CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ijac201412305
id ijac201412305
authors Davis, Daniel
year 2014
title Quantitatively Analysing Parametric Models
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 12 - no. 3, 307-320
summary Architectural practices regularly work with parametric models, yet almost nothing is known about the general properties of these models. We do not know how large a typical model is, or how complicated, or even what the typical parametric model does. These knowledge gaps are the focus of this article, which documents the first large-scale quantitative parametric model survey. In this paper three key quantitative metrics - dimensionality, size, and cyclomatic complexity - are applied to a collection of 2002 parametric models created by 575 designers. The results show that parametric models generally exhibit a number of strong correlations, which reveal a practice of parametric modelling that has as much to do with the management of data as it does with the modelling of geometry. These findings demonstrate the utility of software engineering metrics in the description and analysis of parametric models.
series journal
last changed 2019/05/24 07:55

_id sigradi2014_048
id sigradi2014_048
authors de Miranda, Felipe Ferraz; James Miyamoto, José Ripper Kós
year 2014
title Sistemas de Automação Residencial Construindo Hábitos Sustentáveis nos Moradores [Home Automation Systems Building Sustainable Concern in Households]
source SiGraDi 2014 [Proceedings of the 18th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-9974-99-655-7] Uruguay - Montevideo 12 - 14 November 2014, pp. 567-571
summary This paper presents the interface of a Brazilian house automation system, departing from an analogy of sailing race instruments. It aims to demonstrate the potential of automation systems on the house performance and, more important, on impacting households for a more sustainable behavior. Sailing instruments have positively influenced results on experienced sailors’ speed and ultimately have confirmed their observations on nature cycles. Our argument is that if research on race sailing instruments soon became available to other sailing boats, systems developed to the Solar Decathlon houses’ academic competition could, and should, be accessible to a great number of home owners.
keywords Home Automation; supervisory interface; sustainability; sailing instruments; Solar Decathlon
series SIGRADI
email lipemirandasc@gmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:50

_id cf2015_099
id cf2015_099
authors Dickinson, Susannah
year 2015
title Hybrid Connections: Computational Mapping Methodologies for Mexico City
source The next city - New technologies and the future of the built environment [16th International Conference CAAD Futures 2015. Sao Paulo, July 8-10, 2015. Electronic Proceedings/ ISBN 978-85-85783-53-2] Sao Paulo, Brazil, July 8-10, 2015, pp. 99-111.
summary The digital age is facilitating an ever increasing trend of globalized language and culture. Environmental issues are no longer a static concept as climate change and population growth force concepts of adaptability. What does this mean for the academy? How do we educate students to contemplate future urban scenarios and make some organization out of this more dynamic, complex future? The following paper seeks to disseminate a spring 2014 design studio at The University of Arizona where these issues were addressed, with Mexico City as a test bed. Computation has become a vital tool in the organizational process of these complex issues and big data. Various digital tools and platforms were explored in the studio to determine which ones would be most useful in modeling, mapping, designing and processing some of the complex relationships that are present in urban environments today.
keywords digital methodologies, urban design, complexity, hybridized networks, adaptability
series CAAD Futures
email srd@email.arizona.edu
last changed 2015/06/29 05:55

_id ecaadesigradi2019_645
id ecaadesigradi2019_645
authors Diniz, Nancy, Melendez, Frank, Boonyapanachoti, Woraya and Morales, Sebastian
year 2019
title Body Architectures - Real time data visualization and responsive immersive environments
source Sousa, JP, Xavier, JP and Castro Henriques, G (eds.), Architecture in the Age of the 4th Industrial Revolution - Proceedings of the 37th eCAADe and 23rd SIGraDi Conference - Volume 2, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal, 11-13 September 2019, pp. 739-746
summary This project sets up a design framework that promotes augmenting the human body's interactions exploring methods for merging and blending the users of physical and virtual environments, through the design of wearable devices that are embedded with sensors and actuators. This allows for haptic and visual feedback through the use of data that reflects changes in the surrounding physical environment, and visualized in the immersive Virtual Reality (VR) environment. We consider the Body Architectures project to serve as mechanisms for augmenting the body in relation to the virtual architecture. These wearable devices serve to bring a hyper-awareness to our senses, as closed-loop cybernetic systems that utilize 'digitized' biometric and environmental data through the use of 3D scanning technologies and cloud point models, virtual reality visualization, sensing technologies, and actuation. The design of Body Architectures relies on hybrid design, transdisciplinary collaborations, to explore new possibilities for wearable body architectures that evolve human-machine-environment interactions, and create hyper awareness of the temporal, atmospheric qualities that make up our experience of space, as 'sensorial envelopes' (Lally 2014).
keywords Virtual Reality; Wearable Design; Physical Computing; Data Visualization; Immersive Environments; Responsive Architecture
series eCAADeSIGraDi
email nancy.diniz@gmail.com
last changed 2019/08/26 20:28

_id ecaade2014_202
id ecaade2014_202
authors Ehsan Barekati and Mark Clayton
year 2014
title A Universal Format for Architectural Program of Requirement - A prerequisite for adding architectural programming information to BIM data models
source Thompson, Emine Mine (ed.), Fusion - Proceedings of the 32nd eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, UK, 10-12 September 2014, pp. 385-394
summary This paper is a report on authors' ongoing effort in creating a universal model for architectural programming. Authors analyse three well-known formats for architectural programming and devise a UML model representing each format. The UML models are further analysed and compared to form a super UML model that can bring together all the three formats under one roof and act as a universal format for architectural programming (UFPOR). The results improve the integration of architectural programming and BIM data models and are of value to the software development field and architectural programing.
wos WOS:000361385100040
keywords Building information modelling; data modelling; architectural programming; interoperability
series eCAADe
email ehsan.barekati@tamu.edu
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ecaade2014_185
id ecaade2014_185
authors Eirini Androutsopoulou
year 2014
title Urban body network configurations - Attica
source Thompson, Emine Mine (ed.), Fusion - Proceedings of the 32nd eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, UK, 10-12 September 2014, pp. 191-199
summary The methodology presented here is grounded on the reconstruction of the urban body as a network configuration consisting of material and non-material components (Bateson, 1972). It is based on the assumption that if one can describe the rules that define the nodes and the connections of the network construction/urban body, as well as their attributes, then the differentiation on the relationships between elements, or even a shift from one value to another, would result in different network constructions, that would produce a time-based sequence of the self-adaptational and self-organizational reconfigurations occurring during the mutational procedure. The urban body is defined as the part of the urban tissue which distinguishes itself from the whole of the urban landscape, either because of constructed boundaries, or because of the strengthening of a specific attribute, which would result in a kind of an immaterial boundary, or, in other words the formation of an identity.
wos WOS:000361384700019
keywords Mutation; urban body; visualization techniques; network; data manipulation
series eCAADe
email iandroutsopoulou@gmail.com
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id acadia14_573
id acadia14_573
authors Ekmekjian, Nazareth
year 2014
title From Surface to Volume: An Approach to Poche` with Composites
source ACADIA 14: Design Agency [Proceedings of the 34th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 9781926724478]Los Angeles 23-25 October, 2014), pp. 573-578
summary While the digital era has brought with it a vast assortment of tools from which we can generate form and geometry, often the result is a tendency to focus primarily on either surfaces or solids as a means of modeling for representation or fabrication which consequently impact the various fabrication and construction techniques deployed in order to realize such digital models. This paper presents an approach to coalesce techniques of surface generation via computational tools, and strategies for constructing volumetric elements through a process of backfilling with composite materials.
keywords Robotics and Autonomous Design Systems, Craft in a Digital Age, Material Logics and Tectonics, Digital Fabrication and Construction, Computational Design Research, Generative Design.
series ACADIA
type Normal Paper
email nazareth@mit.edu
last changed 2014/09/29 05:51

_id ascaad2014_025
id ascaad2014_025
authors Elias-Ozkan, Soofia T. and Hatem Had?a
year 2014
title Teaching and Learning Building Performance Virtualisation
source Digital Crafting [7th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2014 / ISBN 978-603-90142-5-6], Jeddah (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia), 31 March - 3 April 2014, pp. 323-330
summary Building performance simulation tools have indeed eased the task of evaluating a building’s performance from the point of view of lighting design, heating and cooling loads, total energy loads, acoustic properties, natural lighting, ventilation, smoke and fire containment etc. However, to use these tools correctly, not only is theoretical knowledge required but also insight that can only be attained after substantial experience. For example, in order to evaluate the thermal performance alone, one needs to understand climatology, material properties, building physics, HVAC systems, internal and external gain factors, solar impacts, etc. to name a few. Hence, teaching students of Architecture how to use these tools, and also to interpret the results properly, is a tall order. This paper reports on insights gained through teaching courses on building performance simulations to graduate students in the Department of Architecture. The course content was varied each term and a different simulation software was used; namely: ECOTECT, Energy Plus and Design Builder. Data presented here will also contain feedback from the course students regarding the modelling process of the buildings, inputting the data, simulating their performance, and evaluating the results. Also, the difficulties faced during the various steps as well as the drawbacks of the tools will be discussed in depth.
series ASCAAD
email elias_ozkan@yahoo.com
last changed 2016/02/15 12:09

_id ecaade2014_137
id ecaade2014_137
authors Elif Erdine and Alexandros Kallegias
year 2014
title Reprogramming Architecture - Learning via Practical Methodologies
source Thompson, Emine Mine (ed.), Fusion - Proceedings of the 32nd eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, UK, 10-12 September 2014, pp. 373-380
summary This paper aims to address innovative approaches in the pedagogical aspects of architecture by describing the work of AA Summer DLAB and Athens | Istanbul (AI) Visiting Schools of the Architectural Association (AA) School of Architecture in London. The presented work is part of a research which enables a more seamless transition from design to fabrication and from academia to profession. The paper formulates the pedagogical and methodological approach towards the integration of generative design thinking, large-scale prototyping, kinetic/interactive design, and participatory design. As such, a discussion on the methods of overcoming the fragmented nature of architectural education via the elaboration of the methodology, computational setup, fabrication strategies, and interaction / kinetic modes of the selected programmes is aspired.
wos WOS:000361384700037
keywords Computational design research and teaching; biomimetics; generative design; kinetic / interactive design; participatory design
series eCAADe
email elif.erdine@aaschool.ac.uk
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ecaade2014_078
id ecaade2014_078
authors Elif Erdine and Evan Greenberg
year 2014
title Computing the Urban Block - Local Climate Analysis and Design Strategies
source Thompson, Emine Mine (ed.), Fusion - Proceedings of the 32nd eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, UK, 10-12 September 2014, pp. 145-152
summary This research develops a method for the analysis, integration and visualisation of climatic parameters in a dense urban block. In order to test this method, a typical urban block in Manila, Philippines, is investigated and results are represented through computational simulation. The translation of latent spatial qualities into visual data with common tools and techniques allows designers to gain an understanding of how to design local microclimates, and inhabitants to gain greater knowledge of the environment. In this regard, this research proposes, contrary to conventional methodologies, the use of analytical tools as the impetus to, rather than the outcome of, architectural design.
wos WOS:000361384700014
keywords Computation; urban design; environmental analysis; computational fluid dynamics; simulation
series eCAADe
email evan.greenberg@aaschool.ac.uk
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id caadria2014_252
id caadria2014_252
authors Erhan, Halil; Andy Huang and Robert F. Woodbury
year 2014
title DiNa Framework and Prototype to Support Collaboration in the Wild
source Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2014) / Kyoto 14-16 May 2014, pp. 471–480
summary Much of the available collaboration support tools focus on sharing of documents and managing projects that require planned activities. These tools fall short in meeting principle of least effort or taking into account of the reality of complex work patterns. We propose DiNa framework and system architecture for a topic centric as opposed to document-centric collaboration system using readily available devices. DiNa aims to complement existing approaches. Our primary goal is to seek answers for how these devices can better support collaboration without overloading the workflow. After a literature review and roleplaying exercises, the prototypes we developed demonstrate new interaction techniques for defining topics and address them in collaborators’ own terms. It uses different visualizations of the artefacts and their association with the topics, among which is a scalable timeline interface accessible from different platforms, to make the artefacts collected more meaningful in a given context. In this paper we present our recent prototype as a proof-of-concept and its initial evaluations followed by the lessons learnt from our studies on supporting collaboration in the wild. The evaluation outcome is suggestions for improving DiNa-based systems for effective collaboration.
keywords Collaboration; collaboration support tools; design; mobile computing; distributed cognition
series CAADRIA
email herhan@sfu.ca
last changed 2014/04/22 08:23

_id ecaade2014_233
id ecaade2014_233
authors Evangelos Pantazis and David Gerber
year 2014
title Material Swarm Articulations - New View Reciprocal Frame Canopy
source Thompson, Emine Mine (ed.), Fusion - Proceedings of the 32nd eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, UK, 10-12 September 2014, pp. 463-473
summary Material Swarm Articulations, is an experiment in developing a multi-objective optimization system that incorporates bottom up approaches for informing architectural design. The paper presents an initial built project that demonstrates the combination of a structural form finding method, with an agent based design system through the digital fabrication processes. The objective of this research is to develop a workflow combined with material and construction constraints that has the potential to increase performance objectives while enabling geometric complexity and design driven articulation of a traditional tectonic system. The emphasis of the research at this stage is to take advantage of material properties and assembly methods applied to a digital design and simulation workflow that enables emergent patterns to influence the performance of the space.The paper illustrates the research through a prototype of a self standing canopy structure in 1:1 scale. It presents results of the form finding, generative patterning, digital fabrication affordances and sets and agenda for next steps in the use of multi-agent systems for design purposes.
wos WOS:000361384700046
keywords Computational design; agent-based system; digital fabrication; parametric design; reciprocal frames; form finding; multi-objective optimization, multi-agent systems for design
series eCAADe
email dgerber@usc.edu
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ecaade2014_111
id ecaade2014_111
authors Fabian Danker and Oliver Jones
year 2014
title Combining Augmented Reality and Building Information Modelling - An industry perspective on applications and future directions.
source Thompson, Emine Mine (ed.), Fusion - Proceedings of the 32nd eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, UK, 10-12 September 2014, pp. 525-536
summary The aim of this paper is to investigate the applications both current and potential, of combining Augmented Reality (AR) and Building Information Modelling (BIM), providing an insight into attitudes towards utilising these technologies within the construction industry. This paper presents a study which has evaluated current research on the topic of AR and BIM, conducted semi structured interviews with a panel of industry experts and surveyed a sample group of 43 within the wider UK construction industry . Industry experts were interviewed using semi-structured interviews and results were thematically analysed with the data gathered from the literature review. 5 core themes used to structure a nine item industry and practitioner questionnaire. Results suggest that use of AR and BIM within the construction industry will continue to grow with the advent of emerging technologies. Use of AR and BIM combined with 3D Scanning, Wireless Sensory Network will also increase and the synergies between BIM and these emerging technologies will improve overall efficiencies in design, delivery, maintenance and demolition of projects. The findings of this study contribute further knowledge to understanding the implications and possibilities that utilising AR and BIM will have in the construction industry.
wos WOS:000361385100055
keywords Augmented reality; emerging technologies; building information modelling; aec industry
series eCAADe
email info@fabiandanker.com
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id sigradi2014_234
id sigradi2014_234
authors Ferreira de Arruda, Guilherme; Ana Paula Baltazar dos Santos
year 2014
title Interface urbana digital em Catas Altas (MG): apontamentos para criação de redes plurais e dialógicas [Digital urban interface in Catas Altas (MG): notes for creating plural and dialogical networks]
source SiGraDi 2014 [Proceedings of the 18th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-9974-99-655-7] Uruguay - Montevideo 12 - 14 November 2014, pp. 604-608
summary This paper discusses the process of production of the prototype of R.I.C.A. (Catas Altas Ideas Network), a digital interface to trigger social transformation in the town of Catas Altas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, which is part of the Masters “From discourse to dialogue: urban digital interfaces for the recovery of the public realm”. It introduces Catas Altas and its social inequality showing the imbalance between the power of the mining companies that explore the town and its powerless population. It then presents the action research steps that informed the design of the interface R.I.C.A., both technically and socially, and the first use of the prototype empowering the community to discuss the public space.
keywords Interface digital; esfera pública; diálogo; relações socio-espaciais
series SIGRADI
email guiarruda.arq@gmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id ecaade2014_029
id ecaade2014_029
authors Filipa Osório, Alexandra Paio and Sancho Oliveira
year 2014
title Interaction with a Kinetic Folded Surface
source Thompson, Emine Mine (ed.), Fusion - Proceedings of the 32nd eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, UK, 10-12 September 2014, pp. 605-612
summary Kinetic systems offers new perspectives and design innovation in research and practice. These systems have been used by architects as an approach that embeds computation intelligence to create flexible and adaptable architectural spaces according to users changing needs and desires as a way to respond to an increasingly technological society. The presented research attempts to answer to this question based on the results of a multidisciplinary on-going work developed at digital fabrication laboratory Vitruvius Fablab-IUL in Lisbon. The main goal is to explore the transformation of the shape of a construction by mechanisms which allow adaptation either to environmental conditions or to the needs of the user. This paper reports the initial development of a kinetic system based on an origami foldable surface actuated by a user. The user can manipulate a small scale model of the surface and evaluate at all times if it is achieving the desired geometry.
wos WOS:000361385100063
keywords Kinetic systems; interactive architecture; responsive surfaces; origami geometry; folded surfaces
series eCAADe
email filipacrespo@gmail.com
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ecaade2015_37
id ecaade2015_37
authors Forster, Julia; Fritz, Sara, Schleicher, Johannes and Rab, Nikolaus
year 2015
title Developer Tools for Smart Approaches to Responsible-Minded Planning Strategies
source Martens, B, Wurzer, G, Grasl T, Lorenz, WE and Schaffranek, R (eds.), Real Time - Proceedings of the 33rd eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 16-18 September 2015, pp. 545-551
summary The city of Vienna follows a long-term initiative to become a Smart City. Within 2050 it aims to reduce 80% of the CO2 emissions (in comparison to 1990) and looks forward to generate ways for a sustainable energy production. (Smart City Framework Strategy 2014) Reaching this targets requires a complex planning process which involves interdisciplinary stakeholders and decision makers. An interactive multi-dimensional environment, comprising spatial objects and data models, is a helpful tool during these planning processes. This paper proposes a suitable path for the development of a structural framework for such an environment. The benefits of such an environment are shown in detail, based on an application of the economic solar heat potential in Vienna.
wos WOS:000372317300059
series eCAADe
email julia.forster@tuwien.ac.at
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id caadria2014_109
id caadria2014_109
authors Gokmen, Sabri
year 2014
title "Formative Impulse": A Theoretical Outline for the Study of Goethean Morphology Using Computation
source Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2014) / Kyoto 14-16 May 2014, pp. 863–872
summary In this paper a theoretical and computational framework for a contemporary study of morphogenesis will be presented using a pulsation model. This study will revisit some of the valuable historical ideas on form developed by Goethe in the late eighteenth century. This investigation will be developed in three main parts. In the first part a brief outline of Goethe’s scientific methodology will be described positioning his achievements against the epistemology of Kant. In the second part Goethe’s main works on morphology will be presented with a focus on his botanical writings. Using a fragment titled "Formative Impulse" some of Goethe’s ideas on polar tendencies and metamorphosis will be used for a computational framework in the final part. By bridging among history, theory and technology the paper aims to present a novel approach to the study of computational form and growth in architecture.
keywords Goethe; morphogenesis; pulse; computation
series CAADRIA
email sabrigokmen@gatech.edu
last changed 2014/04/22 08:23

_id caadria2014_212
id caadria2014_212
authors Gokmen, Sabri
year 2014
title "Polychromy": A Study on Goethe’s Theory of Colours and Computational Design Pedagogy
source Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2014) / Kyoto 14-16 May 2014, pp. 903–912
summary This paper will present the main principles of Goethe’s Theory of Colours and formulate a theoretical approach for the study of polychromy in digital design pedagogy. In the first part of the paper a survey on colour theory will be presented comparing Goethe and Newton’s works on colour. The concepts of polarity [Polarität] and intensification [Steigerung] will be introduced as the two main principles of Goethe’s dynamic notion of colour. These terms will be used to explain how Goethe considered colours to induce sensual effects on the onlooker. In the second part a digital design studio that focuses on colour will be presented. The pedagogy will show how a dynamic notion of colour could be studied using digital tools. Some of the student works will be presented while addressing how a Goethean notion of sensual colours could be studied as spatial parameters. The goal of the paper is to distill a theoretical approach towards the study of colour in architecture and contemplate on how it could be applied within the digital design curriculum.
keywords Colour; Goethe; Digital Design; Pedagogy
series CAADRIA
email sabrigokmen @gatech.edu
last changed 2014/04/22 08:23

_id sigradi2014_052
id sigradi2014_052
authors Guerra Matos, Marcella
year 2014
title Observação e experimentação da Tecnologia 4D no projeto de arquitetura [Observation and experimentation of 4D Technology in architectural design]
source SiGraDi 2014 [Proceedings of the 18th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-9974-99-655-7] Uruguay - Montevideo 12 - 14 November 2014, pp. 547-550
summary This paper presents an experimentation of the use of 4D technology in order to generate a simulation. An approach will be made about this technology, as well as its evolutionary process, and how the graphical representation is changing and used in various applications. It will be shown the advantages fourth dimension can bring to the realization of architectural projects, as well as some advice for the process will be really efficient.
keywords 4D; BIM (Building Information Modelling); Construction manager; Simulation
series SIGRADI
email guerra.marcella@gmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:53

_id sigradi2014_169
id sigradi2014_169
authors Gutiérrez, Claudio Rodrigo Araneda; Nicolás Sáez G.
year 2014
title Urban Instant 2 - Observations following the execution of the second urban instant
source SiGraDi 2014 [Proceedings of the 18th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-9974-99-655-7] Uruguay- Montevideo 12,13,14 November 2014, pp. 582-585
summary This paper reports on progress related to the “Urban Instant” project (fondecyt 11110450) developed by the author as a tool for a systematic immersive/phenomenological assessment of the patterns of behavior of our visual field (photographically abstracted) regarding information in the shape of people during our navigations along the streets of any given city. Instead of simultaneous photographic journeys undertaken by a single person along the streets, in this occasion the applied method consisted of one simultaneous record made by more than a hundred voluntaries. This, we believe, might be the first urban instant ever to have been taken with this methodology. The case study remains the city of Concepcion, Chile.
keywords Urban instant; Urban Polaroid; Space Syntax; Concepción; Phenomenology
series SIGRADI
email claraneda73@gmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:53

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