CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ecaade2009_042
id ecaade2009_042
authors Barlieb, Christophe; Richter, Christoph; Greschner, Björn; Tamke, Martin
year 2009
title Whispering Wind: Digital Practice and the Sustainable Agenda
source Computation: The New Realm of Architectural Design [27th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-8-9] Istanbul (Turkey) 16-19 September 2009, pp. 543-550
wos WOS:000334282200065
summary Low frequency noise generated by aircraft during pre-takeoff, takeoff, landing and post-landing operations equates to high levels of undesirable ground noise pollution. This phenomenon is gaining heightened popular interest among air transportation specialists and agencies as urban settlements and airports expand beyond post-war city limits to meet demands of the 21st Century. This paper highlights the advantages of employing digital tools in tight collaboration with academics and professionals at the early stages of the design process and revisits ancient architectural design strategies to arrive at more meaningful and sustainable architectural interventions.
keywords Acoustic, architecture, opensource, passive design, sustainability
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ecaade2008_022
id ecaade2008_022
authors Einar Larsen, Knut; Schindler, Christoph; Scheurer, Fabian; Stori, Simen
year 2008
title The Ringve Botanical Garden Viewing Platform
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 783-790
summary Since 2006 the Faculty of Architecture of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) has organized the ‘1-2-TRE’ workshops on digital timber fabrication. The annual one-semester courses explore the possibilities and conditions of file-to-factory processes in cooperation with professional carpentries. The 2007 course focused on adding varied simple elements to a complex whole. Within a full semester course, a permanent viewing platform for the Botanical Garden of Trondheim was designed, produced and built by the participating students.
keywords Teaching project 1:1, Industry cooperation, Digital fabrication, CAD/CAM, Ringve Botanical Garden Viewing Platform
series eCAADe
last changed 2008/09/09 13:55

_id ecaade2017_288
id ecaade2017_288
authors Emo, Beatrix, Treyer, Lukas, Schmitt, Gerhard and Hoelscher, Christoph
year 2017
title Towards defining perceived urban density
source Fioravanti, A, Cursi, S, Elahmar, S, Gargaro, S, Loffreda, G, Novembri, G, Trento, A (eds.), ShoCK! - Sharing Computational Knowledge! - Proceedings of the 35th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy, 20-22 September 2017, pp. 637-646
summary The aim of the paper is to identify parameters that influence perceived urban density. Whilst it is standard for architects and planners to consider urban density, there is often no consideration of how individuals might perceive such density. We report the findings of a study in which participants rate photographs of urban scenes according to perceived urban density. The case study area is central Zurich, Switzerland. The images are analyzed according to six parameters: visibility, amount of buildings, street width, amount of sky, amount of green space, and amount of vehicles. We report the findings of where images were ranked along a scale from lowest to highest perceived urban density. Findings show that visibility alone is not enough to explain the rating of perceived urban density. The study is a first step towards reaching a definition of perceived urban density that can be applied to different urban contexts.
keywords urban density; perception; behavioural study; 3D reconstruction
series eCAADe
last changed 2017/09/13 13:31

_id ecaade2008_183
id ecaade2008_183
authors Fricker, Pia; Wartmann, Christoph; Hovestadt, Ludger
year 2008
title Processing: Programming Instead of Drawing
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 525-530
summary The following paper essentially focuses on the innovative use of an open-source programming language, called ‘Processing’, in the architecture curriculum and the development of a line of teaching beginning with Processing and ending with object-oriented programming in Java. This represents one creative possibility through which students are able to overcome the typically difficult step of learning a programming language and simultaneously learn how to apply it as a design tool.
keywords CAAD curriculum, CAAD research, User Participation in Design, Programming instead of Drawing
series eCAADe
last changed 2008/09/09 13:55

_id 2006_884
id 2006_884
authors Grasl, Thomas; Christoph Falkner and Christian Kühn
year 2006
title Easy access classes for three-dimensional generative design - Using a collaborative environment for e-learning
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 884-889
summary Part of an EU funded project to develop a “VIrtual campus for virtual space design Provided for European Architects (VIPA)” was the implementation of a practical run at the Vienna University of Technology. Therein we attempted to evaluate some of the concepts and technologies which were intended for the e-learning platform. After briefly introducing the didactical background, this paper concentrates on the technological setup accompanying the course. Especially the use of Croquet as an immersive three-dimensional environment to teach generative design is highlighted; its strengths and weaknesses in supporting our envisioned didactical concept are analysed. The practical run and its evaluation by the participating students are described, as well as some of the student work performed during and after the course. Concluding remarks elaborating on problems encountered in the software setup and in our didactical concept, followed by the description of future work to amend the above mentioned pitfalls, will mark the end.
keywords collaborative environment; croquet; generative design; learning platform, virtual space design
series eCAADe
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id eaea2005_115
id eaea2005_115
authors Hoelscher, Christoph and J. Alexander Schmidt
year 2006
title User needs at the heart of town: Orientation and appraisal in an endoscopic city scale model (script)
source Motion, E-Motion and Urban Space [Proceedings of the 7th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN-10: 3-00-019070-8 - ISBN-13: 978-3-00-019070-4], pp. 115-131
summary In this paper we provide a “work-in-progress” report on on going investigation into the perception of building alternatives at a central urban place. The city-planning task in this case involves the development of several key parcels of real estate, with significant impact on a mediumsized German city’s overall appearance and functionality. The interests of investors wishing to maximize economic utilization are competing with public interests regarding urban planning and urban design as well as development needs. Hence, there is a need for the development of different spatial layouts for the district to help identify reasonable concepts for the use of these key properties and their impact on the visual townscape as well as the functional spatial properties of the city’s open space. Ultimately, clear deed restrictions and guidelines are to be identified for future investors to preserve the cityscape and to improve the quality of the existing public open space but also to enhance downtown’s existing sensible economic equilibrium.
series EAEA
type normal paper
last changed 2008/04/29 18:46

_id acadia14_565
id acadia14_565
authors Klemmt, Chirstoph
year 2014
title Compression Based Growth Modelling
source ACADIA 14: Design Agency [Proceedings of the 34th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 9781926724478]Los Angeles 23-25 October, 2014), pp. 565-572
summary The research evaluates the structural performance of dendritic as well as reticulate venation systems via a Finite Element Analysis.
keywords architecture, venation, structure, vein, Finite Element Analysis, simulation, Biomimicry and Biological Models in Design
series ACADIA
type Normal Paper
last changed 2014/09/29 05:51

_id ecaade2015_21
id ecaade2015_21
authors Klemmt, Christoph and Bollinger, Klaus
year 2015
title Cell-Based Venation Systems
source Martens, B, Wurzer, G, Grasl T, Lorenz, WE and Schaffranek, R (eds.), Real Time - Proceedings of the 33rd eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 16-18 September 2015, pp. 573-580
wos WOS:000372316000064
summary Venation structures in leaves fulfil both circulatory as well as structural functions within the organism they belong to. A possible digital simulation algorithm for the growth of venation patterns based on the leaf surface has been described by the Department of Computer Science at the University of Calgary.Cell-based growth algorithms to generate surface meshes have been developed by biological and medical scientists as well as artists, in order to gain an understanding of developmental biology or to generate artistic form. This paper suggests the combination of the two algorithms in order to generate the morphologies of leaves and other structures while at the same time generating the corresponding venation system.The resulting algorithm develops large non-manifold mesh structures based on local rules of division of the individual cells. The venation system develops in parallel based on the flow of the plant hormone auxin from those cells towards the start point or petiole of the leaf. Different local behaviours of the cells towards their adjacent neighbours, towards their rules of division and towards the rules of developing veins have been investigated. The eventual aim of the algorithms is their application as tools to develop architectural and structural morphologies.
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ijac201715102
id ijac201715102
authors Klemmt, Christoph and Klaus Bollinger
year 2017
title Angiogenesis as a model for the generation of load-bearing networks
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 14 - no. 1, 18-36
summary This research suggests an algorithm to generate structural networks based on discreet elements for given locations of support points and point loads. Previous research attempted to achieve this by using a computational growth simulation of venation systems, which form the structure of leaves. However, such networks always start from a single point and therefore cannot be used to form arches or beams. In order to generate networks that are based on two or three support points, an algorithm has been developed that is inspired instead by angiogenesis, the process by which vascular systems develop. The algorithm is based on a spring system with a variable network graph that connects the support points and is pulled upwards and split sideways into multiple veins by a given set of load points. The algorithm has been used to grow architectural structures. Different networks have been tested using finite element analysis and compared with both venation and column-and-beam structures. The angiogenesis networks as well as the venation network are shown to perform well and may be suitable as architectural structural systems.
keywords Architecture, angiogenesis, structure, network, growth
series journal
last changed 2017/12/11 12:30

_id caadria2017_037
id caadria2017_037
authors Klemmt, Christoph and Sodhi, Rajat
year 2017
title Double-Curved Form Approximation with Identical Discrete Panel Geometries
source P. Janssen, P. Loh, A. Raonic, M. A. Schnabel (eds.), Protocols, Flows, and Glitches - Proceedings of the 22nd CAADRIA Conference, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou, China, 5-8 April 2017, pp. 457-466
summary To reduce the costs of manufacturing multiple moulds for double-curved facade construction, this research suggests a method of approximating the desired envelope with identically formed panel geometries. The panels can then be fabricated by only using two double-curved moulds. In a second step, individual segments are cut out of the identical base geometries. The method has been successfully tested with the construction of a prototype. The result is an intricately textured free-form geometry. The installation was built at a reasonable cost compared to other ways of fabricating double-curved geometry. The strength of the panels was utilised as the sole structural system of the prototype.
keywords architecture; façade; double-curvature; discrete components; panelisation
series CAADRIA
last changed 2017/05/09 08:05

_id acadia16_88
id acadia16_88
authors Klemmt, Christoph; Bollinger, Klaus
year 2016
title Load Responsive Angiogenesis Networks: Structural Growth Simulations of Discrete Members using Variable Topology Spring Systems
source ACADIA // 2016: POSTHUMAN FRONTIERS: Data, Designers, and Cognitive Machines [Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-77095-5] Ann Arbor 27-29 October, 2016, pp. 88-97
summary Venation systems in leaves, which form their structural support, always connect back to one seed point, the petiole of the leaf. In order to develop similar structural networks for architectural use which connect to more seed points on the ground, an algorithm has been developed which can develop from two or three seed points, inspired by angiogenesis, the process through which the vascular system grows. This allows for the generation of structurally suitable topologies based on discrete members, which can be evaluated using Finite Element Analysis and which can be constructed from linear structural members without an additional interpretation of the results. The networks have been developed as load bearing spring systems above the support points. Different structures have been compared and tested using Finite Element Analysis. Compared to traditional column and beam structures, the angiogenesis networks as well as the venation networks are shown to perform well under load.
keywords venation, finite element analysis, angiongenesis, embedded responsiveness
series ACADIA
type paper
last changed 2016/10/24 11:12

_id ecaade2012_045
id ecaade2012_045
authors Langenhan, Christoph ; Seifert, Arne ; Teichert, Astrid ; Petzold, Frank
year 2012
title ar:searchbox - Knowledge management for architecture students
source Achten, Henri; Pavlicek, Jiri; Hulin, Jaroslav; Matejovska, Dana (eds.), Digital Physicality - Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1 / ISBN 978-9-4912070-2-0, Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture (Czech Republic) 12-14 September 2012, pp. 639-645.
wos WOS:000330322400067
summary As media-orientation and access to media becomes increasingly widespread in society, so too is the availability of architectural designs on the internet. In most cases these are published in the form of raster images of plans, elevations and perspective drawings together with written descriptions on architecture databases and platforms such as archINFORM or nextroom, as well as on the homepages of the respective architecture offi ces. Knowledge is generally regarded as useful information. However, the literature does not elaborate clear differentiations between what is knowledge, and what is information and data. In our view it is the preparation of information in data structures that makes it useful as knowledge. Knowledge management systems are therefore intelligent information systems in which knowledge is presented and made useful through representation and modelling methods (Abeckerand Decker, 1999).
keywords Knowledge management; ontology; information retrieval
series eCAADe
last changed 2014/04/14 11:07

_id ecaade2015_11
id ecaade2015_11
authors Langenhan, Christoph and Petzold, Frank
year 2015
title Beyond the Bubble - Computer-aided Topological Analysis and Parametric De-sign of Room Configurations in University Education
source Martens, B, Wurzer, G, Grasl T, Lorenz, WE and Schaffranek, R (eds.), Real Time - Proceedings of the 33rd eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 16-18 September 2015, pp. 237-243
wos WOS:000372317300025
summary In the early stages of the design process, the conceptual idea of the envisaged building and its design parameters is still vague and incomplete. While the built environment, the end product of this design process, can be represented concretely in the form of drawings or computer models, the initial design idea can usually only be formulated abstractly, for example as schematic functional descriptions or as topological constellations of spaces. In this paper we discuss the use of reference projects to support the design process along with ways of formalising spatial configurations and their use in the design process, and examine how these can be supported using software tools. We discuss the elaboration of requirements for such software tools and their implementation as plug-in to facilitate a seamless process from analysis to evaluation in a parametric design environment. By way of example, we describe selected functionality of a plug-in developed for “Grasshopper” and “Rhino 3D” to support the design process in the early conceptual stages.
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ecaade2011_014
id ecaade2011_014
authors Langenhan, Christoph; Haß, Sebastian; Weber, Markus; Petzold, Frank; Liwicki, Marcus; Dengel, Andreas
year 2011
title Investigating research strategies for accessing knowledge stored in semantic models
source RESPECTING FRAGILE PLACES [29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-9-4912070-1-3], University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture (Slovenia) 21-24 September 2011, pp.403-411
wos WOS:000335665500046
summary Current data storage and retrieval strategies usually use keywords and are not well suited to retrieving spatial configurations, the proportions of rooms or their interrelationships. Instead of using text-based research, a graphical inquiry and query system is proposed that can recognise formal structures on the one hand and concept sketches on the other. Using artificial intelligence methods and multimodal interaction, knowledge is stored in semantic models. From previously stored planning solutions in a BIM, semantic fingerprints are derived that describe their functional and topological characteristics. The search system likewise derives a semantic fingerprint from the spatial configuration of a concept sketch and compares it with fingerprints stored in the repository. Similar matches are then shown to the designer.
keywords Knowledge management; ontology; case-based design; industry foundation classes; multimodal
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id sigradi2016_381
id sigradi2016_381
authors Langenhan, Christoph; Petzold, Frank
year 2016
title Views on architecture: Different abstraction layers of building information imply special working methods and interaction metaphors to support a variety of courses of action
source SIGraDi 2016 [Proceedings of the 20th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-956-7051-86-1] Argentina, Buenos Aires 9 - 11 November 2016, pp.584-589
summary In the early design phases, designers usually only have a vague idea of the building they are designing. Different aspects of potential design variants need to be tested, assessed and compared with one another. The ability to consider design variants in different ways – based on floor plan, schematic concept, section or 3D visualization, for example – helps to identify problems as well as reveal areas of potential. This paper describes software prototypes developed to help designers input and present different levels of abstraction. The transformations between these levels of abstraction reveal new solutions and make designers aware of issues that need to be considered during the design process.
keywords Semantic fingerprint, Building Information Modeling, HCI, retrieval
series SIGraDi
last changed 2017/06/21 12:18

_id ascaad2014_030
id ascaad2014_030
authors Langenhan, Christoph; Sahm Alexander; Petzold Frank; Seifert Arne and Teichert Astrid
year 2014
title Mobile Application to Collect Information About Architecture to Obtain a Collective Knowledge Base: ''
source Digital Crafting [7th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2014 / ISBN 978-603-90142-5-6], Jeddah (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia), 31 March - 3 April 2014, pp. 375-382
summary During the early stages of the architectural design process, students and architects seek information for inspiration, and to evaluate design ideas or similar solutions. An essential part of design education therefore involves building up a knowledge base of already built or designed buildings. Most students gather such information by visiting or researching building designs, for example through photos taken on design studio field trips. These photos are used for studio work or archived for later use. The “” aims to support this in two ways. Firstly, by supporting easy mobile information acquisition and sharing, as well as the semi-automatic derivation of high quality metadata; and secondly, by employing urban environment sensitive search and similarity-based browsing strategies to support mobile education as well as a web-based access to the information. To provide long-term access and to establish an information base that is not restricted to a single design studio, the “” builds on our previous “ar:searchbox” project which uses a central media server called “mediaTUM” that provides a handling concept for flexible metadata schemas and scalable infrastructures.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2016/02/15 12:09

_id cf2011_p035
id cf2011_p035
authors Langenhan, Christoph; Weber Markus, Petzold Frank, Liwicki Marcus, Dengel Andreas
year 2011
title Sketch-based Methods for Researching Building Layouts through the Semantic Fingerprint of Architecture
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 85-102.
summary The paper focuses on the early stages of the design process where the architect needs assistance in finding reference projects and describes different aspects of a concept for retrieving previous design solutions with similar layout characteristics. Such references are typically used to see how others have solved a similar architectural problem or simply for inspiration. Current electronic search methods use textual information rather than graphical information. The configuration of space and the relations between rooms are hard to represent using keywords, in fact transforming these spatial configurations into verbally expressed typologies tends to result in unclear and often imprecise descriptions of architecture. Nowadays, modern IT-technologies lead to fundamental changes during the process of designing buildings. Digital representations of architecture require suitable approaches to the storage, indexing and management of information as well as adequate retrieval methods. Traditionally planning information is represented in the form of floor plans, elevations, sections and textual descriptions. State of the art digital representations include renderings, computer aided design (CAD) and semantic information like Building Information Modelling (BIM) including 2D and 3D file formats such as Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) (IAI, 2010). In the paper, we examine the development of IT-technologies in the area of case-based reasoning (Richter et al., 2007) to provide a sketch-based submission and retrieval system for publishing and researching building layouts including their manipulation and subsequent use. The user interface focuses on specifying space and their relations by drawing them. This query style supports the spatial thinking approach that architects use, who often have a visual representation in mind without being able to provide an accurate description of the spatial configuration. The semantic fingerprint proposed by (Langenhan, 2008) is a description and query language for creating an index of floor plans to store meta-data about architecture, which can be used as signature for retrieving reference projects. The functional spaces, such as living room or kitchen and the relation among on another, are used to create a fingerprint. Furthermore, we propose a visual sketch-based interface (Weber et al., 2010) based on the Touch&Write paradigm (Liwicki et al., 2010) for the submission and the retrieval phase. During the submission process the architect is sketching the space-boundaries, space relations and functional coherence's. Using state of the art document analysis techniques, the architects are supported offering an automatic detection of room boundaries and their physical relations. During the retrieval the application will interpret the sketches of the architect and find reference projects based on a similarity based search utilizing the semantic fingerprint. By recommending reference projects, architects will be able to reuse collective experience which match the current requirements. The way of performing a search using a sketch as a query is a new way of thinking and working. The retrieval of 3D models based on a sketched shape are already realized in several domains. We already propose a step further, using the semantics of a spatial configuration. Observing the design process of buildings reveals that the initial design phase serves as the foundation for the quality of the later outcome. The sketch-based approach to access valuable information using the semantic fingerprint enables the user to digitally capture knowledge about architecture, to recover and reuse it in common-sense. Furthermore, automatically analysed fingerprints can put forward both commonly used as well as best practice projects. It will be possible to rate architecture according to the fingerprint of a building.
keywords new media, case-based reasoning, ontology, semantic building design, sketch-based, knowledge management
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ecaade2007_005
id ecaade2007_005
authors Larsen, Knut Einar; Scheurer, Fabian; Schindler, Christoph; Stori, Simen
year 2007
title The Trondheim Camera Obscura
source Predicting the Future [25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-6-5] Frankfurt am Main (Germany) 26-29 September 2007, pp. 51-58
summary This paper discusses a project where we, together with a group of 15 graduate students, designed, produced, and built small timber structure (a Camera Obscura) in Trondheim, Norway. The project was part of a full semester course at the Faculty of Architecture of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU). The main purpose of the course was to explore the possibilities of prefabrication in timber construction based on file-to-factory processes (digital fabrication). Moreover, we wished to give the students the experience of building a permanent structure in 1:1.
keywords Teaching project 1:1, industry cooperation, digital fabrication, CAD-CAM, camera obscura
series eCAADe
last changed 2007/09/16 15:55

_id ijac20086402
id ijac20086402
authors Larsen, Knut Einar; Schindler, Christoph
year 2008
title From Concept to Reality: Digital Systems in Architectural Design and Fabrication
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 6 - no. 4, 397-413
summary One of the challenges for today's architectural designers is the establishment of continuous digital processes between design and fabrication. To achieve this, designers need to acquire knowledge about the production and the methods and tools involved. Two case studies organized at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) on digital timber fabrication investigate the new field of collaboration between architectural designers and fabricators. The studies demonstrate the design potential of acquiring insights into the fabricators' software and digital production machinery and reflect contemporary fabrication technology in formal expression. We identified two different approaches to formal exploration that we defined as "sophistication of the detail" and "variation of the element".
series journal
last changed 2009/03/03 06:48

_id 6cb4
authors Leupen, B., Grafe, C., Körnig, N., Lampe, M. and De Zeeuw, P.
year 1997
title Design and Analysis
source New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold
summary Design and Analysis by Bernard Leupen, Christoph Grafe, Nicola Körnig, Marc Lampe, and Peter de Zeeuw Design and Analysis is an insightful, interdisciplinary exploration of the diversity of analytic methods used by architects, designers, urban planners, and landscape architects to understand the structure and principles of the built environment. Developed by a team headed by Bernard Leupen at Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands, Design and Analysis defies borders of history, geography, and discipline, tracing the evolution of design principles from ancient Greece to the 20th century. "Only methodical analysis gives us an insight into the design process," states architect Bernard Tschumi. Using historical examples from architecture, urban design, and landscape architecture, Design and Analysis defines an ordered system that enables the design student or professional to identify the factors that influence designers' decisions, and shows how to relate them to the finished project. Design and Analysis is organized into six chapters that correspond to these factors: order and composition, functionality, structure, typology, context, and analytical techniques. The authors introduce the analytical drawing as a time-tested means to obtaining insight into the design process. Over 100 line drawings are featured in all. Using contemporary architectural examples to teach ancient design principles, Design and Analysis is more than just an introduction to analytical methods. The authors give an outline of space design as a whole, from individual buildings to urban and landscape ensembles. Though primarily intended for design students to help them appreciate many of the issues that they will face as professionals, Design and Analysis's broad, easy-to-read approach makes it an invaluable handbook for designers of all disciplines.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

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