CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id cf2011_p109
id cf2011_p109
authors Abdelmohsen, Sherif; Lee Jinkook, Eastman Chuck
year 2011
title Automated Cost Analysis of Concept Design BIM Models
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 403-418.
summary AUTOMATED COST ANALYSIS OF CONCEPT DESIGN BIM MODELS Interoperability: BIM models and cost models This paper introduces the automated cost analysis developed for the General Services Administration (GSA) and the analysis results of a case study involving a concept design courthouse BIM model. The purpose of this study is to investigate interoperability issues related to integrating design and analysis tools; specifically BIM models and cost models. Previous efforts to generate cost estimates from BIM models have focused on developing two necessary but disjoint processes: 1) extracting accurate quantity take off data from BIM models, and 2) manipulating cost analysis results to provide informative feedback. Some recent efforts involve developing detailed definitions, enhanced IFC-based formats and in-house standards for assemblies that encompass building models (e.g. US Corps of Engineers). Some commercial applications enhance the level of detail associated to BIM objects with assembly descriptions to produce lightweight BIM models that can be used by different applications for various purposes (e.g. Autodesk for design review, Navisworks for scheduling, Innovaya for visual estimating, etc.). This study suggests the integration of design and analysis tools by means of managing all building data in one shared repository accessible to multiple domains in the AEC industry (Eastman, 1999; Eastman et al., 2008; authors, 2010). Our approach aims at providing an integrated platform that incorporates a quantity take off extraction method from IFC models, a cost analysis model, and a comprehensive cost reporting scheme, using the Solibri Model Checker (SMC) development environment. Approach As part of the effort to improve the performance of federal buildings, GSA evaluates concept design alternatives based on their compliance with specific requirements, including cost analysis. Two basic challenges emerge in the process of automating cost analysis for BIM models: 1) At this early concept design stage, only minimal information is available to produce a reliable analysis, such as space names and areas, and building gross area, 2) design alternatives share a lot of programmatic requirements such as location, functional spaces and other data. It is thus crucial to integrate other factors that contribute to substantial cost differences such as perimeter, and exterior wall and roof areas. These are extracted from BIM models using IFC data and input through XML into the Parametric Cost Engineering System (PACES, 2010) software to generate cost analysis reports. PACES uses this limited dataset at a conceptual stage and RSMeans (2010) data to infer cost assemblies at different levels of detail. Functionalities Cost model import module The cost model import module has three main functionalities: generating the input dataset necessary for the cost model, performing a semantic mapping between building type specific names and name aggregation structures in PACES known as functional space areas (FSAs), and managing cost data external to the BIM model, such as location and construction duration. The module computes building data such as footprint, gross area, perimeter, external wall and roof area and building space areas. This data is generated through SMC in the form of an XML file and imported into PACES. Reporting module The reporting module uses the cost report generated by PACES to develop a comprehensive report in the form of an excel spreadsheet. This report consists of a systems-elemental estimate that shows the main systems of the building in terms of UniFormat categories, escalation, markups, overhead and conditions, a UniFormat Level III report, and a cost breakdown that provides a summary of material, equipment, labor and total costs. Building parameters are integrated in the report to provide insight on the variations among design alternatives.
keywords building information modeling, interoperability, cost analysis, IFC
series CAAD Futures
email sherif.morad@gatech.edu
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id sigradi2014_075
id sigradi2014_075
authors Afsari, Kereshmeh; Chuck Eastman
year 2014
title Categorization of building product models in BIM Content Library portals
source SiGraDi 2014 [Proceedings of the 18th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-9974-99-655-7] Uruguay- Montevideo 12,13,14 November 2014, pp. 370-374
summary BIM Content Libraries are performing as online sources for building product models. In order to effectively use the product models, it is important to organize them systematically within these databases. But currently there is no standard or guideline for this purpose. Products in these libraries are being categorized based on different criteria such as the object classes in the target platform, by referring to multiple classification systems or based on customized categories. This paper studies some of the BIM Content Libraries and investigates the structure that each library is using for product categorization. It indicates the need for a generic framework for the purpose of product categorization in BIM Content Libraries.
keywords BIM objects; Product models; Building models; BIM Content Library; Product category
series SIGRADI
email kafsari3@gatech.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id cf2015_485
id cf2015_485
authors Anaf, Márcia and Harris, Ana Lúcia Nogueira de Camargo
year 2015
title The geometry of Chuck Hoberman as the basis for the development of dynamic experimental structures
source The next city - New technologies and the future of the built environment [16th International Conference CAAD Futures 2015. Sao Paulo, July 8-10, 2015. Electronic Proceedings/ ISBN 978-85-85783-53-2] Sao Paulo, Brazil, July 8-10, 2015, pp. 485.
summary The cognitive-theoretical foundation referring to teach drawing as a way of thinking, as well as the construction of the environment by means of drawing using transforming geometries and the formal and para-formal computational process, creating unusual geometries through generative design processes and methodologies, can be seen as some of the main possibilities in exploring dynamic experimental structures for an Adaptive Architecture. This article presents the development of a model for articulated facades, inspired by Hoberman´s Tessellates, and his Adaptive Building Initiative (ABI) project to develop facades models that respond in real time to environmental changes. In addition, we describe an experiment based on the retractable structures, inspired by Hoberman´s work and experimentations. Solutions for responsive facades can offer more flexible architectural solutions providing better use of natural light and contributing to saving energy. Using Rhinoceros and the Grasshopper for modeling and test the responsiveness, the parametric model was created to simulate geometric panels of hexagonal grids that would open and close in reaction to translational motion effects, regulating the amount of light that reaches the building.
keywords Parametric architecture, Hoberman´s Tessellates, Adaptive Building Initiative (ABI), Articulated Facades, Complex Geometries, Retractable structures, Retractable polyhedra.
series CAAD Futures
email marciaanaf@uol.com.br
last changed 2015/06/29 05:55

_id 7ccd
authors Augenbroe, Godfried and Eastman, Chuck
year 1999
title Computers in Building: Proceedings of the CAADfutures '99 Conference
source Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-8536-5] Atlanta, 7-8 June 1999, 398 p.
summary This is the eight CAADfutures Conference. Each of these bi-annual conferences identifies the state of the art in computer application in architecture. Together, the series provides a good record of the evolving state of research in this area over the last fourteen years. Early conferences, for example, addressed project work, either for real construction or done in academic studios, that approached the teaching or use of CAD tools in innovative ways. By the early 1990s, such project-based examples of CAD use disappeared from the conferences, as this area was no longer considered a research contribution. Computer-based design has become a basic way of doing business. This conference is marked by a similar evolutionary change. More papers were submitted about Web- based applications than about any other area. Rather than having multiple sessions on Web-based applications and communications, we instead came to the conclusion that the Web now is an integral part of digital computing, as are CAD applications. Using the conference as a sample, Web-based projects have been integrated into most research areas. This does not mean that the application of the Web is not a research area, but rather that the Web itself is an integral tool in almost all areas of CAAD research.
series CAAD Futures
email chuck.eastman@arch.gatech.edu
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id 60d4
authors Baer, A., Eastman, C.M. and Henrion, M.
year 1979
title Geometric Modeling : a Survey
source business Press. September, 1979. vol. 11: pp. 253-271 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Computer programs are being developed to aid the design of physical systems ranging from individual mechanical parts to entire buildings or ships. These efforts highlight the importance of computer models of three dimensional objects. Issues and alternatives in geometric modeling are discussed and illustrated with comparisons of 11 existing modelling systems, in particular coherently-structured models of polyhedral solids where the faces may be either planar or curved. Four categories of representation are distinguished: data representations that store full, explicit shape information; definition languages with which the user can enter description of shapes into the system, and which can constitute procedural representations; special subsets of the information produced by application programs; and conceptual models that define the logical structure of the dada representation and/or definition language
keywords solid modeling, B-rep, CSG, languages, CAD, programming, data structures, boolean operations, polyhedra
series CADline
email chuck.eastman@arch.gatech.edu
last changed 2003/05/17 08:15

_id 00f3
authors Baybars, Ilker and Eastman, Charles M.
year 1979
title Generating the Underlying Graphs for Architectural Arrangements
source 10 p. : ill. Pittsburgh: School of Urban and Public Affairs, Carnegie Mellon University, April, 1979. Research report No.79. Includes bibliography
summary The mathematical correspondence to a floorplan is a Metric Planar Graph. Several methods for systematic direct generation of metric planar graphs have been developed including polyominoes, March and Matela and shape grammars. Another approach has been to develop a spatial composition in two separate steps. The first step involves discrete variables, and consists of enumerating a defined set of non-metric planar graphs. The second step involves spatial dimensions, e.g. continuous variables, and maps the graphs onto the Euclidean plane, from which a satisfactory or optimal one is selected. This paper focusses on the latter 2-step process. It presents a general method of solving the first step, that is the exhaustive enumeration of a set of planar graphs. The paper consists of three sections: The first section is an introduction to graph theory. The second section presents the generation of maximal planar graphs. The last section summarizes the presentation and comments on the appropriateness of the method
keywords graphs, floor plans, architecture, design, automation, space allocation
series CADline
email chuck.eastman@arch.gatech.edu
last changed 2003/05/17 08:15

_id e825
authors Baybars, Ilker and Eastman, Charles M.
year 1980
title Enumerating Architectural Arrangements by Generating Their Underlying Graphs
source Environment and Planning B. 1980. vol. 7: pp. 289- 310 : ill. includes bibliography. -- See also 'Enumerating Architectural Arrangements: Comment on a Recent Paper by Baybars and Eastman' by C.F. Earl
summary One mathematical correspondence to the partitioning of the plane is a Weighted Plane Graph (WPG). This paper first focuses on the systematic generation of WPGs, in a fashion similar to crystal growth. During this process, the WPGs are represented by adjacency matrices. The authors, thus, present a method for embedding the WPG in the plane, given its adjacency matrix. These graphs can, then, be mapped into floor plans. The common practice here is the use of the `geometric dual' of a WPG. The authors propose, instead, the use of the `Pseudogeometric dual' of a WPG directly to translate (part of) a design brief into alternative spatial layouts. Also discussed is the ability to create courtyards and/or circulation spaces given a specific WPG, without increasing the size of the problem
keywords enumeration, architecture, floor plans, graphs, design process, automation, algorithms, space allocation, CAD
series CADline
email chuck.eastman@arch.gatech.edu
last changed 2003/05/17 08:15

_id 8fd5
authors Eastman, C., His, I. and Potts, C.
year 1999
title Coordination in Multi-Organization Creative Design Projects
source GVU report, College of Computing, Georgia Institute of Technology
summary We are interested in the coordination of design and planning decisions in large, multi-organizational projects and their implications for technology support. These projects are undertaken by goal-driven "virtual organizations", involving companies of different sizes, professional traditions, cultures, as well as geographic location. We have observed several months of planning and review meetings in a multi-national architectural project and have gathered volumes of design and planning documentation in the form of memoranda, faxes, project plans and design drawings. From our observations, we outline the requirements and possible features of useful coordination support.
series report
email chuck.eastman@arch.gatech.edu
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 4edc
authors Eastman, C., Jeng, T.S., Chowdbury, R. and Jacobsen, K.
year 1997
title Integration of Design Applications with Building Models
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 45-59
summary This paper reviews various issues in the integration of applications with a building model. First, we present three different architectures for interfacing applications to a building model, with three different structures for applying maps between datasets. The limitations and advantages of these alternatives are reviewed. Then we review the mechanisms for interfacing an application to a building data model, allowing iteration execution and the recognition of instance additions, modifications and deletions.
series CAAD Futures
email chuck.eastman@arch.gatech.edu
last changed 1999/04/06 07:19

_id 8c06
authors Eastman, C.M.
year 1999
title Building Product Models
source CRC Press, NewYork
summary Presents the concepts, technology, and methods used to develop a new, digital representation for architecture, civil engineering, and building construction. Eastman (architecture and computing, Georgia Institute of Technology) introduces and explains ISO-STEP and the Industry Foundation Classes, as well as reviewing modeling concepts, supporting technologies, and standards. He uses numerous examples and figures, making this book both accessible as a text for graduate students, and as a reference for professionals in the fields of real estate, building, and software development.
series other
email chuck.eastman@arch.gatech.edu
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id d22c
authors Eastman, C.M.
year 1980
title System Facilities for CAD Databases
source 17th Design Automation Conference Proceedings
summary In this paper, an attempt is made to lay out the special needs of design databases, as compared to the facilities provided in conventional database systems now commercially available. The paper starts from a point of commonality and focusses on the limitations and shortcomings commonly found in current database systems. It is impossible and unwise to make universal statements about DBMS capabilities. Instead, the goal is to identify those special features that, by their capability, provide distinctions beyond the general notions of speed and ratio of logical size to physical size.
series journal paper
email chuck.eastman@arch.gatech.edu
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 6ea4
authors Eastman, C.M.
year 1992
title A Data Model Analysis of Modularity and Extensibility in Building Databases
source Building and Environment, Vol 27, No: 2, pp. 135-148
summary This paper uses data modeling techniques to define how database schemas for an intelligent integrated architectural CAD system can be made extensible. It reviews the product data modeling language EDM, then applies it to define a part of an architectural data model. Extensions are then investigated, regarding how users could integrate various design-specific packages into a uniquely configured system. Both, extension by substituting one technology for another and by adding a new evaluation application, are considered. Data modeling allows specification of a CAD database and identification of the kind of modularization that will work and what problems may arise.''
series journal paper
email chuck.eastman@arch.gatech.edu
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 90a7
authors Eastman, C.M.
year 1996
title Managing Integrity in Design Information Flows
source Computer Aided Design (May, 1996). 28:6n, pp. 551-565
summary The purpose of this work is to develop automatic methods of semantic integrity maintenance, in support of concurrent engineering. Semantic integrity relations in any final engineering design are built up incrementally, through the use of different computer applications. Here, the structure of these integrity relations are formalized for representation within a database. When changes to a design have to be made, they can invalidate integrity relations in other parts of the design. Formal methods are defined for identifying what data and integrity relations are invalidated by any change. Methods for making changes that minimize re-design are described and formalized. Opportunities for using semantic integrity to assess progress on a design are reviewed.
series journal paper
email chuck.eastman@arch.gatech.edu
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id e4b3
authors Eastman, Charles M.
year 1991
title Use of Data Modeling in the Conceptual Structuring of Design Problems
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 225-244
summary An approach is presented for defining the information needed or used in a design task, based on data modeling techniques. Called EDM, it allows representation of the information complexity imposed both from the performances or technologies involved as well as imposed criteria, such as aesthetic intentions. Here, EDM is applied to the design of chairs, a design domain with highly diverse technologies and information structures. The relation is shown between the information considered and the class of designs possible. Also shown is the complexity of different design structures and the implication of information structures for conventional and creative design.
series CAAD Futures
email chuck.eastman@arch.gatech.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 6f3e
authors Eastman, Charles M. and Lang, Jurg
year 1991
title Experiments in Architectural Design Development Using CAD
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 49-64
summary The need to explore development techniques in computer-based design is reviewed. Some premises are given for design development using computers, including integrating multiple representations, the use of object-based modeling and the importance of visual analysis and 3-D modeling. We then present techniques used in a UCLA design studio that explored methods of computer-based design development based on these premises. The two main methods used were hierarchical object structures and multi-representational coordination. They were applied using conventional CAD systems. Some lessons learned from this class are reviewed.
series CAAD Futures
email chuck.eastman@arch.gatech.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 882d
authors Eastman, Charles M. and Liu, Clive K.
year 1981
title The C-MU Drafting System
source September, 1981
summary This document describes the objectives and design of a drafting system under development by the CAD-Graphics Laboratory at Carnegie Mellon University
keywords CAD, drafting, software
series CADline
email chuck.eastman@arch.gatech.edu
last changed 2003/05/17 08:15

_id e7cf
authors Eastman, Charles M. and Preiss, K.
year 1984
title A Review of Solid Shape Modelling Based on Integrity
source Computer Aided Design March, 1984. vol. 16: pp. 66-80 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary The potential benefits of using a canonical model for representing the shapes of solid objects has led to the design and implementation of a number of geometric modelers with varying capabilities. This paper reviews the approaches taken in solid modeling by defining the well-formedness conditions which must be implemented in any modeling system. The methods for satisfying the well-formedness constraints in the various solid modeling methods are reviewed, using the concept of integrity constraints. The incorporation of integrity constraints, both explicitly and implicitly, into solid modelers are considered, with particular focus on boundary modelers. The use of integrity constraints for defining shape families and assembly families are also presented. The result is a unified view of solid shape modeling systems that enables their classification and extension into particular application areas
keywords solid modeling, constraints, B-rep
series CADline
email chuck.eastman@arch.gatech.edu
last changed 2003/05/17 08:15

_id 6890
authors Eastman, Charles M. and Weiler, Kevin
year 1979
title Geometric Modeling Using the Euler Operators
source 12 p. : ill. Pittsburgh: Institute of Physical Planning, Carnegie Mellon University, February, 1979. includes bibliography
summary A recent advance in the modeling of three-dimensional shapes is the joint development of bounded shape models, capable of representing complete and well-formed arbitrary polyhedra, and operators for manipulating them. Two approaches have been developed thus far in forming bounded shape models: to combine a given fixed set of primitive shapes into other possibly more complex ones using the spatial set operators, and/or to apply lower level operators that define and combine faces, edges, loops and vertices to directly construct a shape. The name that has come to be applied to these latter operators is the Euler operators. This paper offers a description of the Euler operators, in a form expected to be useful for prospective implementers and others wishing to better understand their function and behavior. It includes considerations regarding their specification in terms of being able to completely describe different classes of shapes, how to properly specify them and the extent of their well-formedness, especially in terms of their interaction with geometric operations. Example specifications are provided as well as some useful applications. The Euler operators provide different capabilities from the spatial set operators. An extensible CAD/CAM facility needs them both
keywords Euler operators, boolean operations, CSG, geometric modeling, CAD, CAM, B-rep, solid modeling, theory
series CADline
email chuck.eastman@arch.gatech.edu
last changed 2003/05/17 08:15

_id 6e6c
authors Eastman, Charles M.
year 1981
title CFA Drafting System : User Interface
source 3, [4] P. November, 1981
summary This report defines the proposed user interface for the CFA drafting system. It specifies the means for user interaction with the drafting system program and the objectives that led to these design decisions
keywords user interface, drafting, systems, CAD
series CADline
email chuck.eastman@arch.gatech.edu
last changed 2003/05/17 08:15

_id 85bb
authors Eastman, Charles M.
year 1981
title Computers in Architecture, Design, and Fine and Performing Arts Education
source 5, [6] p. May, 1981
summary In the next ten years it is expected that the processes and techniques for teaching design will greatly change. Feedback on design decisions - visually and analytically - will be fast and more powerful than is possible today. Much of the busy paper and pencil construction work will be eliminated or greatly reduced. The author anticipates students designing buildings and artifacts on the computer, quickly and with sophistication, achieving results beyond what can be expected through manually based education today. This proposal cannot realize this whole revolution. Rather, it attempts to only take a step outward from the neck of a funnel, showing people opportunities and providing a framework that allows easy extension. Some of these extensions, most of them trivial to develop, are presented in the scenario section of the proposal
keywords architecture, design, education, CAD
series CADline
email chuck.eastman@arch.gatech.edu
last changed 2003/05/17 08:15

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