CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 298

_id ijac20119403
id ijac20119403
authors Davis,Daniel; Jane Burry and Mark Burry
year 2011
title Understanding visual scripts: Improving collaboration through modular programming
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 9 - no. 4, 361-375
summary Modularisation is a well-known method of reducing code complexity, yet architects are unlikely to modularise their visual scripts. In this paper the impact that modules used in visual scripts have on the architectural design process is investigated with regard to legibility, collaboration, reuse and design modification.Through a series of thinking-aloud interviews, and through the collaborative design and construction of the parametric Dermoid pavilion, modules are found to impact the culture of collaborative design in architecture through relatively minor alterations to how architects organise visual scripts.
series journal
last changed 2012/02/14 08:02

_id cf2011_p157
id cf2011_p157
authors Boton, Conrad; Kubicki Sylvain, Halin Gilles
year 2011
title Understanding Pre-Construction Simulation Activities to Adapt Visualization in 4D CAD Collaborative Tools
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 477-492.
summary Increasing productivity and efficiency is an important issue in the AEC field. This area is mainly characterized by fragmentation, heterogeneous teams with low lifetimes and many uncertainties. 4D CAD is one of the greatest innovations in recent years. It consists in linking a 3D model of the building with the works planning in order to simulate the construction evolution over time. 4D CAD can fill several needs from design to project management through constructivity analysis and tasks planning (Tommelein 2003). The literature shows that several applications have been proposed to improve the 4D CAD use (Chau et al. 2004; Lu et al. 2007; Seok & al. 2009). In addition, studies have shown the real impact of 4D CAD use in construction projects (Staub-French & Khanzode 2007; Dawood & Sika 2007). More recently, Mahalingam et al. (2010) showed that the collaborative use of 4D CAD is particularly useful during the pre-construction phase for comparing the constructability of working methods, for visually identifying conflicts and clashes (overlaps), and as visual tool for practitioners to discuss and to plan project progress. So the advantage of the 4D CAD collaborative use is demonstrated. Moreover, several studies have been conducted both in the scientific community and in the industrial world to improve it (Zhou et al. 2009; Kang et al. 2007). But an important need that remains in collaborative 4D CAD use in construction projects is about the adaptation of visualization to the users business needs. Indeed, construction projects have very specific characteristics (fragmentation, variable team, different roles from one project to another). Moreover, in the AEC field several visualization techniques can represent the same concept and actors choose one or another of these techniques according to their specific needs related to the task they have to perform. For example, the tasks planning may be represented by a Gantt chart or by a PERT network and the building elements can be depicted with a 3D model or a 2D plan. The classical view (3D + Gantt) proposed to all practitioners in the available 4D tools seems therefore not suiting the needs of all. So, our research is based on the hypothesis that adapting the visualization to individual business needs could significantly improve the collaboration. This work relies on previous ones and aim to develop a method 1) to choose the best suited views for performed tasks and 2) to compose adapted multiple views for each actor, that we call “business views”. We propose a 4 steps-method to compose business views. The first step identifies the users’ business needs, defining the individual practices performed by each actor, identifying his business tasks and his information needs. The second step identifies the visualization needs related to the identified business needs. For this purpose, the user’s interactions and visualization tasks are described. This enables choosing the most appropriate visualization techniques for each need (step 3). At this step, it is important to describe the visualization techniques and to be able to compare them. Therefore, we proposed a business view metamodel. The final step (step 4) selects the adapted views, defines the coordination mechanisms and the interaction principles in order to compose coordinated visualizations. A final step consists in a validation work to ensure that the composed views really match to the described business needs. This paper presents the latest version of the method and especially presents our latest works about its first and second steps. These include making more generic the business tasks description in order to be applicable within most of construction projects and enabling to make correspondence with visualization tasks.
keywords Pre-construction, Simulation, 4D CAD, Collaboration, Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Human-Computer Interface, Information visualization, Business view, Model driven engineering
series CAAD Futures
email conrad.boton@tudor.lu
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p135
id cf2011_p135
authors Chen Rui, Irene; Schnabel Marc Aurel
year 2011
title Multi-touch - the future of design interaction
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 557-572.
summary The next major revolution for design is to bring the natural user interaction into design activities. Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) brought a new approach that was more effective compared to their conventional predecessors. In recent years, Natural User Interfaces (NUI) have advanced user experiences and multi-touch and gesture technologies provide new opportunities for a variety of potential uses in design. Much attention has been paid to leverage in the design of interactive interfaces. The mouse input and desktop screen metaphors limit the information sharing for multiple users and also delayed the direct interaction for communication between each other. This paper proposes the innovative method by integrating game engine ‘Unity3D’ with multi-touch tangible interfaces. Unity3D provides a game development tool as part of its application package that has been designed to let users to focus on creating new games. However, it does not limit the usage of area to design additional game scenarios since the benefits of Unity3D is allowing users to build 3D environments with its customizable and easy to use editor, graphical pipelines to openGL (http://unity3d.com/, 2010 ). It creates Virtual Reality (VR) environments which can simulates places in the real world, as well as the virtual environments helping architects and designers to vividly represent their design concepts through 3D visualizations, and interactive media installations in a detailed multi-sensory experience. Stereoscopic displays advanced their spatial ability while solving issues to design e.g. urban spaces. The paper presents how a multi-touch tabletop can be used for these design collaboration and communication tasks. By using natural gestures, designers can now communicate and share their ideas by manipulating the same reference simultaneously using their own input simultaneously. Further studies showed that 3Dl forms are perceived and understood more readily through haptic and proprioceptive perception of tangible representations than through visual representation alone (Gillet et al, 2005). Based on the authors’ framework presented at the last CAADFutures, the benefits of integrating 3D visualization and tactile sensory can be illustrated in this platform (Chen and Wang, 2009), For instance, more than one designer can manipulate the 3D geometry objects on tabletop directly and can communicate successfully their ideas freely without having to waiting for the next person response. It made the work more effective which increases the overall efficiency. Designers can also collect the real-time data by any change they make instantly. The possibilities of Uniy3D make designing very flexible and fun, it is deeply engaging and expressive. Furthermore, the unity3D is revolutionizing the game development industry, its breakthrough development platform for creating highly interactive 3D content on the web (http://unity3d.com/ , 2010) or similar to the interface of modern multimedia devices such as the iPhone, therefore it allows the designers to work remotely in a collaborative way to integrate the design process by using the individual mobile devices while interacting design in a common platform. In design activities, people create an external representation of a domain, often of their own ideas and understanding. This platform helps learners to make their ideas concrete and explicit, and once externalized, subsequently they reflect upon their work how well it sits the real situation. The paper demonstrates how this tabletop innovatively replaces the typical desktop metaphor. In summary, the paper addresses two major issues through samples of collaborative design: firstly presenting aspects of learners’ interactions with physical objects, whereby tangible interfaces enables them constructing expressive representations passively (Marshall, 2007), while focussing on other tasks; and secondly showing how this novel design tool allows designers to actively create constructions that might not be possible with conventional media.
keywords Multi-touch tabletop, Tangible User Interface
series CAAD Futures
email rui.chen@sydney.edu.au
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p076
id cf2011_p076
authors Davis, Daniel; Burry Mark, Burry Jane
year 2011
title Untangling Parametric Schemata: Enhancing Collaboration Through Modular Programming
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 55-68.
summary Presently, collaboration is difficult on large and complex parametric models due to the illegibility of unstructured schemata. This lack of legibility makes it hard for an outside author to understand the model, reducing their ability to edit and share the model. This paper investigates whether the legibility of parametric models is enhanced through restructuring the schema with modular programming principles. During a series of thinking-aloud interviews, designers asked to describe the function of unfamiliar schemata could consistently better comprehend the schemata structured with modular principles. Modular programming is found to be a small change to parametric modelling that derives clear benefits in terms of legibility, particularly when the model is large and used in a collaborative environment.
keywords parametric modelling, parametric schema, end-user programming, modular programming
series CAAD Futures
email daniel.davis@rmit.edu.au
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id acadia11_292
id acadia11_292
authors Davis, Adam; Tsigkari, Martha; Iseki, Takehiko; Aish, Francis
year 2011
title Just Passing Through: Integration in Computational Environmental Design
source ACADIA 11: Integration through Computation [Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA)] [ISBN 978-1-6136-4595-6] Banff (Alberta) 13-16 October, 2011, pp. 292-299
summary This paper proposes Buckminster Fuller’s concept of pattern integrity as a context for understanding computational techniques in environmentally responsive design. We argue that successful integration in this context requires a continuous design medium that allows for heterogeneous, mutable techniques and models. This model of integration is demonstrated by reference to a current project for a large canopy structure in Singapore with specific focus on issues of environmental mediation, object-oriented programming for CAD environments, and functional programming techniques within parametric modeling systems. We discuss the applicability of these novel integrative approaches to wider problems in computational design.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email addavis@fosterandpartners.com
last changed 2011/10/06 04:05

_id sigradi2011_267
id sigradi2011_267
authors Hamuy Pinto, Eduardo; Galaz, Mirtha
year 2011
title Preguntas Aumentadas: medios enriquecidos y el acto de preguntar [Augmented questions: Rich media and asking]
source SIGraDi 2011 [Proceedings of the 15th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Argentina - Santa Fe 16-18 November 2011, pp. 448-451
summary Tutorials are widely used for learning technical mattersin architecture and design courses. This is a case study of questions from a student and answers provided by a teacher. The communication medium used was Screenr©, a web application for creating short screencasts. A sequence of screencasts was analyzed from a qualitative perspective, using Media Richness Theory and an e-learning model as framework. Ambiguity and Equivocality are managed through a rich medium that allows communication of precise data and paralinguistic cues. Visual deictic gestures (from the users) and visual cues provided by the interfaceare fundamental for building understanding.
keywords Teaching; videotutorials; media richness; screencasts; qualitative analysis
series SIGRADI
email ehamuy@gmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:53

_id caadria2013_080
id caadria2013_080
authors Koh, Immanuel
year 2013
title Computer Vision and Augmented Reality Technologies in Experimental Architectural Design Education at the AA
source Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2013) / Singapore 15-18 May 2013, pp. 427-436
summary This paper aims to investigate the potential of both open source software and new media (esp. computer vision and augmented reality) as tools for architectural design and education. The examples illustrated in the paper would be drawn mainly from students’ projects done as part of their AA Media Studies Course submission at the AA School of Architecture (AA) during the academic years from 2011/2012 to 2012/2013. The paper outlines the main approaches, which students have chosen to implement, both directly and indirectly, these new media and tools into their studio work at the AA. Section 1 briefly introduces a range of currently available open source computational design toolkits that are deemed useful for quick implementation of computer vision and augmented reality technologies. The related programming languages, softwares and hardwares would also be introduced and described accordingly. Sections 2 and 3 are accompanied with a visual catalogue of students’ projects to better illustrate the diversity in the understanding and implementation of computer vision and augmented reality technologies in architectural design. Section 4 serves to conclude the paper by first discussing briefly the feedback from students at the end of the course before clarifying the context of the research and thus its relation to recent work done by others using similar technologies.  
wos WOS:000351496100042
keywords Computer vision, Augmented reality, Generative design, Interaction design 
series CAADRIA
email artplusik@gmail.com
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id sigradi2011_100
id sigradi2011_100
authors Kutschat Hanns, Daniela; De Marchi, Polise Moreira
year 2011
title Estratégias de reconfiguração do espaço urbano – cidade superfície: diálogos entre arte e cidade mediados por intervenções artísticas em fachadas e muros na cidade de São Paulo [Urban space reconfiguration strategies - surface city: dialogs between art and city mediated through artistic interventions on facades and walls in the city of São Paulo]
source SIGraDi 2011 [Proceedings of the 15th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Argentina - Santa Fe 16-18 November 2011, pp. 526-529
summary This paper discusses multiple aspects of the city through examples of artistic interventions which see the city as complex and dynamic layers in constant change. This paper investigates the spatial configuration changes of São Paulo city in material surfaces as facades and walls. The understanding of urban surfaces as "'mediative' spatiality" (Ferrara, 2008) assigns communication categories to urban surfaces; the visual condition is discussed in this paper.
keywords Surface city; art; urban intervention; urban landscape
series SIGRADI
email dk.hanns@uol.com.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:54

_id cf2011_p110
id cf2011_p110
authors Mcmeel, Dermott
year 2011
title I think Therefore i-Phone: The influence of Pervasive Media on Collaboration and Multi-Disciplinary Group Work
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 69-84.
summary The study of value and its transfer during the multi-disciplinary process of design is stable fodder for research; an entire issue of Design Studies has been devoted to Values in the Design Process. By scrutinising design meetings Dantec (2009) and Ball (2009) separately examine the mechanisms of value transfer between the agents involved in design (clients, designers, engineers). Dantec suggests this is best understood in terms of requirement, values and narrative; Ball proposes it should be viewed as a combination of "analogical reasoning" and "environmental simulation". If we look at Vitruvius and his primary architectural manual (Pollio 1960) we find values‚Äîin the form of firmitas, utilitas and venustas‚Äîembedded in this early codification of architectural practice. However, as much current research is restricted to design practice what occurs when value frameworks move between domains of cultural activity (such as design to construction and vice-versa) is not privileged with a comparably sizable body of research. This paper is concerned with the ongoing usage of pervasive media and cellular phones within communications and value transfer across the disciplinary threshold of design and construction. Through participation in a building project we analyse the subtleties of interaction between analogue communication such as sketches and digitally sponsored communication such as e-mail and mobile phone usage. Analysing the communications between the designer and builder during construction suggests it is also a creative process and the distinctions between design and construction processes are complex and often blurred. This work provides an observational basis for understanding mobile computing as a dynamic ‚Äòtuning‚Äô device‚Äîas hypothesized by Richard Coyne (2010)‚Äîthat ameliorates the brittleness of communication between different disciplines. A follow up study deploys ‚Äòdigital fieldnotes‚Äô (dfn) a bespoke iPhone application designed to test further suppositions regarding the influence exerted upon group working by mobile computing. Within collaboration individual communiqu_©s have different levels of importance depending on the specific topic of discussion and the contributing participant. This project furthers the earlier study; expanding upon what mobile computing is and enabling us to infer how these emergent devices affect collaboration. Findings from these two investigations suggest that the synchronous and asynchronous clamour of analogue and digital tools that surround design and construction are not exclusively inefficiencies or disruptions to be expunged. Observational evidence suggests they may provide contingency and continue to have value attending to the relationship between static components‚Äîand the avoidance of failure‚Äîwithin a complex system such as design and construction.
keywords collaboration, design, mobile computing, digital media
series CAAD Futures
email d.mcmeel@auckland.ac.nz
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id caadria2011_024
id caadria2011_024
authors Nakapan, Walaiporn and Ning Gu
year 2011
title Preliminary experiments of OPENSIM performance evaluation for virtual design studios
source Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / The University of Newcastle, Australia 27-29 April 2011, pp. 251-260
summary This paper presents a technical performance evaluation of OpenSim as an alternative platform to Second Life, for virtual design studios. A number of issues that are critical for conducting virtual design studios were investigated through a series of tests and reflections from a Visual Training class. A performance test was also carried out in order to test server load against computer memory. These findings will provide valuable understanding to academics looking to use similar environments to Second Life for virtual design studio.
keywords 3D virtual worlds; OpenSimulator; virtual design studios; performance evaluation
series CAADRIA
email walaiporn@rsu.ac.th
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id cf2011_p093
id cf2011_p093
authors Nguyen, Thi Lan Truc; Tan Beng Kiang
year 2011
title Understanding Shared Space for Informal Interaction among Geographically Distributed Teams
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 41-54.
summary In a design project, much creative work is done in teams, thus requires spaces for collaborative works such as conference rooms, project rooms and chill-out areas. These spaces are designed to provide an atmosphere conducive to discussion and communication ranging from formal meetings to informal communication. According to Kraut et al (E.Kraut et al., 1990), informal communication is an important factor for the success of collaboration and is defined as “conversations take place at the time, with the participants, and about the topics at hand. It often occurs spontaneously by chance and in face-to-face manner. As shown in many research, much of good and creative ideas originate from impromptu meeting rather than in a formal meeting (Grajewski, 1993, A.Isaacs et al., 1997). Therefore, the places for informal communication are taken into account in workplace design and scattered throughout the building in order to stimulate face-to-face interaction, especially serendipitous communication among different groups across disciplines such as engineering, technology, design and so forth. Nowadays, team members of a project are not confined to people working in one location but are spread widely with geographically distributed collaborations. Being separated by long physical distance, informal interaction by chance is impossible since people are not co-located. In order to maintain the benefit of informal interaction in collaborative works, research endeavor has developed a variety ways to shorten the physical distance and bring people together in one shared space. Technologies to support informal interaction at a distance include video-based technologies, virtual reality technologies, location-based technologies and ubiquitous technologies. These technologies facilitate people to stay aware of other’s availability in distributed environment and to socialize and interact in a multi-users virtual environment. Each type of applications supports informal interaction through the employed technology characteristics. One of the conditions for promoting frequent and impromptu face-to-face communication is being co-located in one space in which the spatial settings play as catalyst to increase the likelihood for frequent encounter. Therefore, this paper analyses the degree to which sense of shared space is supported by these technical approaches. This analysis helps to identify the trade-off features of each shared space technology and its current problems. A taxonomy of shared space is introduced based on three types of shared space technologies for supporting informal interaction. These types are named as shared physical environments, collaborative virtual environments and mixed reality environments and are ordered increasingly towards the reality of sense of shared space. Based on the problem learnt from other technical approaches and the nature of informal interaction, this paper proposes physical-virtual shared space for supporting intended and opportunistic informal interaction. The shared space will be created by augmenting a 3D collaborative virtual environment (CVE) with real world scene at the virtual world side; and blending the CVE scene to the physical settings at the real world side. Given this, the two spaces are merged into one global structure. With augmented view of the real world, geographically distributed co-workers who populate the 3D CVE are facilitated to encounter and interact with their real world counterparts in a meaningful and natural manner.
keywords shared space, collaborative virtual environment, informal interaction, intended interaction, opportunistic interaction
series CAAD Futures
email g0800518@nus.edu.sg
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ijac20109201
id ijac20109201
authors Ramsgard Thomsen, Mette; Martin Tamke, Jacob Riiber Nielsen
year 2011
title Generating a scalar logic: producing the "it's a SMALL world" exhibition
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 9 - no. 2, 115-132
summary This paper presents the design project “it’s a SMALL world”, an exhibition design developed for the Danish Design Centre in 2009.The project investigates the making of a generative design environment by which multiple design parameters as from program, site or the subsequent digital fabrication and assembly process can be negotiated. In this paper we discuss methods for understanding the emergent interrelationships between encoded parameters, how to manage these and their impact on design.The implementation of the design necessitated a novel design method that allowed to blend the qualities of a generative design approach, that can adapt through recursion gradually to local requirements, with explicit definitions.The project showcases with its new developed manufacturing system for non- standard element how customized digital design and production tools allow for a novel nearness to material and new ways of production and collaboration of architects, engineers and the crafts.
series journal
last changed 2019/05/24 07:55

_id cf2011_p024
id cf2011_p024
authors Tidafi, Temy; Charbonneau Nathalie, Khalili-Araghi Salman
year 2011
title Backtracking Decisions within a Design Process: a Way of Enhancing the Designer's Thought Process and Creativity
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 573-587.
summary This paper proposes a way computer sciences could contribute to stimulate the designer’s reflexive thought. We explore the possibility of making use of backtracking devices in order to formalize the designer’s thought process. Design, as a process of creating an object, cannot be represented by means of a linear timeline. Accordingly, the backtracking processes we are discussing here are not based on a linear model but rather on a non-linear structure. Beyond the notion of undoing and redoing commands within CAD packages, the backtracking process is seen as a way to explore and record several alternate options. The branches of the non-linear model can be seen as pathways made of sequential decisions. The designer creates and explores these pathways while making tentative moves towards an architectural solution. Within the design process, backtracking enables the designer to establish and act on a network of interrelated decisions. This notion is fundamental. It is quite obvious that information, in order to be meaningful, must occupy a specific place within an informational network. A data, separated from its context, is devoid of interest. By the same token, a decision takes on significance solely in combination with other decisions. In this paper, we examine what kinds of decisions are involved within a design process, how they are connected, and what could be the best ways to formalize the relationships. Our goal is to experiment ways that could enable the designer and his/her collaborators to get a clearer mental picture of the network of decisions aforementioned. The non-linear model can be seen as a graph structure. The user moves wherever he/she wants through the branches of the structure to establish the network of decisions or to get reacquainted with a previous design process. As a matter of fact, it can act in both ways: to reassess or to confirm a decision. On the one hand, the designer can go back to previous states, reconsider past choices, and eventually modify them. On the other hand, he/she can move forward and revisit a given sequence of decisions, so as to recapture the essence of a previous design process. It goes without saying that knowledge regarding the design process is constructed by the designer from his/her own experiences. Since the designer’s perception evolves as time goes by, the network of decisions constitutes a model that is continuously questioned and restructured. The designer does not elaborate solely an architectural object, but also an evolving model formalizing the way he/she achieved his/her aim. As Le Moigne (1995) pointed out, the model itself produces knowledge; afterwards, the designer can examine it so as to get a clearer mental picture of his/her own cognitive processes. Furthermore, it can be used by his/her collaborators in order to understand which thread of ideas led the designer to a given visual result, and eventually resume or reorient the design process. In addition to reflecting on the ideological implications inherent to this questioning, we take into account the feasibility of such a research project. From a more technical point of view, in this paper we will describe how we plane to take up the challenge of elaborating a digital environment enabling backtracking processes within graph structures. Furthermore, we will explain how we plane to test the first trial version of the new environment with potential users so as to observe how they respond to it. These experiments will be conducted in order to verify to what extend the methods we are proposing are able to i) enhance the designer’s creativity and ii) increase our understanding of designer’s thought process.
keywords backtracking, design process, digital environments, problem space, network of decisions, graph structure.
series CAAD Futures
email temy.tidafi@umontreal.ca
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p047
id cf2011_p047
authors Vermeersch, Peter-Willem; Nijs Greg, Heylighen Ann
year 2011
title Mediating Objects in Architectural Design: a Non-Visual Exploration
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 721-734.
summary Through their daily interactions with the built environment, people with disabilities become able to appreciate spatial qualities or detect obstacles that architects may not be attuned to. This observation motivated us to explore scenarios for involving people with sensory disabilities as experts in the design process. An architecture office participating in a real-world design competition is teamed up with two blind persons. The design process is studied in real time through a team ethnography. The analysis in this paper focuses on the mediating aspects of objects in the actions, perception and cognition in one collaborative design meeting in particular. In general, disability situations can teach us something about fixed ways of doing by making perceivable, or questioning practices that seem self-evident. In this particular situation, the blind person’s involvement in a design meeting that relies heavily on representational artifacts, makes perceivable or questions everyday practices in architects’ design process that are taken for granted. Examples include knowing and indicating to others where design elements are on the site, knowing what design element is being talked about, holding the element and its environment ‘in place’, or spatially exploring the design’s spatial configuration. As such, our study shows that exploring inclusivity ‘upstream’, i.e. in the design process, may contribute not only to inclusive design, but also to a more articulate understanding of the working of mediating objects and their use in architects’ design processes tout court.
keywords architectural design, blindness, disability, participant observation, users
series CAAD Futures
email peterwillem.vermeersch@asro.kuleuven.be
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2011_p019
id cf2011_p019
authors Haeusler, Matthias Hank; Beilharz Kirsty
year 2011
title Architecture = Computer‚ from Computational to Computing Environments
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 217-232.
summary Drawing on architecture, urban digital media, engineering, IT and interaction design, the research presented in this paper outlines a possible shift from architecture designed through computation (any type of process, algorithm or measurement done in a computational matter) towards architecture capable of computing (developing, using and improving computer technology, computer hardware and software as a space-defining element). The research is driven by recent developments in four fields, as follows: (a) Architecture in its recent development has shifted from a planar box, as was the ideal in the modernist movement, towards complex and non-standard forms. (b) The design concepts of non-standard surfaces have been adopted into media facades and media architecture by liberating the pixel from its planar position on a screen [1]. (c) Advancements in pervasive computing applications are now able both to receive information from the environment in which they are used and to detect other devices that enter this environment [2]. (d) Developments in advanced autonomous systems such as Human Computer Interaction (HCI) or Human Robot Interaction (HRI), have produced intelligent systems capable of observing human cues and using these cues as the basis for intelligent decision-making [3]. Media fa_ßade developments work in the direction of the above-mentioned four fields, but often come with limitations in architectural integration; they need additional components to interact with their environment and their interactions are both often limited to visual interactions and require the user to act first. The researched system, Polymedia Pixel [4] discussed in this paper, can overcome these limitations and fulfil the need for a space-defining material capable of computing, thus enabling a shift from architecture designed by computation towards architecture capable of active computing. The Polymedia Pixel architecture merges digital technology with ubiquitous computing. This allows the built environment and its relation with digital technology to develop from (a) architecture being represented by computer to (b) computation being used to develop architecture and then further to where (c) architecture and the space-defining objects have computing attributes. Hence the study presented aims to consider and answer this key question: ‚ÄòWhen building components with computing capacity can define space and function as a computer at the same time, what are the constraints for the building components and what are the possible advantages for the built environment?‚Äô The conceptual framework, design and methods used in this research combine three fields: (a) hardware (architecture and design, electronic engineering) (b) software (content design and IT) and (c) interaction design (HCI and HRI). Architecture and urban design determinates the field of application. Media architecture and computer science provide the technological foundation, while the field of interaction design defines the methodology to link space and computing [5]. The conceptual starting point is to rethink the application of computers in architecture and, if architecture is capable of computing, what kind of methodology and structure would find an answer to the above core research question, and what are the implications of the question itself? The case study discusses opportunities for applying the Polymedia Pixel as an architectural component by testing it on: (a) constraint testing ‚Äì applying computational design methodologies to design space (b) singular testing - discussing the advantages for an individual building, and (c) plural testing ‚Äì investigating the potential for an urban context. The research aims to contribute to the field of knowledge through presenting first steps of a System < - > System mode where buildings can possibly watch and monitor each other, additional to the four primary interactive modes of operation. This investigation, its proposed hypothesis, methodology, implications, significance and evaluation are presented in the paper.
keywords media architecture, computational environments, ubiquitous computing, interaction design, computer science
series CAAD Futures
email matthias.haeusler@uts.edu.au
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id caadria2011_028
id caadria2011_028
authors Lesage, Annemarie and Tomás Dorta
year 2011
title Two conceptual design tools and an immersive experience: Beyond the pragmatic-pleasurable split in UX
source Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / The University of Newcastle, Australia 27-29 April 2011, pp. 291-300
summary In a recent study, we compared two conceptual design tools supporting collaboration, a whiteboard software accessed through Internet, and a hybrid immersive system, the Hybrid Ideation Space (HIS). The result of the study appeared to favour the HIS because of its immersive qualities. In this paper, we seek possible explanations as to why immersion delivered a better experience, by looking at the mental workload in relationship to the experience. For the workload we rely on Wickens’ four-dimensional multiple resource model, specifically processing codes (verbal/spatial) and visual channels; and for the experience, Csikszentmihalyi’s concept of flow and our own concept of Design Flow. The designers seemed to be responding to different styles of information processing required of them by each tool, one being more experiential and the other requiring a heavier mental workload. Insight in the cognitive underpinning of a strictly pragmatic immersive experience suggests that UX has also to do with how the information is received and processed by users, without isolating the functional from the rest of the experience.
keywords User experience; immersion; flow; mental workload; Hybrid Ideation Space
series CAADRIA
email annemarie.lesage@umontreal.ca
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id acadia11_196
id acadia11_196
authors Lopes, José; Leitão, António
year 2011
title Portable Generative Design for CAD Applications
source ACADIA 11: Integration through Computation [Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA)] [ISBN 978-1-6136-4595-6] Banff (Alberta) 13-16 October, 2011, pp. 196-203
summary Most CAD applications provide programming languages for automation and generative design. However, programs written in these languages are not portable because they execute only in the family of CAD applications for which they were originally written. Consequently, users are locked-in to one family of CAD applications and they cannot reuse programs written for other families. In this paper, we propose a solution to this problem: Rosetta, a programming environment that is compatible with several CAD applications. Rosetta is composed of (1) an abstraction layer that allows portable and transparent access to several different CAD applications; (2) back-ends that translate the abstraction layer into different CAD applications; (3) front-end programming languages in which users write the generative design programs; and (4) an intermediate programming language that encompasses the language constructs essential for geometric modeling and that is used as a compilation target for the front-ends.Rosetta allows users to explore different front-ends and back-ends, in order to find a combination that is most suitable for the problem at hand. As a result, users have access to different programming languages, namely, visual and textual, which can be used interchangeably to write generative design programs, without breaking portability. Furthermore, Rosetta ensures that a single program can be used to create identical geometric models in different CAD applications. This approach promotes the development of programs that are portable across the most used CAD applications, thus facilitating the dissemination of the programs and of the underlying ideas.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email jose.lopes@ist.utl.pt
last changed 2011/10/06 04:05

_id acadia11_162
id acadia11_162
authors Payne, Andrew
year 2011
title A Five-axis Robotic Motion Controller for Designers
source ACADIA 11: Integration through Computation [Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA)] [ISBN 978-1-6136-4595-6] Banff (Alberta) 13-16 October, 2011, pp. 162-169
summary This paper proposes the use of a new set of software tools, called Firefly, paired with a low-cost five-axis robotic motion controller. This serves as a new means for customized tool path creation, realtime evaluation of parametric designs using forward kinematic robotic simulations, and direct output of the programming language (RAPID code) used to control ABB industrial robots. Firefly bridges the gap between Grasshopper, a visual programming editor that runs within the Rhinoceros 3D CAD application, and physical programmable microcontrollers like the Arduino; enabling realtime data flow between the digital and physical worlds. The custom-made robotic motion controller is a portable digitizing arm designed to have the same joint and axis configuration as the ABB-IRB 140 industrial robot, enabling direct conversion of the digitized information into robotic movements. Using this tangible controller and the underlying parametric interface, this paper presents an improved workflow which directly addresses the shortfalls of multifunctional robots and enables wider adoption of the tools by architects and designers.
keywords robotics; CAD/CAM; firefly; direct fabrication; digitizing arm
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email andyopayne@gmail.com
last changed 2011/10/06 04:05

_id eaea2009_piga
id eaea2009_piga
authors Piga, Barbara E.A.
year 2011
title The Urban Simulation and Projects Evaluation Laboratory at the Politecnico di Milano: An Educational and Research Facility
source Projecting Spaces [Proceedings of the 9th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 978-3-942411-31-8 ], pp. 115-120
summary At the beginning of 2007 an Italian Urban Simulation Laboratory was founded at the Politecnico di Milano. The laboratory, coordinated by prof. Fausto Curti, has been developed thanks to the one year presence of the visiting professor Peter Bosselmann, director of the Environmental Simulation Laboratory at the University of California at Berkeley. The laboratory has an interdisciplinary approach and a threefold mission: experiment, using the laboratory setting to study urban projects at different scales; communicate, aiding public communication by making urban projects understandable to everyone; integrate and innovate, working on different kind of simulations techniques in an integrated way. In its initial experience the laboratory is primarily a didactic and research facility. Students can join the work and participate actively to the research. Until now about 40 students have worked with us, more than a half were foreign students from all over the world. The majority of the students did an internship of about 150 (three-year degree) or 300 (master degree) hours and some of them have continued working after this period developing a thesis. At the moment the case study, used as a pilot research, is about the Porta Nuova project at the Garibaldi- Repubblica area in Milan. The 300.000 mq of the total area and its well served central position make this place strategic for Milan. In this area the adopted urban transformation plan is creating a new business center that affects redevelopment projects, new infrastructures, and a park. The overall project will overhanging the surroundings city center with some of the highest buildings of its skyline. The importance of the site and the dimension of the project make this case significant to test the use of simulation for supporting evaluations about morphological aspects, comfort conditions, visual impacts, and other aspects that directly influence the quality of the new urban spaces. We are now applying different simulation methodologies in order to better understand the peculiar usefulness of each kind as a tool to support evaluation. As any kind has its own limits we work with different typologies at the same time. We are working with 1:500 scale physical model of a 1 km square of the area and different kind of static and dynamic simulations. We developed, with an external office, a micro-car to move a micro-camera in the maquette. We use this equipment to better explain the project implications to the students by producing subjective shot videos or showing a walk in real-time. To reproduce in a better way some relevant walks through the transformed site we have also produced some videos made of a superimposition of the real existing context and the virtual projects. To do this we used a rendered video of the project superimposed to the filmed promenade of the today condition, previously recorded using steadycam. A lot of static simulations has been employed to better understand the new city configuration from some representative points of view, as for example the roof of the Duomo cathedral. We are now developing some other kinds of analysis such as shadows impact; this is done by using a 1:1000 scale maquette in the Heliodon, but also with some digital tools. In the next future a work with the wind tunnel will help to understand some other comfort implications of the project at the micro-urban scale. The multilayer approach is the main aim of the laboratory and is an important tool to clarify the multidimensional project impacts to the students. In this way the laboratory can be a learning tool, it can stimulate the project process and support decision-making while improving the knowledge about the correct use of simulations for evaluating the cumulative implications of the proposed urban processes.
series other
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea
last changed 2011/03/04 07:45

_id cf2011_p120
id cf2011_p120
authors Veliz, Alejandro; Medjdoub Benachir, Kocaturk Tuba
year 2011
title Bridging the Gap in Constraint-Based Design
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 133-148.
summary Mass customization is one of the most promising computational developments in the AEC industry. Despite recent advances in the production of research-based knowledge, the professional practices lack of a consistent and permanent technology adoption scheme and remain as a very resilient and fragmented industry. This work is a part of an ongoing research project developing guidelines for improving both physical and virtual modeling processes within an architectural design context. Here, we present a customizable model of a space layout explorer. The implementation of the user-driven solution-finding process is based on constraint technology embedded in Autodesk’s Revit® 2011 macros tools, commonly used in the professional practice. The aim of this work is to demonstrate a practical use of a small constraint-based system on software of widespread use. Even though there is still a lack of building information, the model has already several applications in the definition a floor plan layout and in the comparison of several instances of the design solution in the 3D user view. User-driven modifications are not made directly through the 3D model, but through different explicit text tags that describe each parameter on 2D views -although a real time 3D visualization of the model is also available-. The main findings are discussed as guidelines for further research on the end-user involvement on a ‘creative mass customization’ scheme. Also, the implementation of visual aids such as text tags during the customization process can bridge some technical obstacles for the development of interfaces for constraint-based mass customization systems. Before the final discussion, some limitations on the use of this model are described.
keywords collaborative design, mass customization, reality gap
series CAAD Futures
email a.a.veliz@edu.salford.ac.uk
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

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