to provide insights to mass customization studies. The study of the shape grammar for the generation of Thonet chairs aimed to ensure rules that would make possible the reproduction of the selected corpus, as well as allow for the generation of new chairs within the developed grammar. Due to the wide variety of Thonet chairs, six chairs were randomly chosen to infer the grammar and then this was fine tuned by checking whether it could account for the generation of other designs not in the original corpus. Shape grammars (Stiny and Gips, 1972) have been used with sucesss both in the analysis as in the synthesis of designs at different scales, from product design to building and urban design. In particular, the use of shape grammars has been efficient in the characterization of objects’ styles and in the generation of new designs within the analyzed style, and it makes design rules amenable to computers implementation (Duarte, 2005). The literature includes one other example of a grammar for chair design by Knight (1980). In the second step of the current research phase, the outlined shape grammar was implemented into a computer program, to assist the designer in conceiving and producing customized chairs using a digital design process. This implementation was developed in Catia by converting the grammar into an equivalent parametric design model. In the third phase, physical models of existing and new chair designs were produced using rapid prototyping. The paper describes the grammar, its computer implementation as a parametric model, and the rapid prototyping of physical models. The generative potential of the proposed digital process is discussed in the context of enabling the mass customization of furniture. The role of the furniture designer in the new paradigm and ideas for further work also are discussed.
keywords Thonet; furniture design; chair; digital design process; parametric design; shape grammar
series CAAD Futures
email m.barros@ipt.pt
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p027
id cf2011_p027
authors Herssens, Jasmien; Heylighen Ann
year 2011
title A Framework of Haptic Design Parameters for Architects: Sensory Paradox Between Content and Representation
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 685-700.
summary Architects—like other designers—tend to think, know and work in a visual way. In design research, this way of knowing and working is highly valued as paramount to design expertise (Cross 1982, 2006). In case of architecture, however, it is not only a particular strength, but may as well be regarded as a serious weakness. The absence of non-visual features in traditional architectural spatial representations indicates how these are disregarded as important elements in conceiving space (Dischinger 2006). This bias towards vision, and the suppression of other senses—in the way architecture is conceived, taught and critiqued—results in a disappearance of sensory qualities (Pallasmaa 2005). Nevertheless, if architects design with more attention to non visual senses, they are able to contribute to more inclusive environments. Indeed if an environment offers a range of sensory triggers, people with different sensory capacities are able to navigate and enjoy it. Rather than implementing as many sensory triggers as possible, the intention is to make buildings and spaces accessible and enjoyable for more people, in line with the objective of inclusive design (Clarkson et al. 2007), also called Design for All or Universal Design (Ostroff 2001). Within this overall objective, the aim of our study is to develop haptic design parameters that support architects during design in paying more attention to the role of haptics, i.e. the sense of touch, in the built environment by informing them about the haptic implications of their design decisions. In the context of our study, haptic design parameters are defined as variables that can be decided upon by designers throughout the design process, and the value of which determines the haptic characteristics of the resulting design. These characteristics are based on the expertise of people who are congenitally blind, as they are more attentive to non visual information, and of professional caregivers working with them. The parameters do not intend to be prescriptive, nor to impose a particular method. Instead they seek to facilitate a more inclusive design attitude by informing designers and helping them to think differently. As the insights from the empirical studies with people born blind and caregivers have been reported elsewhere (Authors 2010), this paper starts by outlining the haptic design parameters resulting from them. Following the classification of haptics into active, dynamic and passive touch, the built environment unfolds into surfaces that can act as “movement”, “guiding” and/or “rest” plane. Furthermore design techniques are suggested to check the haptic qualities during the design process. Subsequently, the paper reports on a focus group interview/workshop with professional architects to assess the usability of the haptic design parameters for design practice. The architects were then asked to try out the parameters in the context of a concrete design project. The reactions suggest that the participating architects immediately picked up the underlying idea of the parameters, and recognized their relevance in relation to the design project at stake, but that their representation confronts us with a sensory paradox: although the parameters question the impact of the visual in architectural design, they are meant to be used by designers, who are used to think, know and work in a visual way.
keywords blindness, design parameters, haptics, inclusive design, vision
series CAAD Futures
email jherssens@gmail.com
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id eaea2009_kardos_plachtinska
id eaea2009_kardos_plachtinska
authors Kardos, Peter; Petra Plachtinska
year 2011
title Spatial Experience in Real & Virtual Environment as an Urban Design Tool
source Projecting Spaces [Proceedings of the 9th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 978-3-942411-31-8 ], pp. 59-64
summary The innovations of information technologies and the new possibilities of multimedia exploitation in the realm of architectural design and education are supporting the development of image communication methods on the basis of interactivity. The creative process of searching and decision-making in the urban design studio of our Faculty is supported by spatial modeling methods. The draft is sketched in modeling material on a working model. From the didactic point of view, relevant are mainly those phases, in which is possible, in the imaginative way, to support the searching and decision making process with the aim to test, compare and continuously evaluate the fulfillment of the hypothetic intentions of the solution responsibilities. The model becomes an interactive medium of cooperation between teacher and the working group of students. From the view of design crystallization, the dominant phases, in the creative process, are examining, verification, and simulation. The alternatives of material-compositional content and the spatial performance charts of modeled physical structure are verifying and the visual experience of the anticipated urban environment is simulated by the author, but also through the future client’s eyes. The alternation of the composition’s spatial configurations is generally appreciated by the static visual verification in the endoscopic horizon like the architectural spatial studies. The effective method of the progress generates a creative atmosphere for the generative thinking and design. The laboratory simulation of spatial experiences and their evaluation is performed following the perception psychology relations. The simulation of digestion of the new spatial reality intervenes the customer’s identification and guides to subjective approaches towards the quality and complexity of the formed environment. The simulation is performed in motion in order to be able to anticipate the dynamic continuity of subjective spatial imagination. The induced atmosphere will direct the evaluational attitudes of authors on comparison and selection of the successful alternatives. In our fee, we will present the demonstrations of selected static and dynamic notations of image sequences prepared in our laboratory. The presentations have been created in order to analyze, verify and offer imaginative support to creative findings in result of fulfilling the studio design tasks in the educational process. The main one is the design of urban spatial structures. The laboratory methodology is in the first place oriented on the analogue-digital procedures of "endoscope" model simulation. At the same time it also explores and looks for new unconventional forms of visual communication or archiving as imagination support to specialist and laymen participants in creative, valorization and approval processes.
series other
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea
last changed 2011/03/04 07:45

_id cf2011_p016
id cf2011_p016
authors Merrick, Kathryn; Gu Ning
year 2011
title Supporting Collective Intelligence for Design in Virtual Worlds: A Case Study of the Lego Universe
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 637-652.
summary Virtual worlds are multi-faceted technologies. Facets of virtual worlds include graphical simulation tools, communication, design and modelling tools, artificial intelligence, network structure, persistent object-oriented infrastructure, economy, governance and user presence and interaction. Recent studies (Merrick et al., 2010) and applications (Rosenman et al., 2006; Maher et al., 2006) have shown that the combination of design, modelling and communication tools, and artificial intelligence in virtual worlds makes them suitable platforms for supporting collaborative design, including human-human collaboration and human-computer co-creativity. Virtual worlds are also coming to be recognised as a platform for collective intelligence (Levy, 1997), a form of group intelligence that emerges from collaboration and competition among large numbers of individuals. Because of the close relationship between design, communication and virtual world technologies, there appears a strong possibility of using virtual worlds to harness collective intelligence for supporting upcoming “design challenges on a much larger scale as we become an increasingly global and technological society” (Maher et al, 2010), beyond the current support for small-scale collaborative design teams. Collaborative design is relatively well studied and is characterised by small-scale, carefully structured design teams, usually comprising design professionals with a good understanding of the design task at hand. All team members are generally motivated and have the skills required to structure the shared solution space and to complete the design task. In contrast, collective design (Maher et al, 2010) is characterised by a very large number of participants ranging from professional designers to design novices, who may need to be motivated to participate, whose contributions may not be directly utilised for design purposes, and who may need to learn some or all of the skills required to complete the task. Thus the facets of virtual worlds required to support collective design differ from those required to support collaborative design. Specifically, in addition to design, communication and artificial intelligence tools, various interpretive, mapping and educational tools together with appropriate motivational and reward systems may be required to inform, teach and motivate virtual world users to contribute and direct their inputs to desired design purposes. Many of these world facets are well understood by computer game developers, as level systems, quests or plot and achievement/reward systems. This suggests the possibility of drawing on or adapting computer gaming technologies as a basis for harnessing collective intelligence in design. Existing virtual worlds that permit open-ended design – such as Second Life and There – are not specifically game worlds as they do not have extensive level, quest and reward systems in the same way as game worlds like World of Warcraft or Ultima Online. As such, while Second Life and There demonstrate emergent design, they do not have the game-specific facets that focus users towards solving specific problems required for harnessing collective intelligence. However, a new massively multiplayer virtual world is soon to be released that combines open-ended design tools with levels, quests and achievement systems. This world is called Lego Universe (www.legouniverse.com). This paper presents technology spaces for the facets of virtual worlds that can contribute to the support of collective intelligence in design, including design and modelling tools, communication tools, artificial intelligence, level system, motivation, governance and other related facets. We discuss how these facets support the design, communication, motivational and educational requirements of collective intelligence applications. The paper concludes with a case study of Lego Universe, with reference to the technology spaces defined above. We evaluate the potential of this or similar tools to move design beyond the individual and small-scale design teams to harness large-scale collective intelligence. We also consider the types of design tasks that might best be addressed in this manner.
keywords collective intelligence, collective design, virtual worlds, computer games
series CAAD Futures
email k.merrick@adfa.edu.au
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id acadia11_152
id acadia11_152
authors Rael, Ronald; San Fratello, Virginia
year 2011
title Developing Concrete Polymer Building Components for 3D Printing
source ACADIA 11: Integration through Computation [Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA)] [ISBN 978-1-6136-4595-6] Banff (Alberta) 13-16 October, 2011, pp. 152-157
summary The creation of building components that can be seen as sustainable, inexpensive, stronger, recyclable, customizable and perhaps even reparable to the environment is an urgent, and critical focus of architectural research. In the U.S. alone, the construction industry produced 143.5 million tons of building-related construction and demolition debris in 2008, and buildings, in their consumption of energy produce more greenhouse gasses than automobiles or industry.Because the inherent nature of 3D printing opens new possibilities for shaping materials, the process will reshape the way we think about architectural building components. Digital materiality, a term coined by Italian and Swiss architects Fabio Gramazio and Matthias Kohler, describes materiality increasingly enriched with digital characteristics where data, material, programming and construction are interwoven (Gramazio and Kohler, 2008). The research aspires towards this classification through the use of parametric modeling tools, analytic software and quantitative and qualitative analysis. Rapid prototyping, which is the automatic construction of physical objects using additive manufacturing technology, typically employs materials intended for the immediate analysis of form, scale, and tactility. Rarely do the materials used in this process have any long-term value, nor does the process - except in rare cases with expensive metal prototyping - have the ability to create actual and sustainable working products. This research intends to alter this state of affairs by developing methods for 3D printing using concrete for the production of long-lasting performance-based components.
series ACADIA
type work in progress
email r@el.net
last changed 2011/10/06 04:05

_id cf2011_p112
id cf2011_p112
authors Schlueter, Arno
year 2011
title Integrated Design Process for Prefabricated Façade Modules with Embedded Distributed Service Systems
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 419-434.
summary The awareness of the environmental impact of buildings concerning their CO2 emissions, their energy and resource consumption has raised the challenges on building design, construction and operation. Building service systems are among the main contributors to building related emissions. Their consideration already in design is therefore of growing importance. Distributed service systems represent a new paradigm towards the supply of a building with energy and matter. Being small, efficient and networked, they can be distributed within the building fabric to allow an efficiently supply of the building space. Their employment, however, affects the spatial layout, construction and resulting building performance. In order to capture the resulting complex dependencies, a strategy to integrate such systems into the architectural design process is necessary. In this work a design process is proposed, that integrates distributed service systems into building design, dissolving the classical divide between architectural design and service systems layout. Digital modelling and computational methods are employed to create and analyse design solutions, visualize performance criteria and provide the relevant data for the intended digital fabrication process. The process is exemplified using a joint university-industry case study project focusing on parametric façade modules, developed in a seamless digital process from concept to fabrication.
keywords integrated design, design process, performance assessment, digital fabrication, distributed building service systems
series CAAD Futures
email schlueter@arch.ethz.ch
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p024
id cf2011_p024
authors Tidafi, Temy; Charbonneau Nathalie, Khalili-Araghi Salman
year 2011
title Backtracking Decisions within a Design Process: a Way of Enhancing the Designer's Thought Process and Creativity
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 573-587.
summary This paper proposes a way computer sciences could contribute to stimulate the designer’s reflexive thought. We explore the possibility of making use of backtracking devices in order to formalize the designer’s thought process. Design, as a process of creating an object, cannot be represented by means of a linear timeline. Accordingly, the backtracking processes we are discussing here are not based on a linear model but rather on a non-linear structure. Beyond the notion of undoing and redoing commands within CAD packages, the backtracking process is seen as a way to explore and record several alternate options. The branches of the non-linear model can be seen as pathways made of sequential decisions. The designer creates and explores these pathways while making tentative moves towards an architectural solution. Within the design process, backtracking enables the designer to establish and act on a network of interrelated decisions. This notion is fundamental. It is quite obvious that information, in order to be meaningful, must occupy a specific place within an informational network. A data, separated from its context, is devoid of interest. By the same token, a decision takes on significance solely in combination with other decisions. In this paper, we examine what kinds of decisions are involved within a design process, how they are connected, and what could be the best ways to formalize the relationships. Our goal is to experiment ways that could enable the designer and his/her collaborators to get a clearer mental picture of the network of decisions aforementioned. The non-linear model can be seen as a graph structure. The user moves wherever he/she wants through the branches of the structure to establish the network of decisions or to get reacquainted with a previous design process. As a matter of fact, it can act in both ways: to reassess or to confirm a decision. On the one hand, the designer can go back to previous states, reconsider past choices, and eventually modify them. On the other hand, he/she can move forward and revisit a given sequence of decisions, so as to recapture the essence of a previous design process. It goes without saying that knowledge regarding the design process is constructed by the designer from his/her own experiences. Since the designer’s perception evolves as time goes by, the network of decisions constitutes a model that is continuously questioned and restructured. The designer does not elaborate solely an architectural object, but also an evolving model formalizing the way he/she achieved his/her aim. As Le Moigne (1995) pointed out, the model itself produces knowledge; afterwards, the designer can examine it so as to get a clearer mental picture of his/her own cognitive processes. Furthermore, it can be used by his/her collaborators in order to understand which thread of ideas led the designer to a given visual result, and eventually resume or reorient the design process. In addition to reflecting on the ideological implications inherent to this questioning, we take into account the feasibility of such a research project. From a more technical point of view, in this paper we will describe how we plane to take up the challenge of elaborating a digital environment enabling backtracking processes within graph structures. Furthermore, we will explain how we plane to test the first trial version of the new environment with potential users so as to observe how they respond to it. These experiments will be conducted in order to verify to what extend the methods we are proposing are able to i) enhance the designer’s creativity and ii) increase our understanding of designer’s thought process.
keywords backtracking, design process, digital environments, problem space, network of decisions, graph structure.
series CAAD Futures
email temy.tidafi@umontreal.ca
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p135
id cf2011_p135
authors Chen Rui, Irene; Schnabel Marc Aurel
year 2011
title Multi-touch - the future of design interaction
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 557-572.
summary The next major revolution for design is to bring the natural user interaction into design activities. Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) brought a new approach that was more effective compared to their conventional predecessors. In recent years, Natural User Interfaces (NUI) have advanced user experiences and multi-touch and gesture technologies provide new opportunities for a variety of potential uses in design. Much attention has been paid to leverage in the design of interactive interfaces. The mouse input and desktop screen metaphors limit the information sharing for multiple users and also delayed the direct interaction for communication between each other. This paper proposes the innovative method by integrating game engine ‘Unity3D’ with multi-touch tangible interfaces. Unity3D provides a game development tool as part of its application package that has been designed to let users to focus on creating new games. However, it does not limit the usage of area to design additional game scenarios since the benefits of Unity3D is allowing users to build 3D environments with its customizable and easy to use editor, graphical pipelines to openGL (http://unity3d.com/, 2010 ). It creates Virtual Reality (VR) environments which can simulates places in the real world, as well as the virtual environments helping architects and designers to vividly represent their design concepts through 3D visualizations, and interactive media installations in a detailed multi-sensory experience. Stereoscopic displays advanced their spatial ability while solving issues to design e.g. urban spaces. The paper presents how a multi-touch tabletop can be used for these design collaboration and communication tasks. By using natural gestures, designers can now communicate and share their ideas by manipulating the same reference simultaneously using their own input simultaneously. Further studies showed that 3Dl forms are perceived and understood more readily through haptic and proprioceptive perception of tangible representations than through visual representation alone (Gillet et al, 2005). Based on the authors’ framework presented at the last CAADFutures, the benefits of integrating 3D visualization and tactile sensory can be illustrated in this platform (Chen and Wang, 2009), For instance, more than one designer can manipulate the 3D geometry objects on tabletop directly and can communicate successfully their ideas freely without having to waiting for the next person response. It made the work more effective which increases the overall efficiency. Designers can also collect the real-time data by any change they make instantly. The possibilities of Uniy3D make designing very flexible and fun, it is deeply engaging and expressive. Furthermore, the unity3D is revolutionizing the game development industry, its breakthrough development platform for creating highly interactive 3D content on the web (http://unity3d.com/ , 2010) or similar to the interface of modern multimedia devices such as the iPhone, therefore it allows the designers to work remotely in a collaborative way to integrate the design process by using the individual mobile devices while interacting design in a common platform. In design activities, people create an external representation of a domain, often of their own ideas and understanding. This platform helps learners to make their ideas concrete and explicit, and once externalized, subsequently they reflect upon their work how well it sits the real situation. The paper demonstrates how this tabletop innovatively replaces the typical desktop metaphor. In summary, the paper addresses two major issues through samples of collaborative design: firstly presenting aspects of learners’ interactions with physical objects, whereby tangible interfaces enables them constructing expressive representations passively (Marshall, 2007), while focussing on other tasks; and secondly showing how this novel design tool allows designers to actively create constructions that might not be possible with conventional media.
keywords Multi-touch tabletop, Tangible User Interface
series CAAD Futures
email rui.chen@sydney.edu.au
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p035
id cf2011_p035
authors Langenhan, Christoph; Weber Markus, Petzold Frank, Liwicki Marcus, Dengel Andreas
year 2011
title Sketch-based Methods for Researching Building Layouts through the Semantic Fingerprint of Architecture
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 85-102.
summary The paper focuses on the early stages of the design process where the architect needs assistance in finding reference projects and describes different aspects of a concept for retrieving previous design solutions with similar layout characteristics. Such references are typically used to see how others have solved a similar architectural problem or simply for inspiration. Current electronic search methods use textual information rather than graphical information. The configuration of space and the relations between rooms are hard to represent using keywords, in fact transforming these spatial configurations into verbally expressed typologies tends to result in unclear and often imprecise descriptions of architecture. Nowadays, modern IT-technologies lead to fundamental changes during the process of designing buildings. Digital representations of architecture require suitable approaches to the storage, indexing and management of information as well as adequate retrieval methods. Traditionally planning information is represented in the form of floor plans, elevations, sections and textual descriptions. State of the art digital representations include renderings, computer aided design (CAD) and semantic information like Building Information Modelling (BIM) including 2D and 3D file formats such as Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) (IAI, 2010). In the paper, we examine the development of IT-technologies in the area of case-based reasoning (Richter et al., 2007) to provide a sketch-based submission and retrieval system for publishing and researching building layouts including their manipulation and subsequent use. The user interface focuses on specifying space and their relations by drawing them. This query style supports the spatial thinking approach that architects use, who often have a visual representation in mind without being able to provide an accurate description of the spatial configuration. The semantic fingerprint proposed by (Langenhan, 2008) is a description and query language for creating an index of floor plans to store meta-data about architecture, which can be used as signature for retrieving reference projects. The functional spaces, such as living room or kitchen and the relation among on another, are used to create a fingerprint. Furthermore, we propose a visual sketch-based interface (Weber et al., 2010) based on the Touch&Write paradigm (Liwicki et al., 2010) for the submission and the retrieval phase. During the submission process the architect is sketching the space-boundaries, space relations and functional coherence's. Using state of the art document analysis techniques, the architects are supported offering an automatic detection of room boundaries and their physical relations. During the retrieval the application will interpret the sketches of the architect and find reference projects based on a similarity based search utilizing the semantic fingerprint. By recommending reference projects, architects will be able to reuse collective experience which match the current requirements. The way of performing a search using a sketch as a query is a new way of thinking and working. The retrieval of 3D models based on a sketched shape are already realized in several domains. We already propose a step further, using the semantics of a spatial configuration. Observing the design process of buildings reveals that the initial design phase serves as the foundation for the quality of the later outcome. The sketch-based approach to access valuable information using the semantic fingerprint enables the user to digitally capture knowledge about architecture, to recover and reuse it in common-sense. Furthermore, automatically analysed fingerprints can put forward both commonly used as well as best practice projects. It will be possible to rate architecture according to the fingerprint of a building.
keywords new media, case-based reasoning, ontology, semantic building design, sketch-based, knowledge management
series CAAD Futures
email langenhan@tum.de
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p152
id cf2011_p152
authors Plume, Jim; Mitchell John
year 2011
title An Urban Information Framework to support Planning, Decision-Making & Urban Design
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 653-668.
summary This paper reports on a 2-year research project undertaken in collaboration with a state planning authority, a major city municipal council and a government-owned development organisation. The project has involved the design of an urban information model framework with the aim of supporting more informed urban planning by addressing the intersection where an individual building interfaces with its urban context. This adopted approach enables new techniques that better model the city and its processes in a transparent and accessible manner. The primary driver for this project was the challenge provided by the essential incompatibility between legacy GIS (geographic information system) datasets and BIM (building information model) representations of the built form. When dealing with urban scale information, GIS technologies use an overlay mapping metaphor linked to traditional relational database technologies to identify features or regions in the urban landscape and attach attribute data to those in order to permit analysis and informed assessment of the urban form. On the other hand, BIM technologies adopt an object-oriented approach to model the full three-dimensional characteristics of built forms in a way that captures both the geometric and physical attributes of the parts that make up a building, as well as the relationships between those parts and the spaces defined by the building fabric. The latter provides a far richer semantic structure to the data, while the former provides robust tools for a wide range of urban analyses. Both approaches are widely recognised as serving well the needs of their respective domains, but there is a widespread belief that we need to reconcile the two disparate approaches to modelling the real world. This project has sought to address that disjunction between modelling approaches. The UrbanIT project concentrated on two aspects of this issue: the development of a framework for managing information at the precinct and building level through the adoption of an object-oriented database technology that provides a platform for information management; and an exploration of ontology tools and how they can be adopted to facilitate semantic information queries across diverse data sources based on a common urban ontology. This paper is focussed on the first of those two agendas, examining the context of the work, the challenges addressed by the framework and the structure of our solution. A prototype implementation of the framework is illustrated through an urban precinct currently undergoing renewal and redevelopment, finishing with a discussion of future work that comes out of this project. Our approach to the implementation of the urban information model has been to propose extensions to ISO/PAS 16739, the international standard for modelling building information that is commonly known as IFC (Industry Foundation Classes). Our reason for adopting that approach is primarily our deep commitment to the adoption of open standards to facilitate the exchange of information across the built environment professions, but also because IFC is based on a robust object schema that can be used to construct a internet-accessible database able, theoretically, to handle the vast quantity of data needed to model urban-scale information. The database solution comes with well-established protocols for handling data security, integrity, versioning and transaction processing or querying. A central issue addressed through this work is concerned with level of detail. An urban information model permits a very precise and detailed representation of an urban precinct, while many planning analyses rely on simplified object representations. We will show that a key benefit of our approach is the ability to simultaneously maintain multiple representations of objects, making use of the concept of model view definitions to manage diverse analysis needs.
keywords urban information modelling, geographic information systems, city models, interoperability, urban planning, open standards
series CAAD Futures
email J.Plume@unsw.edu.au
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p115
id cf2011_p115
authors Pohl, Ingrid; Hirschberg Urs
year 2011
title Sensitive Voxel - A reactive tangible surface
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 525-538.
summary Haptic and tactile sensations, the active or passive exploration of our built surroundings through our sense of touch, give us a direct feeling and detailed information of space, a sense of architecture (Pallasmaa 2005). This paper presents the prototype of a reactive surface system, which focuses its output on the sense of touch. It explains how touch sensations influence the perception of architecture and discusses potential applications that might arise from such systems in the future. A growing number of projects demonstrate the strong impact of interaction design on the human senses and perception. They offer new ways of sensing and experiencing architectural space. But the majority of these interaction concepts focus on visual and auditory output-effects. The sense of touch is typically used as an input generator, but neglected as as a potential receiver of stimuli. With all the possibilities of sensors and micro-devices available nowadays, there is no longer a technical reason for this. It is possible to explore a much wider range of sense responding projects, to broaden the horizon of sensitive interaction concepts (Bullivant 2006). What if the surfaces of our surroundings can actively change the way it feels to touch them? What if things like walls and furniture get the ability to interactively respond to our touch? What new dimensions of communication and esthetic experience will open up when we conceive of tangibility in this bi-directional way? This paper presents a prototype system aimed at exploring these very questions. The prototype consists of a grid of tangible embedded cells, each one combining three kinds of actuators to produce divergent touch stimuli. All cells can be individually controlled from an interactive computer program. By providing a layering of different combinations and impulse intensities, the grid structure enables altering patterns of actuation. Thus it can be employed to explore a sort of individual touch aesthetic, for which - in order to differentiate it from established types of aesthetic experiences - we have created the term 'Euhaptics' (from the Greek ευ = good and άπτω = touch, finger). The possibility to mix a wide range of actuators leads to blending options of touch stimuli. The sense of touch has an expanded perception- spectrum, which can be exploited by this technically embedded superposition. The juxtaposed arrangement of identical multilayered cell-units offers blending and pattern effects of different touch-stimuli. It reveals an augmented form of interaction with surfaces and interactive material structures. The combination of impulses does not need to be fixed a priori; it can be adjusted during the process of use. Thus the sensation of touch can be made personally unique in its qualities. The application on architectural shapes and surfaces allows the user to feel the sensations in a holistic manner – potentially on the entire body. Hence the various dimensions of touch phenomena on the skin can be explored through empirical investigations by the prototype construction. The prototype system presented in the paper is limited in size and resolution, but its functionality suggests various directions of further development. In architectural applications, this new form of overlay may lead to create augmented environments that let inhabitants experience multimodal touch sensations. By interactively controlling the sensual patterns, such environments could get a unique “touch” for every person that inhabit them. But there may be further applications that go beyond the interactive configuration of comfort, possibly opening up new forms of communication for handicapped people or applications in medical and therapeutic fields (Grunwald 2001). The well-known influence of touch- sensations on human psychological processes and moreover their bodily implications suggest that there is a wide scope of beneficial utilisations yet to be investigated.
keywords Sensitive Voxel- A reactive tangible surface
series CAAD Futures
email inge@sbox.tugraz.at
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p095
id cf2011_p095
authors Shin, Dongyoun; Muller Arisona Stefan, Schmitt Gerhard
year 2011
title Crowdsourcing Urban Simulation Platform Using Mobile Devices and Social Networking Media Technologies
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 233-246.
summary Introduction and Research Questions The research area of urban simulation methods has grown notably in recent decades. Most of the research topics that concern urban simulation have concentrated on defining the complexities of urban environments with certain rules and algorithms. However, cities are getting more complex and changes to them are being made at greater speed. Therefore, current urban simulation modeling approaches based on rules and protocols are still struggling to reduce the gap between the virtual simulation environment and the real cities, since the behavior of citizens is frequently unpredictable and continuously adapting. In this context, research is necessary to develop more fundamental simulation methods that can handle these complexities and changes, leading to new design decision support systems. Therefore, this research was motivated with the following questions: What is the origin of the complexities and transformations of the urban environment? How can we approach the origin to deal with the urban complexities and transformations? To answer these questions, we hypothesize that the diverse human intentions are the origin of the issues that result from all of the complexities and changes of the cities. General Objectives As a result, we propose a participatory simulation environment that brings human intention into the urban simulator: a crowdsourcing [1] simulation platform that is operated by the people‚Äôs participation. To achieve this crowdsourcing urban sustainability simulation environment, we must address the following research issues: categorization of urban sustainability indicators and technologies, inducing mass participations, and an implementation of social network services. Furthermore, we aim at using mobile computing devices, such as smart phones, as a terminal to the simulation environment. Fundamental Goals Our goal is to enable people to share urban information at any time and to compare each other‚Äôs contributions through the crowdsourcing urban simulation platform. The information will be returned to the citizens to support their sustainability-aware life. The simulation platform also gives a chance not only to compare each other‚Äôs levels of sustainability, but also to give self-satisfaction through an altruistic contribution for a sustainable future. Thus, people shall utilize the simulator in order to predict their individual or cities‚Äô future sustainability. Meanwhile, the user data will be collected and delivered to the central server in order to analyze the urban sustainability. Consequently, we can measure the urban sustainability based on a real human interaction, and compare individuals as well as cities. The whole process of this research is presented as a new paradigm of an urban simulator that reflects the urban complexities and the inconstant human mind changes. Specific Objectives of This Paper This paper will represent strategies of the crowdsourcing urban simulation which can make a paradigm shift of urban simulation and shall define the customized sustainable indicators for the initial steps of this research. It shows how as system for can communicate with the public using the current technologies: high performance mobile media, social network services and wide-area geospatial information systems. Furthermore, for the first step of this research, the paper defines the urban sustainability indicators, and their categorization is generalized and translated into simpler ways to support the citizen‚ intuitive understanding.
keywords Crowdsourcing, Urban sustainability, Multi-agent based simulation, Social network services
series CAAD Futures
email shin@arch.ethz.ch
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id caadria2011_037
id caadria2011_037
authors Vaz, Carlos V.; Gabriela Celani and José P. Duarte
year 2011
title An ontology representing Roberto Burle Marx’s landscape design solutions
source Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / The University of Newcastle, Australia 27-29 April 2011, pp. 389-398
summary The objective of this undergoing research project is to propose a new approach to landscape design education, based on design cognition and computational design theories, such as patterns, shape grammars and parametric design. The system is based on an ontology that contains classes of design concepts and examples of their instances. This paper shows specifically the development of the ontology that will structure the whole system. The information necessary to understand each of the design concepts is represented by a schematic shape grammar rule. Each concept will be illustrated by a good example of application, extracted from the work of Brazilian landscape designer Roberto Burle Marx. A prototypical implementation of the system is being developed, with a hierarchical taxonomy of the concepts and examples.
keywords Ontology; landscape design education; Roberto Burle Marx; landscape architecture; pattern language
series CAADRIA
email cevv00@gmail.com
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id cf2011_p069
id cf2011_p069
authors Zahedi, Mithra, Guité Manon; De Paoli Giovanni
year 2011
title Addressing User-Centeredness: Communicating Meaningfully Through Design
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 513-524.
summary This paper proposes a model for human-computer interface design, which is focused on a user-centered approach. The paper studies the complexity inherent in the design process when the aim is to consider all team members of a project as contributors to a human-centered approach. Designers know that they are dealing with “messy” situations; they understand the uniqueness of each project, the continuous change of user needs, and the rapid development of information technology. They also see the challenges when working with other disciplines at the conceptual level, in creating shared understanding regarding user-centeredness. In this context, how can designers create the conditions for diverse contributing collaborators to go beyond their individual knowledge and enrich their reflections in order to efficiently collaborate within a human-centered approach? This study proposes that in looking to increase the efficiency of interfaces, all stakeholders should consider the user in all phases of the design process especially when they deal with complex and multi-disciplinary situations. Conducting a project-grounded approach led to introducing a new theoretical model of design. The model, which is based on joint reflective practice and an interdisciplinary attitude supports and frames a collaborative human-computer interface design process.
keywords Theoretical model, User-centered design; HCI; Interdisciplinary; Project-grounded approach
series CAAD Futures
email mithra.zahedi@umontreal.ca
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ijac20109301
id ijac20109301
authors Biloria, Nimish
year 2011
title InfoMatters, a multi-agent systems approach for generating performative architectural formations
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 9 - no. 3, 205-222
summary The research paper exemplifies upon a computationally intensive inter-disciplinary research driven design investigation into spatializing the relationship between digital information and physical matter. Focusing on the development of architectural scale urban inserts, the design-research work operates on the intersection of information technology, environmental design, architecture, and computer aided manufacturing domains.The research framework revolves around developing a seamless integration of the aforementioned disciplines in order to establish iterative simulation driven methodologies for generating bottom-up sustainable architectural formations. This is achieved by establishing parametrically driven relational linkages between differential data sets (environmental, social, topological, material etc), which formulate the context (both global and local) within which the proposed project has to be designed. A selforganizing multi-agent system based simulation methodology for generating resultant spatial formations, in time, based on the impacts of the parametric relationships between the aforementioned data sets is eventually embarked upon. This implies, understanding the site as a dynamic information field within which interdependent ecology of agents (representing typology of people, program, structure, speed, desired social interaction etc) with multi-level relational affinities amongst each other as well as the dynamic urban information field. The resultant self-organized multi-agent formations are iteratively mined for identifying logical three-dimensional structural patterns or subjected to programmatic and environmental need driven additional layer of structural simulation with pre-embedded material restraints. An optimized system of multi-performative components that not only populates but also serves as an integrated structural + skin system of the results obtained from the agent based simulations (based upon the degree of inclusion/exclusion of parameters such as the amount of light, sound, wind etc) is subsequently generated. These experimental projects attained the status of self-evolving ecologies of multi-dimensional agents with embodied behavioural profiles, thus providing engaged, highly interdependent design by simulation outputs. The outputs showcase a dynamic system's driven approach towards sustainable design by stressing upon the idea of cohesively binding information and material systems from the very beginning of the design process. Such approaches help in reducing post-optimization of built form and consequently allow for rational understanding of performance criteria and its impact on formal articulations throughout the design process.
series journal
last changed 2019/05/24 07:55

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