CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id acadia09_30
id acadia09_30
authors Aish, Robert
year 2009
title Tools of Expression: Notation and Interaction for Design Computation
source ACADIA 09: reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow [Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-9842705-0-7] Chicago (Illinois) 22-25 October, 2009), pp. 30-31
summary Design considers function, fabrication, and aesthetics collectively. Computation is beginning to affect the competitive dynamics of design. Using algorithms, designers are exploring forms that are essentially “undrawable,” even with advanced modeling and direct manipulation techniques. Determining the appropriate functional characteristics may require the application of increasingly complex structural- and environmental-performance analysis techniques. To realize physically a design may require further geometric analysis and rationalization, and the use of complex computer-controlled fabrication techniques.
keywords Design, Computation, Form Finding, Design logic
series ACADIA
type Keynote paper
last changed 2009/11/26 16:44

_id acadia12_47
id acadia12_47
authors Aish, Robert ; Fisher, Al ; Joyce, Sam ; Marsh, Andrew
year 2012
title Progress Towards Multi-Criteria Design Optimisation Using Designscript With Smart Form, Robot Structural Analysis and Ecotect Building Performance Analysis"
source ACADIA 12: Synthetic Digital Ecologies [Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-1-62407-267-3] San Francisco 18-21 October, 2012), pp. 47-56
summary Important progress towards the development of a system that enables multi-criteria design optimisation has recently been demonstrated during a research collaboration between Autodesk’s DesignScript development team, the University of Bath and the engineering consultancy Buro Happold. This involved integrating aspects of the Robot Structural Analysis application, aspects of the Ecotect building performance application and a specialist form finding solver called SMART Form (developed by Buro Happold) with DesignScript to create a single computation environment. This environment is intended for the generation and evaluation of building designs against both structural and building performance criteria, with the aim of expediently supporting computational optimisation and decision making processes that integrate across multiple design and engineering disciplines. A framework was developed to enable the integration of modeling environments with analysis and process control, based on the authors’ case studies and experience of applied performance driven design in practice. This more generalised approach (implemented in DesignScript) enables different designers and engineers to selectively configure geometry definition, form finding, analysis and simulation tools in an open-ended system without enforcing any predefined workflows or anticipating specific design strategies and allows for a full range of optimisation and decision making processes to be explored. This system has been demonstrated to practitioners during the Design Modeling Symposium, Berlin in 2011 and feedback from this has suggested further development.
keywords Design Optimisation , Scripting , Form Finding , Structural Analysis , Building Performance
series ACADIA
type normal paper
last changed 2013/01/09 10:06

_id 678e
authors Aish, Robert
year 1986
title Three-dimensional Input and Visualization
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 68-84
summary The aim of this chapter is to investigate techniques by which man-computer interaction could be improved, specifically in the context of architectural applications of CAD. In this application the object being designed is often an assembly of defined components. Even if the building is not actually fabricated from such components, it is usually conceptualized in these terms. In a conventional graphics- based CAD system these components are usually represented by graphical icons which are displayed on the graphics screen and arranged by the user. The system described here consists of three- dimensional modelling elements which the user physically assembles to form his design. Unlike conventional architectural models which are static (i.e. cannot be changed by the users) and passive (i.e. cannot be read by a CAD system), this model is both 'user generated' and 'machine readable'. The user can create, edit and view the model by simple, natural modelling activities and without the need to learn complex operating commands often associated with CAD systems. In particular, the user can view the model, altering his viewpoint and focus of attention in a completely natural way. Conventional computer graphics within an associated CAD system are used to represent the detailed geometry which the different three-dimensional icons may represent. In addition, computer graphics are also used to present the output of the performance attributes of the objects being modelled. In the architectural application described in this chapter an energy- balance evaluation is displayed for a building designed using the modelling device. While this system is not intended to offer a completely free-form input facility it can be considered to be a specialist man-machine interface of particular relevance to architects or engineers.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 449f
authors Aish, Robert
year 2000
title Collaborative Design using Long Transactions and "Change Merge"
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 107-111
summary If our goal is implement collaborative engineering across temporal, spatial and discipline dimensions, then it is suggested that we first have to address the necessary pre-requisites, which include both the deployment of "enterprise computing" and an understanding of the computing concepts on which such enterprise systems are based. This paper will consider the following computing concepts and the related concepts in the world of design computing, and discuss how these concepts have been realised in Bentley SystemsÕ ProjectBank collaborative engineering data repository: Computing Concept Related Design Concept Normalisation Model v. Report (or Drawing) Transaction Consistency of Design Long Transaction Parallelisation of Design Change Merge Coordination (synchronisation) Revisions Coordination (synchronisation) While we are most probably familiar with the applications of existing datadase concepts (such as Normalisation and Transaction Management) to the design process, the intent of this paper to focus
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 2005_010
id 2005_010
authors Aish, Robert
year 2005
title From Intuition to Precision
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 10-14
summary Design has been described as making inspire decisions with incomplete information. True, we may use prior knowledge, we may even think we understand the causalites involved, but what really matters is exploration: of new forms, of new materials, and speculation about the response to the resulting effects. Essentially, this exploration has its own dynamics, involving intuition and spontaneity, and without which there is no design. But of course we all know that this is not the whole story. Design is different to 'craft'; to directly 'making' or 'doing'. It necessarily has to be predictive in order to anticipate what the consequence of the 'making' or 'doing' will be. Therefore we inevitably have to counter balance our intuition with a well developed sense of premeditation. We have to be able to reason about future events, about the consequence of something that has not yet being made. There is always going to be an advantage if this reasoning can be achieved with a degree of precision. So how can we progress from intuition to precision? What abstractions can we use to represent, externalize and test the concepts involved? How can we augment the cognitive processes? How can we record the progression of ideas? And, how do we know when we have arrived? Design has a symbiotic relationship with geometry. There are many design issues that are independent of any specific configurations. We might call these “pre-geometric” issues. And having arrived at a particular configuration, there may be many material interpretations of the same geometry. We might call these “post-geometric” issues. But geometry is central to design, and without appropriate geometric understanding, the resulting design will be limited. Geometry has two distinct components, one is a formal descriptive system and the other is a process of subjective evaluation.
series eCAADe
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id ecaade2013_297
id ecaade2013_297
authors Aish, Robert
year 2013
title DesignScript: Scalable Tools for Design Computation
source Stouffs, Rudi and Sariyildiz, Sevil (eds.), Computation and Performance – Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference – Volume 2, Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, 18-20 September 2013, pp. 87-95
summary Design computation based on data flow graph diagramming is a well-established technique. The intention of DesignScript is to recognise this type of data flow modeling as a form of ‘associative’ programming and to combine this with the more conventional ‘imperative’ form of programming into a single unified computational design application. The use of this application is intended to range from very simple graph based exploratory ‘proto-programming’ as used by novice end-user programmers to multi-disciplinary design optimisation as used by more experienced computational designers.
wos WOS:000340643600008
keywords Graph; scripting; associative; imperative.
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id cf2009_231
id cf2009_231
authors Attar, Ramtin; Aish, Robert; Stam, Jos; Brinsmead, Duncan; Tessier, Alex; Glueck, Michael and Khan, Azam
year 2009
title Physics-based generative design
source T. Tidafi and T. Dorta (eds) Joining Languages, Cultures and Visions: CAADFutures 2009, PUM, 2009, pp. 231-244
summary We present a physics-based generative design approach to interactive form-finding. While form as a product of dynamic simulation has been explored previously, individual projects have been developed as singleton solutions. By identifying categories of computational characteristics, we present a novel unified model that generalizes existing simulations through a constraint-based approach. The potential of interactive form finding simulation is explored through exemplary studies: a conceptual approach to a fixed form that acts as a visualization of interacting forces, and a constraint-based model of the fabrication logic for a panelization system are examined. Implications of constraint-based simulation on future directions are discussed.
keywords Form finding, dynamic simulation, physics-based design, panelization
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2009/06/08 18:53

_id ijac20108401
id ijac20108401
authors Attar, Ramtin; Robert Aish, Jos Stam, et al.
year 2010
title Embedded Rationality: A Unified Simulation Framework for Interactive Form Finding
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 8 - no. 4, p. 39
summary This paper describes embedded rationality as a method for implicitly combining fabrication constraints into an interactive framework for conceptual design. While the concept of ‘embedded rationality’ has been previously discussed in the context of a parametric design environment, we employ this concept to present a novel framework for dynamic simulation as a method for interactive form-finding. By identifying categories of computational characteristics, we present a unified physics-solver that generalizes existing simulations through a constraint-based approach. Through several examples we explore conceptual approaches to a fixed form where the resulting effects of interacting forces are produced in real-time. Finally, we provide an example of embedded rationality by examining a constraint-based model of fabrication rationale for a Planar Offset Quad (POQ) panelization system.
series journal
last changed 2019/05/24 07:55

_id acadia12_325
id acadia12_325
authors Chronis, Angelos ; Tsigkari, Martha ; Davis, Adam ; Aish, Francis
year 2012
title Design Systems, Ecology, and Time Angelos Chronis, Martha Tsigkari, Adam Davis, Francis Aish"
source ACADIA 12: Synthetic Digital Ecologies [Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-1-62407-267-3] San Francisco 18-21 October, 2012), pp. 325-332
summary Discussion of architecture in ecological terms usually focuses on the spatial and material dimensions of design practice. Yet there is an equally critical temporal dimension in ecology that is just as relevant to design. At the micro scale is the question of 'real time' feedback from our design systems. At the macro scale is the issue of sustainability, in other words long term -- and potentially disastrous -- feedback from terrestrial ecosystems. In between are numerous different units for quantizing time in design and computation. In this paper, we examine some of these units -- 'real time', 'design time', 'development time' -- to suggest how they interact with the ecology of design technology and practice. We contextualize this discussion by reference to relevant literature from the field of ecology and to our work applying custom design and analysis tools on architectural projects within a large interdisciplinary design practice.
keywords real time feedback , performance driven design , integration
series ACADIA
type normal paper
last changed 2013/01/09 10:06

_id acadia11_292
id acadia11_292
authors Davis, Adam; Tsigkari, Martha; Iseki, Takehiko; Aish, Francis
year 2011
title Just Passing Through: Integration in Computational Environmental Design
source ACADIA 11: Integration through Computation [Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA)] [ISBN 978-1-6136-4595-6] Banff (Alberta) 13-16 October, 2011, pp. 292-299
summary This paper proposes Buckminster Fuller’s concept of pattern integrity as a context for understanding computational techniques in environmentally responsive design. We argue that successful integration in this context requires a continuous design medium that allows for heterogeneous, mutable techniques and models. This model of integration is demonstrated by reference to a current project for a large canopy structure in Singapore with specific focus on issues of environmental mediation, object-oriented programming for CAD environments, and functional programming techniques within parametric modeling systems. We discuss the applicability of these novel integrative approaches to wider problems in computational design.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
last changed 2011/10/06 04:05

_id 2004_148
id 2004_148
authors Fatah gen. Schieck, A., Penn, A., Mottram, C., Strothmann, C., Ohlenburg, J., Broll, W. and Aish, F.
year 2004
title Interactive Space Generation through Play - Exploring Form Creation and the Role of Simulation on the Design Table
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 148-158
summary In this paper we report on recent developments in ARTHUR: an approach to support complex design and planning decisions for architects together with the simulation of pedestrian movement and the integration of existing CAD tools on the design table. Following a brief introduction, past and current work that has taken a similar approach will be reviewed. Next we describe a scenario that integrates agent-based simulations of pedestrian movement with space creation, and then give an overview of the system before finally discussing findings related to recent user evaluation studies of the system. This paper suggests that the integration of simulated pedestrian movement on the design table, while going through a cycle of reflection-in-action, plays a vital role in exploring possible design solutions and encourages new and different ways of thinking about design problems.
keywords Tangible User Interface, Pedestrian Simulation, Collaboration, Augmented Reality (AR), CAD Integration
series eCAADe
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

_id ecaade2018_w02
id ecaade2018_w02
authors Jabi, Wassim and Aish, Robert
year 2018
title Non-manifold Topology for Architectural and Engineering Modelling
source Kepczynska-Walczak, A, Bialkowski, S (eds.), Computing for a better tomorrow - Proceedings of the 36th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Poland, 19-21 September 2018, pp. 57-60
summary Non-manifold topology (NMT) allows the user to construct light-weight conceptual spatial architectural models which define the overall enclosure and the internal cellular division within that enclosure. The objective of this workshop is to give participants hands-on opportunities with a new software library that we have been developing under a research grant from the Leverhulme Trust. On the first day, the concepts of non-manifold topology will be introduced, including non-regular modelling operations. On the second day, we will introduce two plug-ins, which have been interfaced to our NMT tools: a) building energy simulation using OpenStudio and EnergyPlus and b) structural analysis software.
keywords Non-manifold topology; Visual data flow programming; Building performance simulation; Computational design
series eCAADe
last changed 2018/08/22 13:38

_id ecaade2018_310
id ecaade2018_310
authors Jabi, Wassim, Aish, Robert, Lannon, Simon, Chatzivasileiadi, Aikaterini and Wardhana, Nicholas Mario
year 2018
title Topologic - A toolkit for spatial and topological modelling
source Kepczynska-Walczak, A, Bialkowski, S (eds.), Computing for a better tomorrow - Proceedings of the 36th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Poland, 19-21 September 2018, pp. 449-458
summary This paper describes non-manifold topology (NMT) as it relates to the field of architecture and presents Topologic, an open-source software modelling library enabling hierarchical and topological representations of architectural spaces, buildings and artefacts through NMT. Topologic is designed as a core library and additional plugins to visual data flow programming (VDFP) software. The software architecture and class hierarchy are explained and two domain-specific demonstrative tools (TopologicEnergy and TopologicStructure) are presented to illustrate how third-party software developers could use Topologic to build their own solutions. The paper concludes with a reflection on the benefits and limitations of NMT in the design and simulation workflows and outlines future work.
keywords Non-manifold topology; Visual data flow programming; Building performance simulation; Structural analysis; Computational design; Building information modelling
series eCAADe
last changed 2018/07/24 10:24

_id ecaadesigradi2019_671
id ecaadesigradi2019_671
authors Jabi, Wassim, Chatzivasileiadi, Aikaterini, Wardhana, Nicholas Mario, Lannon, Simon and Aish, Robert
year 2019
title The synergy of non-manifold topology and reinforcement learning for fire egress
source Sousa, JP, Xavier, JP and Castro Henriques, G (eds.), Architecture in the Age of the 4th Industrial Revolution - Proceedings of the 37th eCAADe and 23rd SIGraDi Conference - Volume 2, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal, 11-13 September 2019, pp. 85-94
summary This paper illustrates the synergy of non-manifold topology (NMT) and a branch of artificial intelligence and machine learning (ML) called reinforcement learning (RL) in the context of evaluating fire egress in the early design stages. One of the important tasks in building design is to provide a reliable system for the evacuation of the users in emergency situations. Therefore, one of the motivations of this research is to provide a framework for architects and engineers to better design buildings at the conceptual design stage, regarding the necessary provisions in emergency situations. This paper presents two experiments using different state models within a simplified game-like environment for fire egress with each experiment investigating using one vs. three fire exits. The experiments provide a proof-of-concept of the effectiveness of integrating RL, graphs, and non-manifold topology within a visual data flow programming environment. The results indicate that artificial intelligence, machine learning, and RL show promise in simulating dynamic situations as in fire evacuations without the need for advanced and time-consuming simulations.
keywords Non-manifold topology; Topologic; Reinforcement Learning; Fire egress
series eCAADeSIGraDi
last changed 2019/08/26 20:26

_id 24ff
authors Mark, Earl and Aish, Robert
year 2002
title Exploring New Pathways Between Physical and Virtual Models - The Vaults at Fountains Abbey
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 464-470
summary The first generations of computer aided design systems were largely characterized by geometrical modeling software that could, in some applications, generate physical output in the form of computer aided manufacturing. More recently the technology has expanded to include a variety of ways to reverse direction, such that physical objects are captured and translated into computer graphics geometrical models. Laser surveying methods that produce point clouds are among the newer technologies that make this possible. The interpretation of the point clouds and translation of them into a computer graphics three-dimensional model can be subject to various mediation processes. This paper reports on a translation environment that interprets the point clouds so as to not just replicate the physical world, but rather encapsulates it towards the refinement and realization of geometry design objectives. A case study of Fountains Abbey, a Cistercian Abbey in the United Kingdom, serves as the basis for experimentation and control of surface geometry.
series eCAADe
last changed 2002/09/09 17:19

_id 9ffd
authors Maver, T.W., Smith, M., Watts, J. and Aish, R.
year 1979
title Implications for Practice and Education
source Proceedings of PArC 79, (Ed: J Chalmers) Berlin, 221-232
series other
last changed 2003/06/02 13:00

_id ddss2004_ra-213
id ddss2004_ra-213
authors Penn, A., C. Mottram, A. Fatah gen. Schieck, M. Wittkämper, M. Störring, O. Romell, A. Strothmann, and F. Aish
year 2004
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN: 1-4020-2408-8, p. 213-231
summary Immersive virtual environments have received widespread attention as providing possible replacements for the media and systems that designers traditionally use, as well as, more generally, in providing support for collaborative work. Relatively little attention has been given to date however to the problem of how to merge immersive virtual environments into real world work settings, and so to add to the media at the disposal of the designer and the design team, rather than to replace it. In this paper we report on a research project in which optical see-through augmented reality displays have been developed together with prototype decision support software for architectural and urban design. We suggest that a critical characteristic of multi user augmented reality is its ability to generate visualisations from a first person perspective in which the scale of rendition of the design model follows many of the conventions that designers are used to. Different scales of model appear to allow designers to focus on different aspects of the design under consideration. Augmenting the scene with simulations of pedestrian movement appears to assist both in scale recognition, and in moving from a first person to a third person understanding of the design. This research project is funded by the European Commission IST program (IST-2000-28559).
keywords Design Collaboration, Tangible Interface, Gesture, Agent Simulation, Augmented Reality
series DDSS
type normal paper
last changed 2004/07/03 21:11

_id ijac20053101
id ijac20053101
authors Schieck, Ava Fatah; Penn, Alan; Mottram, Chiron; Strothmann, Andreas; Ohlenburg, Jan; Broll, Wolfgang; Aish, Francis; Attfield, Simon
year 2005
title Interactive Space Generation through Play Exploring the Role of Simulation on the Design Table
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 3 - no. 1, 3-26
summary In this paper we report on recent developments in the use of simulation as an aspect of design decision support for architecture and planning. This research is based on ARTHUR (Augmented Round Table for Architecture and Urban Planning). Although real time simulation has been incorporated in design support systems, little attention has been given to the simulation of pedestrian movement in collaborative AR based systems. Here we report on user evaluation tests of the ARTHUR system, which are focused on the effect of real time pedestrian simulation on the way pairs of designers work together.These tests suggest that the integration of simulated pedestrian movement on the design table plays a critical role in exploring possible design solutions and encourages different and new ways of thinking about design problems. Donald Schon's concept of the reflection-in-action provide a useful framework for interpreting these results.
series journal
last changed 2007/03/04 06:08

_id ecaade03_553_149_shea
id ecaade03_553_149_shea
authors Shea, K., Aish, R. and Gourtovaia, M.
year 2003
title Towards Integrated Performance-Based Generative Design Tools
source Digital Design [21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-1-6] Graz (Austria) 17-20 September 2003, pp. 553-560
summary Generative design methods are capable of generating concepts and stimulating solutions based on robust and rigorous models of design conditions, design languages and design performance. The computer now becomes a design generator in addition to its more conventional role as draftsperson, visualizor, data checker and performance analyst. Motivated by the challenge to enable designers to easily develop meaningful input models of design intent to make best use of a structural generative method, this paper describes an initial combination of a generative design tool, eifForm, and an associative modeling system, Custom Objects, through the use of XML models. The current combined use is illustrated through an example involving generation of a set of 20 interrelated roof trusses with seven unique spans initiated by a parametric model of a saddle shaped stadium roof in Custom Objects. The paper concludes with a discussion of the synergies between associative modeling and generative systems and identifies future extensions aimed to exploit these synergies towards integrated performance-based generative design tools.
keywords Generative design, parametric/associative geometry, advanced CAD tools,performance-based design, computational design
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/09/18 07:13

_id acadia19_392
id acadia19_392
authors Steinfeld, Kyle
year 2019
title GAN Loci
source ACADIA 19:UBIQUITY AND AUTONOMY [Proceedings of the 39th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-578-59179-7] (The University of Texas at Austin School of Architecture, Austin, Texas 21-26 October, 2019) pp. 392-403
summary This project applies techniques in machine learning, specifically generative adversarial networks (or GANs), to produce synthetic images intended to capture the predominant visual properties of urban places. We propose that imaging cities in this manner represents the first computational approach to documenting the Genius Loci of a city (Norberg-Schulz, 1980), which is understood to include those forms, textures, colors, and qualities of light that exemplify a particular urban location and that set it apart from similar places. Presented here are methods for the collection of urban image data, for the necessary processing and formatting of this data, and for the training of two known computational statistical models (StyleGAN (Karras et al., 2018) and Pix2Pix (Isola et al., 2016)) that identify visual patterns distinct to a given site and that reproduce these patterns to generate new images. These methods have been applied to image nine distinct urban contexts across six cities in the US and Europe, the results of which are presented here. While the product of this work is not a tool for the design of cities or building forms, but rather a method for the synthetic imaging of existing places, we nevertheless seek to situate the work in terms of computer-assisted design (CAD). In this regard, the project is demonstrative of a new approach to CAD tools. In contrast with existing tools that seek to capture the explicit intention of their user (Aish, Glynn, Sheil 2017), in applying computational statistical methods to the production of images that speak to the implicit qualities that constitute a place, this project demonstrates the unique advantages offered by such methods in capturing and expressing the tacit.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
last changed 2019/12/18 08:03

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