CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ecaade2009_042
id ecaade2009_042
authors Barlieb, Christophe; Richter, Christoph; Greschner, Björn; Tamke, Martin
year 2009
title Whispering Wind: Digital Practice and the Sustainable Agenda
source Computation: The New Realm of Architectural Design [27th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-8-9] Istanbul (Turkey) 16-19 September 2009, pp. 543-550
wos WOS:000334282200065
summary Low frequency noise generated by aircraft during pre-takeoff, takeoff, landing and post-landing operations equates to high levels of undesirable ground noise pollution. This phenomenon is gaining heightened popular interest among air transportation specialists and agencies as urban settlements and airports expand beyond post-war city limits to meet demands of the 21st Century. This paper highlights the advantages of employing digital tools in tight collaboration with academics and professionals at the early stages of the design process and revisits ancient architectural design strategies to arrive at more meaningful and sustainable architectural interventions.
keywords Acoustic, architecture, opensource, passive design, sustainability
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ijac201917103
id ijac201917103
authors Bejarano, Andres; and Christoph Hoffmann
year 2019
title A generalized framework for designing topological interlocking configurations
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 17 - no. 1, 53-73
summary A topological interlocking configuration is an arrangement of pieces shaped in such a way that the motion of any piece is blocked by its neighbors. A variety of interlocking configurations have been proposed for convex pieces that are arranged in a planar space. Published algorithms for creating a topological interlocking configuration start from a tessellation of the plane (e.g. squares colored as a checkerboard). For each square S of one color, a plane P through each edge E is considered, tilted by a given angle ? against the tessellated plane. This induces a face F supported by P and limited by other such planes nearby. Note that E is interior to the face. By adjacency, the squares of the other color have similarly delimiting faces. This algorithm generates a topological interlocking configuration of tetrahedra or antiprisms. When checked for correctness (i.e. for no overlap), it rests on the tessellation to be of squares. If the tessellation consists of rectangles, then the algorithm fails. If the tessellation is irregular, then the tilting angle is not uniform for each edge and must be determined, in the worst case, by trial and error. In this article, we propose a method for generating topological interlocking configurations in one single iteration over the tessellation or mesh using a height value and a center point type for each tile as parameters. The required angles are a function of the given height and selected center; therefore, angle choices are not required as an initial input. The configurations generated using our method are compared against the configurations generated using the angle-choice approach. The results show that the proposed method maintains the alignment of the pieces and preserves the co-planarity of the equatorial sections of the pieces. Furthermore, the proposed method opens a path of geometric analysis for topological interlocking configurations based on non-planar tessellations.
keywords Topological interlocking, surface tessellation, irregular geometry, parametric design, convex assembly
series journal
last changed 2019/08/07 12:04

_id ecaade2020_227
id ecaade2020_227
authors Bielski, Jessica, Langenhan, Christoph, Weyand, Babara, Neuber, Markus, Eisenstadt, Viktor and Althoff, Klaus-Dieter
year 2020
title Topological Queries and Analysis of School Buildings Based on Building Information Modeling (BIM) Using Parametric Design Tools and Visual Programming to Develop New Building Typologies
source Werner, L and Koering, D (eds.), Anthropologic: Architecture and Fabrication in the cognitive age - Proceedings of the 38th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, TU Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 16-18 September 2020, pp. 279-288
summary School buildings are currently one of the largest portions of planning and building projects in Germany. In order to reflect the continuous developments in school building construction with constantly changing spatial requirements, an approach to analyse, derive and combine patterns of schools is proposed to adapt school typologies accordingly. Therefore, the topology is analysed, concerning interconnection methods, such as adjacency, accessibility, depth, and flow. The geometric analysis of e.g. room sizes or spatial proportions is enhanced by including grouping of rooms, estimated room clusters, or room shapes. Furthermore, text-matching is used to determine e.g. room program fulfilment, or assigning functional room descriptions to predefined room types, revealing huge differences of terms throughout time and architects. First results of the analyses show a relevant correlation between spatial proportion and room types.
keywords school building typologies; building information modeling (BIM); artificial intelligence (AI); topology; spatial analysis; digital semantic model
series eCAADe
last changed 2020/09/09 09:54

_id acadia19_140
id acadia19_140
authors Dambrosio, Niccol?; Zechmeister, Christoph; Bodea, Serban; Koslowski, Valentin; Gil-Pérez, Marta; Rongen, Bas
year 2019
title Buga Fibre Pavilion
source ACADIA 19:UBIQUITY AND AUTONOMY [Proceedings of the 39th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-578-59179-7] (The University of Texas at Austin School of Architecture, Austin, Texas 21-26 October, 2019) pp. 140-149
summary This research showcases the integrated design process and development of an ultra-light-weight, composite dome structure as a case study for the investigation of high-performance, long-span, fibre-reinforced-polymer (FRP) based building systems. Particular emphasis is given to the exploration of design strategies and the exposure of multidirectional flows of information across different fields under the premise of going beyond preliminary investigations on a demonstrator level, towards full scale architectural applications. Building upon previous research in the realm of lightweight fiber composites conducted at the University of Stuttgart, novel design strategies and fabrication methods are discussed. Based on the design and development of the Buga Fibre Pavilion for the Heilbronn Bundesgartenschau 2019, previously prototypically tested processes are further developed and implemented at a larger scale which attempt to reduce the necessary formwork to a minimum while achieving a flexible and scalable building system.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
last changed 2019/12/18 08:01

_id ecaade2008_022
id ecaade2008_022
authors Einar Larsen, Knut; Schindler, Christoph; Scheurer, Fabian; Stori, Simen
year 2008
title The Ringve Botanical Garden Viewing Platform
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 783-790
summary Since 2006 the Faculty of Architecture of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) has organized the ‘1-2-TRE’ workshops on digital timber fabrication. The annual one-semester courses explore the possibilities and conditions of file-to-factory processes in cooperation with professional carpentries. The 2007 course focused on adding varied simple elements to a complex whole. Within a full semester course, a permanent viewing platform for the Botanical Garden of Trondheim was designed, produced and built by the participating students.
keywords Teaching project 1:1, Industry cooperation, Digital fabrication, CAD/CAM, Ringve Botanical Garden Viewing Platform
series eCAADe
last changed 2008/09/09 13:55

_id ecaadesigradi2019_648
id ecaadesigradi2019_648
authors Eisenstadt, Viktor, Langenhan, Christoph and Althoff, Klaus-Dieter
year 2019
title Generation of Floor Plan Variations with Convolutional Neural Networks and Case-based Reasoning - An approach for transformative adaptation of room configurations within a framework for support of early conceptual design phases
source Sousa, JP, Xavier, JP and Castro Henriques, G (eds.), Architecture in the Age of the 4th Industrial Revolution - Proceedings of the 37th eCAADe and 23rd SIGraDi Conference - Volume 2, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal, 11-13 September 2019, pp. 79-84
summary We present an approach for computer-aided generation of different variations of floor plans during the early phases of conceptual design in architecture. The early design phases are mostly characterized by the processes of inspiration gaining and search for contextual help in order to improve the building design at hand. The generation method described in this work uses the novel as well as established artificial intelligence methods, namely, generative adversarial nets and case-based reasoning, for creation of possible evolutions of the current design based on the most similar previous designs. The main goal of this approach is to provide the designer with information on how the current floor plan can evolve over time in order to influence the direction of the design process. The work described in this paper is part of the methodology FLEA (Find, Learn, Explain, Adapt) whose task is to provide a holistic structure for support of the early conceptual phases in architecture. The approach is implemented as the adaptation component of the framework MetisCBR that is based on FLEA.
keywords room configuration; adaptation; case-based reasoning; convolutional neural networks; conceptual design
series eCAADeSIGraDi
last changed 2019/08/26 20:26

_id cf2019_005
id cf2019_005
authors Eisenstadt, Viktor; Klaus-Dieter Althoff and Christoph Langenhan
year 2019
title Supporting Architectural Design Process with FLEA A Distributed AI Methodology for Retrieval, Suggestion, Adaptation, and Explanation of Room Configurations
source Ji-Hyun Lee (Eds.) "Hello, Culture!"  [18th International Conference, CAAD Futures 2019, Proceedings / ISBN 978-89-89453-05-5] Daejeon, Korea, p. 24
summary The artificial intelligence methods, such as case-based reasoning and artificial neural networks were already applied to the task of architectural design support in a multitude of specific approaches and tools. However, modern AI trends, such as Explainable AI (XAI), and additional features, such as providing contextual suggestions for the next step of the design process, were rarely considered an integral part of these approaches or simply not available. In this paper, we present an application of a distributed AI-based methodology FLEA (Find, Learn, Explain, Adapt) to the task of room configuration during the early conceptual phases of architectural design. The implementation of the methodology in the framework MetisCBR applies CBR-based methods for retrieval of similar floor plans to suggest possibly inspirational designs and to explain the returned results with specific explanation patterns. Furthermore, it makes use of a farm of recurrent neural networks to suggest contextually suitable next configuration steps and to present design variations that show how the designs may evolve in the future. The flexibility of FLEA allows for variational use of its components in order to activate the currently required modules only. The methodology was initialized during the basic research project Metis (funded by German Research Foundation) during which the architectural semantic search patterns and a family of corresponding floor plan representations were developed. FLEA uses these patterns and representations as the base for its semantic search, explanation, next step suggestion, and adaptation components. The methodology implementation was iteratively tested during quantitative evaluations and user studies with multiple floor plan datasets.
keywords Room con?guration, Distributed AI, Case-based reasoning, Neural networks, Explainable AI
series CAAD Futures
type normal paper
last changed 2019/07/29 12:11

_id ecaade2017_288
id ecaade2017_288
authors Emo, Beatrix, Treyer, Lukas, Schmitt, Gerhard and Hoelscher, Christoph
year 2017
title Towards defining perceived urban density
source Fioravanti, A, Cursi, S, Elahmar, S, Gargaro, S, Loffreda, G, Novembri, G, Trento, A (eds.), ShoCK! - Sharing Computational Knowledge! - Proceedings of the 35th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy, 20-22 September 2017, pp. 637-646
summary The aim of the paper is to identify parameters that influence perceived urban density. Whilst it is standard for architects and planners to consider urban density, there is often no consideration of how individuals might perceive such density. We report the findings of a study in which participants rate photographs of urban scenes according to perceived urban density. The case study area is central Zurich, Switzerland. The images are analyzed according to six parameters: visibility, amount of buildings, street width, amount of sky, amount of green space, and amount of vehicles. We report the findings of where images were ranked along a scale from lowest to highest perceived urban density. Findings show that visibility alone is not enough to explain the rating of perceived urban density. The study is a first step towards reaching a definition of perceived urban density that can be applied to different urban contexts.
keywords urban density; perception; behavioural study; 3D reconstruction
series eCAADe
last changed 2017/09/13 13:31

_id ecaade2008_183
id ecaade2008_183
authors Fricker, Pia; Wartmann, Christoph; Hovestadt, Ludger
year 2008
title Processing: Programming Instead of Drawing
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 525-530
summary The following paper essentially focuses on the innovative use of an open-source programming language, called ‘Processing’, in the architecture curriculum and the development of a line of teaching beginning with Processing and ending with object-oriented programming in Java. This represents one creative possibility through which students are able to overcome the typically difficult step of learning a programming language and simultaneously learn how to apply it as a design tool.
keywords CAAD curriculum, CAAD research, User Participation in Design, Programming instead of Drawing
series eCAADe
last changed 2008/09/09 13:55

_id ijac201816204
id ijac201816204
authors Gengnagel, Christoph; Riccardo La Magna, Mette Ramsgaard Thomsen and Martin Tamke
year 2018
title Shaping hybrids – Form finding of new material systems
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 16 - no. 2, 91-103
summary Form-finding processes are an integral part of structural design. Because of their limitations, the classic approaches to finding a form – such as hanging models and the soap-film analogy – play only a minor role. The various possibilities of digital experimentation in the context of structural optimisation create new options for the designer generating forms, while enabling control over a wide variety of parameters. A complete mapping of the mechanical properties of a structure in a continuum mechanics model is possible but so are simplified modelling strategies which take into account only the most important properties of the structure, such as iteratively approximating to a solution via representations of kinematic states. Form finding is thus an extremely complex process, determined both by the freely selected parameters and by design decisions.
keywords Bending active, form finding, hybrid structures, simulation, textile architecture
series journal
last changed 2019/08/07 12:03

_id 2006_884
id 2006_884
authors Grasl, Thomas; Christoph Falkner and Christian Kühn
year 2006
title Easy access classes for three-dimensional generative design - Using a collaborative environment for e-learning
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 884-889
summary Part of an EU funded project to develop a “VIrtual campus for virtual space design Provided for European Architects (VIPA)” was the implementation of a practical run at the Vienna University of Technology. Therein we attempted to evaluate some of the concepts and technologies which were intended for the e-learning platform. After briefly introducing the didactical background, this paper concentrates on the technological setup accompanying the course. Especially the use of Croquet as an immersive three-dimensional environment to teach generative design is highlighted; its strengths and weaknesses in supporting our envisioned didactical concept are analysed. The practical run and its evaluation by the participating students are described, as well as some of the student work performed during and after the course. Concluding remarks elaborating on problems encountered in the software setup and in our didactical concept, followed by the description of future work to amend the above mentioned pitfalls, will mark the end.
keywords collaborative environment; croquet; generative design; learning platform, virtual space design
series eCAADe
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id eaea2005_115
id eaea2005_115
authors Hoelscher, Christoph and J. Alexander Schmidt
year 2006
title User needs at the heart of town: Orientation and appraisal in an endoscopic city scale model (script)
source Motion, E-Motion and Urban Space [Proceedings of the 7th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN-10: 3-00-019070-8 - ISBN-13: 978-3-00-019070-4], pp. 115-131
summary In this paper we provide a “work-in-progress” report on on going investigation into the perception of building alternatives at a central urban place. The city-planning task in this case involves the development of several key parcels of real estate, with significant impact on a mediumsized German city’s overall appearance and functionality. The interests of investors wishing to maximize economic utilization are competing with public interests regarding urban planning and urban design as well as development needs. Hence, there is a need for the development of different spatial layouts for the district to help identify reasonable concepts for the use of these key properties and their impact on the visual townscape as well as the functional spatial properties of the city’s open space. Ultimately, clear deed restrictions and guidelines are to be identified for future investors to preserve the cityscape and to improve the quality of the existing public open space but also to enhance downtown’s existing sensible economic equilibrium.
series EAEA
type normal paper
last changed 2008/04/29 18:46

_id caadria2018_022
id caadria2018_022
authors Hymes, Connor and Klemmt, Christoph
year 2018
title Discrete Swarm Logics
source T. Fukuda, W. Huang, P. Janssen, K. Crolla, S. Alhadidi (eds.), Learning, Adapting and Prototyping - Proceedings of the 23rd CAADRIA Conference - Volume 1, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, 17-19 May 2018, pp. 133-142
summary The logics of agent-based behaviors have found interest in architectural design for their possibility to generate self-organizing geometries. However, the resulting free-form geometries are usually complex and costly to construct as buildings. Recently architects have proposed discrete components to create a cost-effective computational designs. This research explores the possibilities of discretizing agent-based simulations to make their bottom-up behaviors and resulting geometries more easily usable for economic construction. Different types of discretization have been explored. The simulations have been evaluated as a design tool at scales from the urban to the detail. The outcomes at the larger scale provide design possibilities, but with little influence on construction costs. At the smaller scale, the geometric assemblies show good possibilities for an economic design and a feasible construction, by altering, but not compromising, the emergent self-organizing principles that guide the simulations.
keywords discrete; swarm; agent; simulation
series CAADRIA
last changed 2018/05/17 07:07

_id acadia14_565
id acadia14_565
authors Klemmt, Chirstoph
year 2014
title Compression Based Growth Modelling
source ACADIA 14: Design Agency [Proceedings of the 34th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 9781926724478]Los Angeles 23-25 October, 2014), pp. 565-572
summary The research evaluates the structural performance of dendritic as well as reticulate venation systems via a Finite Element Analysis.
keywords architecture, venation, structure, vein, Finite Element Analysis, simulation, Biomimicry and Biological Models in Design
series ACADIA
type Normal Paper
last changed 2014/09/29 05:51

_id ecaade2015_21
id ecaade2015_21
authors Klemmt, Christoph and Bollinger, Klaus
year 2015
title Cell-Based Venation Systems
source Martens, B, Wurzer, G, Grasl T, Lorenz, WE and Schaffranek, R (eds.), Real Time - Proceedings of the 33rd eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 16-18 September 2015, pp. 573-580
wos WOS:000372316000064
summary Venation structures in leaves fulfil both circulatory as well as structural functions within the organism they belong to. A possible digital simulation algorithm for the growth of venation patterns based on the leaf surface has been described by the Department of Computer Science at the University of Calgary.Cell-based growth algorithms to generate surface meshes have been developed by biological and medical scientists as well as artists, in order to gain an understanding of developmental biology or to generate artistic form. This paper suggests the combination of the two algorithms in order to generate the morphologies of leaves and other structures while at the same time generating the corresponding venation system.The resulting algorithm develops large non-manifold mesh structures based on local rules of division of the individual cells. The venation system develops in parallel based on the flow of the plant hormone auxin from those cells towards the start point or petiole of the leaf. Different local behaviours of the cells towards their adjacent neighbours, towards their rules of division and towards the rules of developing veins have been investigated. The eventual aim of the algorithms is their application as tools to develop architectural and structural morphologies.
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ijac201715102
id ijac201715102
authors Klemmt, Christoph and Klaus Bollinger
year 2017
title Angiogenesis as a model for the generation of load-bearing networks
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 15 - no. 1, 18-36
summary This research suggests an algorithm to generate structural networks based on discreet elements for given locations of support points and point loads. Previous research attempted to achieve this by using a computational growth simulation of venation systems, which form the structure of leaves. However, such networks always start from a single point and therefore cannot be used to form arches or beams. In order to generate networks that are based on two or three support points, an algorithm has been developed that is inspired instead by angiogenesis, the process by which vascular systems develop. The algorithm is based on a spring system with a variable network graph that connects the support points and is pulled upwards and split sideways into multiple veins by a given set of load points. The algorithm has been used to grow architectural structures. Different networks have been tested using finite element analysis and compared with both venation and column-and-beam structures. The angiogenesis networks as well as the venation network are shown to perform well and may be suitable as architectural structural systems.
keywords Architecture, angiogenesis, structure, network, growth
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2019/08/02 06:25

_id caadria2017_037
id caadria2017_037
authors Klemmt, Christoph and Sodhi, Rajat
year 2017
title Double-Curved Form Approximation with Identical Discrete Panel Geometries
source P. Janssen, P. Loh, A. Raonic, M. A. Schnabel (eds.), Protocols, Flows, and Glitches - Proceedings of the 22nd CAADRIA Conference, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou, China, 5-8 April 2017, pp. 457-466
summary To reduce the costs of manufacturing multiple moulds for double-curved facade construction, this research suggests a method of approximating the desired envelope with identically formed panel geometries. The panels can then be fabricated by only using two double-curved moulds. In a second step, individual segments are cut out of the identical base geometries. The method has been successfully tested with the construction of a prototype. The result is an intricately textured free-form geometry. The installation was built at a reasonable cost compared to other ways of fabricating double-curved geometry. The strength of the panels was utilised as the sole structural system of the prototype.
keywords architecture; façade; double-curvature; discrete components; panelisation
series CAADRIA
last changed 2017/05/09 08:05

_id ecaade2018_106
id ecaade2018_106
authors Klemmt, Christoph
year 2018
title Subdivisional Growth Logics
source Kepczynska-Walczak, A, Bialkowski, S (eds.), Computing for a better tomorrow - Proceedings of the 36th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Poland, 19-21 September 2018, pp. 79-84
summary This research explores the combination of two different types of algorithms that have so far been treated separately in architectural computational design: recursive subdivision, and differential or cellular growth. The two algorithms appear to act in opposite directions, the first is a refinement going inwards while the latter is growing outwards. However, both algorithms are based on the refinement of mesh geometries by inserting new vertices and faces and can be used in combination. The resulting subdivisional growth can be used to enhance specific geometric traits of either recursive subdivision or cellular growth at different scales or in different sections of the design object. The resulting geometries have been explored through case studies that utilize those possibilities.
keywords architecture; computational design; differential; growth; recursive; subdivision
series eCAADe
last changed 2018/07/24 10:23

_id acadia16_88
id acadia16_88
authors Klemmt, Christoph; Bollinger, Klaus
year 2016
title Load Responsive Angiogenesis Networks: Structural Growth Simulations of Discrete Members using Variable Topology Spring Systems
source ACADIA // 2016: POSTHUMAN FRONTIERS: Data, Designers, and Cognitive Machines [Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-77095-5] Ann Arbor 27-29 October, 2016, pp. 88-97
summary Venation systems in leaves, which form their structural support, always connect back to one seed point, the petiole of the leaf. In order to develop similar structural networks for architectural use which connect to more seed points on the ground, an algorithm has been developed which can develop from two or three seed points, inspired by angiogenesis, the process through which the vascular system grows. This allows for the generation of structurally suitable topologies based on discrete members, which can be evaluated using Finite Element Analysis and which can be constructed from linear structural members without an additional interpretation of the results. The networks have been developed as load bearing spring systems above the support points. Different structures have been compared and tested using Finite Element Analysis. Compared to traditional column and beam structures, the angiogenesis networks as well as the venation networks are shown to perform well under load.
keywords venation, finite element analysis, angiongenesis, embedded responsiveness
series ACADIA
type paper
last changed 2016/10/24 11:12

_id acadia18_322
id acadia18_322
authors Klemmt, Christoph; Gheorghe, Andrei; Pantic, Igor; Hornung, Philipp; Sodhi, Rajat
year 2018
title Engineering Design Tropisms. Utilization of a bamboo-resin joint for voxelized network geometries
source ACADIA // 2018: Recalibration. On imprecisionand infidelity. [Proceedings of the 38th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-17729-7] Mexico City, Mexico 18-20 October, 2018, pp. 322-327
summary We propose the combination of the traditional construction material bamboo with a novel epoxy-resin joint. The joint forms a bending-resisting connection that eliminates the need for diagonal members. This allows its utilization along rectangular grids as was tested with the design of a prototype structure that occupies a voxelized space. The design process used an agent-based simulation to mediate between design intent, site and structural considerations. The prototype was constructed with a robotic milling of the components and forms a successful application of the joints and design methodology.
keywords work in progress, digital fabrication, digital materials, robotic production, fabrication & robotics
series ACADIA
type paper
last changed 2019/01/07 11:22

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