CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id cf2011_p157
id cf2011_p157
authors Boton, Conrad; Kubicki Sylvain, Halin Gilles
year 2011
title Understanding Pre-Construction Simulation Activities to Adapt Visualization in 4D CAD Collaborative Tools
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 477-492.
summary Increasing productivity and efficiency is an important issue in the AEC field. This area is mainly characterized by fragmentation, heterogeneous teams with low lifetimes and many uncertainties. 4D CAD is one of the greatest innovations in recent years. It consists in linking a 3D model of the building with the works planning in order to simulate the construction evolution over time. 4D CAD can fill several needs from design to project management through constructivity analysis and tasks planning (Tommelein 2003). The literature shows that several applications have been proposed to improve the 4D CAD use (Chau et al. 2004; Lu et al. 2007; Seok & al. 2009). In addition, studies have shown the real impact of 4D CAD use in construction projects (Staub-French & Khanzode 2007; Dawood & Sika 2007). More recently, Mahalingam et al. (2010) showed that the collaborative use of 4D CAD is particularly useful during the pre-construction phase for comparing the constructability of working methods, for visually identifying conflicts and clashes (overlaps), and as visual tool for practitioners to discuss and to plan project progress. So the advantage of the 4D CAD collaborative use is demonstrated. Moreover, several studies have been conducted both in the scientific community and in the industrial world to improve it (Zhou et al. 2009; Kang et al. 2007). But an important need that remains in collaborative 4D CAD use in construction projects is about the adaptation of visualization to the users business needs. Indeed, construction projects have very specific characteristics (fragmentation, variable team, different roles from one project to another). Moreover, in the AEC field several visualization techniques can represent the same concept and actors choose one or another of these techniques according to their specific needs related to the task they have to perform. For example, the tasks planning may be represented by a Gantt chart or by a PERT network and the building elements can be depicted with a 3D model or a 2D plan. The classical view (3D + Gantt) proposed to all practitioners in the available 4D tools seems therefore not suiting the needs of all. So, our research is based on the hypothesis that adapting the visualization to individual business needs could significantly improve the collaboration. This work relies on previous ones and aim to develop a method 1) to choose the best suited views for performed tasks and 2) to compose adapted multiple views for each actor, that we call “business views”. We propose a 4 steps-method to compose business views. The first step identifies the users’ business needs, defining the individual practices performed by each actor, identifying his business tasks and his information needs. The second step identifies the visualization needs related to the identified business needs. For this purpose, the user’s interactions and visualization tasks are described. This enables choosing the most appropriate visualization techniques for each need (step 3). At this step, it is important to describe the visualization techniques and to be able to compare them. Therefore, we proposed a business view metamodel. The final step (step 4) selects the adapted views, defines the coordination mechanisms and the interaction principles in order to compose coordinated visualizations. A final step consists in a validation work to ensure that the composed views really match to the described business needs. This paper presents the latest version of the method and especially presents our latest works about its first and second steps. These include making more generic the business tasks description in order to be applicable within most of construction projects and enabling to make correspondence with visualization tasks.
keywords Pre-construction, Simulation, 4D CAD, Collaboration, Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Human-Computer Interface, Information visualization, Business view, Model driven engineering
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ijac201614207
id ijac201614207
authors Chaszar, Andre and Sam Conrad Joyce
year 2016
title Generating freedom: Questions of flexibility in digital design and architectural computation
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 14 - no. 2, 167-181
summary Generative processes and generative design approaches are topics of continuing interest and debate within the realms of architectural design and related fields. While they are often held up as giving designers the opportunity (the freedom) to explore far greater numbers of options/alternatives than would otherwise be possible, questions also arise regarding the limitations of such approaches on the design spaces explored, in comparison with more conventional, human-centric design processes. This article addresses the controversy with a specific focus on parametric-associative modelling and genetic programming methods of generative design. These represent two established contenders within the pool of procedural design approaches gaining increasingly wide acceptance in architectural computational research, education and practice. The two methods are compared and contrasted to highlight important differences in freedoms and limitations they afford, with respect to each other and to ‘manual’ design. We conclude that these methods may be combined with an appropriate balance of automation and human intervention to obtain ‘optimal’ design freedom, and we suggest steps towards finding that balance.
keywords Design space exploration, parametric-associative modelling, genetic programming, mixed-initiative methods
series journal
last changed 2016/06/13 06:34

_id cdc2008_377
id cdc2008_377
authors Conrad, Erik
year 2008
title Rethinking the Space of Intelligent Environments
source First International Conference on Critical Digital: What Matters(s)? - 18-19 April 2008, Harvard University Graduate School of Design, Cambridge (USA), pp. 377-382
summary Technologies are not mere exterior aids but interior changes of consciousness that shape the way the world is experienced. As we enter the age of ubiquitous computing, where computers are worn, carried or embedded into the environment, we must be careful that the ideology the technology embodies is not blindly incorporated into the environment as well. As disciplines, engineering and computer science make implicit assumptions about the world that conflict with traditional modes of cultural production. Space is commonly understood to be the void left behind when no objects are present. Unfortunately, once we see space in this way, we are unable to understand the role it plays in our everyday experience. In this paper, I argue that with the realization of the vision of ubiquitous computing, the fields of computer science and engineering reify the dominance of abstract space in real space. A new approach to the design of computing systems is necessary to reembody space. The social nature of the interface allows us to situate it within Henrí Lefebvre’s notions of space, providing new tools for thinking about how computing practice engages space as well as opening avenues to rematerialize the environment through embodied interaction.
last changed 2009/01/07 07:05

_id ecaadesigradi2019_397
id ecaadesigradi2019_397
authors Cristie, Verina and Joyce, Sam Conrad
year 2019
title 'GHShot': a collaborative and distributed visual version control for Grasshopper parametric programming
source Sousa, JP, Xavier, JP and Castro Henriques, G (eds.), Architecture in the Age of the 4th Industrial Revolution - Proceedings of the 37th eCAADe and 23rd SIGraDi Conference - Volume 3, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal, 11-13 September 2019, pp. 35-44
summary When working with parametric models, architects typically focus on using rather structuring them (Woodbury, 2010). As a result, increasing design complexity typically means a convoluted parametric model, amplifying known problems: 'hard to understand, modify, share and reuse' (Smith 2007; Davis 2011). This practice is in contrast with conventional software-programming where programmers are known to meticulously document and structure their code with versioning tool. In this paper, we argue that versioning tools could help to manage parametric modelling complexity, as it has been showing with software counterparts. Four key features of version control: committing, differentiating, branching, and merging, and how they could be implemented in a parametric design practice are discussed. Initial user test sessions with 5 student designers using GHShot Grasshopper version control plugin (Cristie and Joyce 2018, 2017) revealed that the plugin is useful to record and overview design progression, share model, and provide a fallback mechanism.
keywords Version Control; Parametric Design; Collaborative Design; Design Exploration
series eCAADeSIGraDi
last changed 2019/08/26 20:28

_id acadia19_50
id acadia19_50
authors Ibrahim, Nazim; Joyce, Sam Conrad
year 2019
title User Directed Parametric Design for Optic Exploration
source ACADIA 19:UBIQUITY AND AUTONOMY [Proceedings of the 39th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-578-59179-7] (The University of Texas at Austin School of Architecture, Austin, Texas 21-26 October, 2019) pp. 50-59
summary The potential of parametric associative models to explore large ranges of different designs is limited by our ability to manually create and modify them. While computation has been successfully used to generate variations by optimizing input parameters, adding or changing ‘components’ and ‘links’ of these models has typically been manual and human driven. The intellectual overhead and challenges of manually creating and maintaining complex parametric models has limited their usefulness in early stages of design exploration, where a quicker and wider design search is preferred. Recent methods called Meta Parametric Design using Cartesian Genetic Programming (CGP) specifically tailored to operate on parametric models, allows computational generation and topological modification for parametric models. This paper proposes the refinement of Meta Parametric techniques to quickly generate and manipulate models with a higher level of control than existing; enabling a more natural human centric user-directed design exploration process. Opening new possibilities for the computer to act as a co-creator: able to generate its own novel solutions, steered at a high-level by user(s) and able to develop convergent or divergent solutions over an extended interaction session, replicating in a faster way a human design assistant.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
last changed 2019/12/18 08:01

_id acadia17_308
id acadia17_308
authors Joyce, Sam Conrad; Ibrahim, Nazim
year 2017
title Exploring the Evolution of Meta Parametric Models
source ACADIA 2017: DISCIPLINES & DISRUPTION [Proceedings of the 37th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-96506-1] Cambridge, MA 2-4 November, 2017), pp. 308- 317
summary Parametric associative logic can describe complex design scenarios but are typically non-trivial and time consuming to develop. Optimization is being widely applied in many fields to find high-performing solutions to objective design needs, and this is being extended further to include user input to satisfy subjective preferences. However, whilst conventional optimization approaches can set good parameters for a model, they cannot currently improve the underlying logic defined by the associative topology of the model, leaving it limited to predefined domain of designs. This work looks at the application of Cartesian Genetic Programming (CGP) as a method for allowing the automatic generation, combination and modification of valid parametric models, including topology. This has value as it allows for a much greater range of solutions, and potentially computational "creativity," as it can develop unique and surprising solutions. However, the application of a genome-based definition and evolutionary optimization, respectively, to describe parametric models and develop better models for a problem, introduce many unknowns into the model generation process. This paper explains CGP as applied to parametric design and investigates the difference between using mating, mutating and both strategies together as a way of combining aspects of parent models, under selection by a genetic algorithm under random, objective and user (Interactive GA) preferences. We look into how this effects the resultant overiterated interaction in relation to both the geometry and the parametric model.
keywords design methods; information processing; generative system; data visualization; computational / artistic cultures
series ACADIA
last changed 2017/10/17 09:12

_id 4fd8
authors Pohl, Jens and Conrad, Jeff
year 1978
title Introduction to Computer Systems and Programming in Architecture and Construction
source xiii, 432 p. : ill. San Luis Obispo, California: EDUCOL, 1978. includes index
summary An introductory computer text for undergraduate students in architecture, architectural engineering, construction, landscape and planning. It provides working knowledge of BASIC and FORTRAN, using small computer program as an educational tool to facilitate the exploration of the relationships among the parameters of a problem
keywords programming, languages, BASIC, FORTRAN, architecture, education
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

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