CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ddssar0205
id ddssar0205
authors Batara, A., Dave, B. and Bishop, I.
year 2002
title Design Decision Support through Translation between Multiple Representations of Spatial Data
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary Urban planning and urban design involve collaboration of diverse participants with multiple agendas and multiple criteria. The participants typically use multiple representations of spatial data to derive inferences and insights about the planning problems, leading to a shared decision-making process. To support such multidisciplinary work, this paper proposes a new computational approach and technique for translation between multiple representations of spatial data. This approach is designed to supportdesign decision-making in the interrelated interests of design participants. Prototype implementation and evaluation are conducted to test and validate the proposals.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 4361
authors Bishop, G. and Weimer, D.M.
year 1986
title Fast Phong Shading
source Computer Graphics (20) 4 pp. 103-106
summary Computer image generation systems often represent curved surfaces as a mesh of polygons that are shaded to restore a smooth appearance. Phong shading is a well known algorithm for producing a realistic shading but it has not been used by real-time systems because of the 3 additions, 1 division and 1 square root required per pixel for its evaluation. We describe a new formulation for Phong shading that reduces the amount of computation per pixel to only 2 additions for simple Lambertian reflection and 5 additions and 1 memory reference for Phong's complete reflection model. We also show how to extend our method to compute the specular component with the eye at a finite distance from the scene rather than at infinity as is usually assumed. The method can be implemented in hardware for real-time applications or in software to speed image generation for almost any system.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 338b
authors Bishop, I. D.
year 1992
title Data integration for visualization: application to decision support
source AURSIA '92: Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual International Conference of the Australian Urban and Regional Information Systems Association Incorporated, Gold Coast, Australia, 25-27 November 1992, Australian Urban and Regional Information Systems Association Incorporated, ACT, Australia, pp. 74-80
summary Contributed by Susan Pietsch (
keywords 3D City Modeling, Development Control, Design Control
series other
last changed 2001/06/04 18:27

_id adb0
authors Bishop, I.
year 1994
title The role of visual realism in communicating and understanding spatial change and process
source Visualization in Geographical Information Systems. H. Hearnshaw and D. Unwin. Chichester, John Wiley & Sons, pp. 60-64
summary Contributed by Susan Pietsch (
keywords 3D City Modeling, Development Control, Design Control
series other
last changed 2001/06/04 18:27

_id cf2003_m_098
id cf2003_m_098
authors CHAMPION, E., DAVE, B. and BISHOP, I.
year 2003
title Interaction, Agency and Artefacts
source Digital Design - Research and Practice [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 1-4020-1210-1] Tainan (Taiwan) 13–15 October 2003, pp. 249-258
summary This paper argues (i) that understanding of a place (especially in heritage environments) requires a level of cultural engagement and (ii) that virtual environments, in their typical current form, fail to provide such engagement. A proposed solution to the issue of cultural presence is to apply the interactive mechanisms commonly used in computer games (social agents, levels of interaction constraint, and task-based manipulation of artefacts) to virtual heritage environments. The hypothesis is that the resulting environment will allow for greater engagement and a more culturally immersive learning environment. Virtual environments also often lack techniques for evaluating the extent to which their design goals are achieved. A proposed secondary outcome is that designers and researchers of virtual environment can also use the above interactive mechanisms for the evaluation of user engagement without simultaneously interrupting the user’s feeling of engagement.
keywords engagement, evaluation, games, HCI, virtual heritage, virtual world
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/09/22 10:21

_id ecaadesigradi2019_641
id ecaadesigradi2019_641
authors Dunn, Kate, Haeusler, M. Hank, Zavoleas, Yannis, Bishop, Mel, Dafforn, Katherine, Sedano, Francisco, Yu, Daniel and Schaefer, Nina
year 2019
title Recycled Sustainable 3D Printing Materials for Marine Environments
source Sousa, JP, Xavier, JP and Castro Henriques, G (eds.), Architecture in the Age of the 4th Industrial Revolution - Proceedings of the 37th eCAADe and 23rd SIGraDi Conference - Volume 2, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal, 11-13 September 2019, pp. 583-592
summary The paper discusses the design and testing of sustainable recycled materials for large scale 3D printed construction in a marine context. This research is part of a 3-phase project involving a multidisciplinary team of designers, architects, material specialists and marine ecologists. The Bio Shelters Project uses an innovative approach to designing and fabricating marine bio-shelters that ecologically enhance seawalls, by promoting native biodiversity and providing seawater filtration, carbon sequestration and fisheries productivity. The design of the 3D print structure is a data-driven approach that incorporates ecological data to optimise the form for growth and survivorship of marine species under the environmental conditions of the installation site as well as being an integral part of the design project and the site.
keywords 3D printing; material research; sustainability; marine biology
series eCAADeSIGraDi
last changed 2019/08/26 20:27

_id a2fc
authors Kappel, Michael R.
year 1995
title Shading: fitting a smooth intensity surface
source Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 27 (8) (1995) pp. 595-603
summary Visual realism in computer-generated images is an important goal for many computer applications. However, a tradeoff exists between the degree of realism achieved and thetime required to generate an image. Thus efficient algorithms for generating realistic images are being actively investigated.Shading is one graphical technique for rendering more realistic images of 3D objects. However, the most widely used algorithm, Gouraud shading, suffers from the Machband effect, a perceptual phenomenon that reduces realism. Gouraud shading also handles specular reflection poorly. The next most popular algorithm, Phong shading,generally reduces Mach banding and captures specular highlights, though at great computational expense. Bishop and Weimer improved the efficiency of Phong shading, buttheir algorithm introduces approximation error and is still significantly slower than Gouraud shading.A new algorithm is proposed which takes an innovative approach to shading 3D objects. A smooth intensity surface is generated with a known surface-fitting technique,Powell-Sabin quadratic interpolation. The intensity surface is generated at a modest cost using the Cendes-Wong formulae and forward differencing. The C1 surface virtuallyeliminates Mach banding.
keywords Shading
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:33

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