CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ascaad2007_058
id ascaad2007_058
authors Abdelhameed, W. and Y. Kobayashi
year 2007
title Developing a New Approach of Computer Use ‘KISS Modeling’ for Design-Ideas Alternatives of Form Massing: A framework for three-Dimensional Shape Recognition in Initial Design Phases
source Em‘body’ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2007), 28-30 November 2007, Alexandria, Egypt, pp. 745-756
summary This research aims at developing a new approach called ‘KISS Modeling’. KISS is generally a rule of ‘Keep It Simple, Stupid’ that will be applied in modeling process investigated and presented by the research. The new approach is implemented in a computer program ‘KISS Modeling’ that generates three dimensional forms based on simplifying the concept of shape recognition in design. The research, however, does not employ totally concepts of shape recognition or shape understanding in Artificial Intelligence and psychology. The research, in summary, investigates and describes: 1) a new approach of computer use contributing to generating design-ideas alternatives of form massing in initial design phases, within a simple way that any designer can understand at single glance, 2) implementation of shape recognition for generative three dimensional forms, 3) function to generate different outputs from different recognition, and 4) case studies introduced through applications and functions of the three dimensional modeling system presented by the research. The research concluded that the introduced processes help the user improve the management of conceptual designing through facilitating a discourse of his/her modeling of design-ideas massing.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2008/01/21 21:00

_id 2006_532
id 2006_532
authors Abdelhameed, Wael
year 2006
title How Does the Digital Environment Change What Architects Do in the Initial Phases of the Design Process?
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 532-539
summary Some researchers have tried to answer the question: do we need to think differently while designing in terms of the digital environment? This methodological question leads to another question: what is the range of this difference, if there is one? This research investigates the range of changes in how architects conduct and develop the initial design within the digital environment. The role offered by the digital environment in visual design thinking during conceptual designing through shaping: concepts, forms, and design methods, is identified and explored.
keywords Conceptual designing; architects; digital environment; design process; visual design thinking
series eCAADe
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id 28b9
authors Achten, Henri
year 2001
title Future Scenario for a Collaborative Design Session
source Stellingwerff, Martijn and Verbeke, Johan (Eds.), ACCOLADE - Architecture, Collaboration, Design. Delft University Press (DUP Science) / ISBN 90-407-2216-1 / The Netherlands, pp. 163-168 [Book ordering info:]
summary A collaborative design project consists of a team of design partners who are engaged during the period of the project in a particular design task. The group forms a short-lived community with the goal to create a design. The environment in which this is done today, consists of the participants office spaces, completed with equipment such as drawing tables, coffee machines, fax machines, CAD stations, etc. None of these elements reflect the existence of the (temporary) community that a design partner participates in. In this workshop paper we propose that the current two-dimensional desktop metaphor in a computer does not adequately support collaborative design. The typical 2D-desktop multiple open windows with different applications gives a fractured view of the design project in which by contrast the designer as a person conceives of himself as a whole. Moreover, the sense of place, or a consistent identity in which the design takes place is also lacking. The notion of _virtual environmentsÑ can assist in further developing design support for collaborative design in the future, as is sketched in the following outline.
series other
last changed 2001/09/14 19:30

_id 01c0
authors Af Klercker, Jonas
year 2000
title Modelling for Virtual Reality in Architecture
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 209-213
summary CAAD systems are using object modelling methods for building databases to make information available. Object data must then be made useful for many different purposes in the design process. Even if the capacity of the computer will allow an almost unlimited amount of information to be transformed, the eye does not make the transformations in the same “simple” mathematical way. Trained architects have to involve in an inventive process of finding ways to “harmonize” this new medium with the human eye and the architect’s professional experience. This paper will be an interimistic report from a surveying course. During the spring semester 2000 the CAAD division of TU-Lund is giving a course “Modelling for VR in Architecture”. The students are practising architects with experience from using object modelling CAAD. The aims are to survey different ways to use available hard- and software to create VR-models of pieces of architecture and evaluate them in desktop and CAVE environments. The architect is to do as much preparation work as possible with his CAAD program and only the final adjustments with the special VR tool.
keywords CAAD, VR, Modelling, Spatial Experience
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 2005_083
id 2005_083
authors Agostinho, Francisco Santos
year 2005
title Architecture as Drawing, Perception and Cognition
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 83-90
summary This work is about realizing that human perception is inherent to architecture. It is an asset and a trait subject to training and development in an empirical way, involving physical and manual action. It cannot be taught literally through convention and logic reasoning. It is a human achievement of great significance built on intellectual and scientific knowledge. It is something, being physical and empirical, that is supported on instrumental procedure. The computer, as a machine and an instrument, does not shorten the empirical experience of manipulation; on the contrary, it enhances J.J. Gibson’s findings about the perception of space in relation to eye and body movement. Being a cybernetic machine the computer may, and shall, evolve, and become perceptive. In order for that to happen, it is important to keep in mind the mechanism of human perception. Through producing a computerized model of a major architectural work, we develop natural knowledge about its physical features and the thought that lies underneath. To be able to use the computer as an instrument provides a user with explicit knowledge about its ways and mechanism that has to be made available. It involves training, which is to a great extent self-explanatory, and also explicit knowledge about the conventions that are being used, such as programming, reasoning and trigonometry.
keywords Visualization; Environmental Simulation; Knowledge Modelling (KM); 3D Modeling
series eCAADe
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id ecaade2017_085
id ecaade2017_085
authors Agustí-Juan, Isolda, Hollberg, Alexander and Habert, Guillaume
year 2017
title Integration of environmental criteria in early stages of digital fabrication
source Fioravanti, A, Cursi, S, Elahmar, S, Gargaro, S, Loffreda, G, Novembri, G, Trento, A (eds.), ShoCK! - Sharing Computational Knowledge! - Proceedings of the 35th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy, 20-22 September 2017, pp. 185-192
summary The construction sector is responsible for a big share of the global energy, resource demand and greenhouse gas emissions. As such, buildings and their designers are key players for carbon mitigation actions. Current research in digital fabrication is beginning to reveal its potential to improve the sustainability of the construction sector. To evaluate the environmental performance of buildings, life cycle assessment (LCA) is commonly employed. Recent research developments have successfully linked LCA to CAD and BIM tools for a faster evaluation of environmental impacts. However, these are only partially applicable to digital fabrication, because of differences in the design process. In contrast to conventional construction, in digital fabrication the geometry is the consequence of the definition of functional, structural and fabrication parameters during design. Therefore, this paper presents an LCA-based method for design-integrated environmental assessment of digitally fabricated building elements. The method is divided into four levels of detail following the degree of available information during the design process. Finally, the method is applied to the case study "Mesh Mould", a digitally fabricated complex concrete wall that does not require any formwork. The results prove the applicability of the method and highlight the environmental benefits digital fabrication can provide.
keywords Digital fabrication; Parametric LCA; Early design; Sustainability
series eCAADe
last changed 2017/09/13 13:31

_id acadia18_216
id acadia18_216
authors Ahrens, Chandler; Chamberlain, Roger; Mitchell, Scott; Barnstorff, Adam
year 2018
title Catoptric Surface
source ACADIA // 2018: Recalibration. On imprecisionand infidelity. [Proceedings of the 38th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-17729-7] Mexico City, Mexico 18-20 October, 2018, pp. 216-225
summary The Catoptric Surface research project explores methods of reflecting daylight through a building envelope to form an image-based pattern of light on the interior environment. This research investigates the generation of atmospheric effects from daylighting projected onto architectural surfaces within a built environment in an attempt to amplify or reduce spatial perception. The mapping of variable organizations of light onto existing or new surfaces creates a condition where the perception of space does not rely on form alone. This condition creates a visual effect of a formless atmosphere and affects the way people use the space. Often the desired quantity and quality of daylight varies due to factors such as physiological differences due to age or the types of tasks people perform (Lechner 2009). Yet the dominant mode of thought toward the use of daylighting tends to promote a homogeneous environment, in that the resulting lighting level is the same throughout a space. This research project questions the desire for uniform lighting levels in favor of variegated and heterogeneous conditions. The main objective of this research is the production of a unique facade system that is capable of dynamically redirecting daylight to key locations deep within a building. Mirrors in a vertical array are individually adjusted via stepper motors in order to reflect more or less intense daylight into the interior space according to sun position and an image-based map. The image-based approach provides a way to specifically target lighting conditions, atmospheric effects, and the perception of space.
keywords full paper, non-production robotics, representation + perception, performance + simulation, building technologies
series ACADIA
type paper
last changed 2019/01/07 11:21

_id ecaade2018_172
id ecaade2018_172
authors Al-Douri, Firas
year 2018
title The Employment of Digital Simulation in the Planning Departments in US Cities - How does it affect design and decision-making processes?
source Kepczynska-Walczak, A, Bialkowski, S (eds.), Computing for a better tomorrow - Proceedings of the 36th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Poland, 19-21 September 2018, pp. 539-548
summary The increased interactivity of digital simulation tools has offered a wide range of opportunities that may provoke a paradigmatic shift in urban design practice. Yet, research results did not provide any clear evidence that such shift seems to exist. Further studies are required to examine the methods and impact of their usage on decision-making and design outcome. To that goal, this research uses the single-case study design that has been pursued in three phases: literature review, online survey, and semi-structured interviews. The results have shown inadequacies, inconsistency, and ineffectiveness of usage of the tools that are most appropriate to the design activities of each phase and thus a limited impact on critical areas of the decision-making. The impact of the tools' usage is found to be correlated with not only the extent of their usage, but also with a variety of procedural and substantive factors such as the plan methodology, extent of tool's usage, choice of the appropriate tool, and planners' skills and capabilities in using those tools.
keywords Urban Simulation ; Urban Design Practice
series eCAADe
last changed 2018/08/22 13:38

_id bba7
authors Alexander, Christopher W.
year 1964
title Notes on the Synthesis of Form
source Harvard Graduate School of Design
summary Every design problem begins with an effort to achieve fitness between two entities: the form in question and its context. The form is the solution to the problem; the context defines the problem. We want to put the context and the form into effortless contact or frictionless coexistence, i.e., we want to find a good fit. For a good fit to occur in practice, one vital condition must be satisfied. It must have time to happen. In slow-changing, traditional, unselfconscious cultures, a form is adjusted soon after each slight misfit occurs. If there was good fit at some stage in the past, no matter how removed, it will have persisted, because there is an active stability at work. Tradition and taboo dampen and control the rate of change in an unselfconscious culture's designs. It is important to understand that the individual person in an unselfconscious culture needs no creative strength. He does not need to be able to improve the form, only to make some sort of change when he notices a failure. The changes may not always be for the better; but it is not necessary that they should be, since the operation of the process allows only the improvements to persist. Unselfconscious design is a process of slow adaptation and error reduction. In the unselfconscious process there is no possibility of misconstruing the situation. Nobody makes a picture of the context, so the picture cannot be wrong. But the modern, selfconscious designer works entirely from a picture in his mind - a conceptualization of the forces at work and their interrelationships - and this picture is almost always wrong. To achieve in a few hours at the drawing board what once took centuries of adaptation and development, to invent a form suddenly which clearly fits its context - the extent of invention necessary is beyond the individual designer. A designer who sets out to achieve an adaptive good fit in a single leap is not unlike the child who shakes his glass-topped puzzle fretfully, expecting at one shake to arrange the bits inside correctly. The designer's attempt is hardly as random as the child's is; but the difficulties are the same. His chances of success are small because the number of factors which must fall simultaneously into place is so enormous. The process of design, even when it has become selfconscious, remains a process of error-reduction. No complex system will succeed in adapting in a reasonable amount of time or effort unless the adaptation can proceed component by component, each component relatively independent of the others. The search for the right components, and the right way to build the form up from these components, is the greatest challenge faced by the modern, selfconscious designer. The culmination of the modern designer's task is to make every unit of design both a component and a system. As a component it will fit into the hierarchy of larger components that are above it; as a system it will specify the hierarchy of smaller components of which it itself is made.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id ecaade2017_175
id ecaade2017_175
authors Alfaiate, Pedro and Leit?o, António
year 2017
title Luna Moth - A Web-based Programming Environment for Generative Design
source Fioravanti, A, Cursi, S, Elahmar, S, Gargaro, S, Loffreda, G, Novembri, G, Trento, A (eds.), ShoCK! - Sharing Computational Knowledge! - Proceedings of the 35th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy, 20-22 September 2017, pp. 511-518
summary Current Generative Design (GD) tools require installation and regular updates. On top of that, programs that are created using them are stored as files, which have to be moved and shared manually with others. On the other hand, web applications are accessible using just a web browser and they can also store information remotely, meaning that it does not need to be moved and is easily shared with others. Consequently, GD tools should also be available as web applications to get the same functionality. We present Luna Moth, an IDE for GD available from the web that shows the relationship between a program and its results and integrates into the architect's workflow. Then, we give examples where Luna Moth's features help the architect during the programming process. Finally, we compare Luna Moth's performance with other IDEs, namely, Grasshopper, OpenJSCAD, and Rosetta.
keywords Generative Design; Web application; Design tool integration;
series eCAADe
last changed 2017/09/13 13:30

_id ascaad2010_189
id ascaad2010_189
authors Allahaim, Fahad; Anas Alfaris and David Leifer
year 2010
title Towards Changeability
source CAAD - Cities - Sustainability [5th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2010 / ISBN 978-1-907349-02-7], Fez (Morocco), 19-21 October 2010, pp. 189-200
summary Many buildings around the world have undergone successive changes over their life cycles. Regardless of the type or size of a building there are usually requirements for change due to several unanticipated forces and emerging uncertainties that act upon them. These changes might be in the building’s spatial, structural or service systems. This can be due to changes in the needs of occupants, the market demand or technological advances. Although buildings undergo change, current design practice does not address this and buildings are still designed as if they will remain static. This paper proposes an Adaptable Buildings Design (ABD) Framework to address the issue of adaptability in building design. Using this methodology uncertainties and future changes are first identified. To increase the building’s longevity, flexibility options are embedded and design rules are formulated to trigger these options when necessary. The value of adaptability is then assessed by implementing several simulations using Real Options Analysis (ROA). To demonstrate the approach, the ABD is applied to a multi-use commercial building case study. Flexibility is embedded in the building’s design across several systems allowing it to change and evolve over time based on a set of design rules. The buildings adaptability is then assessed using ROA. Positive results demonstrate the strength of the proposed methodology in addressing future change and uncertaintie.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2011/03/01 06:36

_id sigradi2018_1300
id sigradi2018_1300
authors Alves de Almeida, Marcela; de Souza Nogueira, Yasmim
year 2018
title Parametricism as style: the relationship between methodology of scientific research programmes and parametric design
source SIGraDi 2018 [Proceedings of the 22nd Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISSN: 2318-6968] Brazil, São Carlos 7 - 9 November 2018, pp. 17-22
summary During the 1990s many architects, who dissociated from critical theory, were looking for new design methodologies that did not confine themselves as stylistic currents. One of these propractice movement is done by means of parametric design. Aiming to investigate the boundaries between methodology and style, this paper proposes to answer the question: does the parametric architecture constitute a new style, as Patrik Schumacher says? It reviews Heinrich Wölfflin concept of style in the contemporary context; it presents Imre Lakatos theory (methodology of scientific research programmes) and how Schumacher appropriates of it followed by a critical reflection on the limits of such appropriation.
keywords Parametric design; Style
series SIGraDi
last changed 2019/05/20 09:11

_id caadria2010_022
id caadria2010_022
authors Ambrose, Michael A. and Lisa Lacharité-Lostritto
year 2010
title Representation in a time of re-presentation: design media processes in architectural education
source Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Hong Kong 7-10 April 2010, pp. 229-238
summary This paper examines what is appropriate and valuable to include in architectural education in light of changing representational conventions and techniques. Architecture finds itself at a unique moment in time where the means of production for the profession, and indeed the entire discipline, are transforming and fundamentally undermine the existing models of education, production and understanding. The threat to architecture education is that architecture becomes learned techniques rather than a way of operating within a body of knowledge that grows and responds to its context. These digital media processes offer contemporary education new and challenging ways to communicate ideas, sometimes subverting the imperative for “drawing” as the representation does not refer to information in the abstract, but IS the information quite literally.
keywords Design education; design theory; digital design representation
series CAADRIA
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id caadria2008_53_session5b_437
id caadria2008_53_session5b_437
authors Ambrose, Michael A.; Lisa Lacharité
year 2008
title Representation and re-Presentation: Emerging Digital Conventions of Architectural Communication
source CAADRIA 2008 [Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Chiang Mai (Thailand) 9-12 April 2008, pp. 437-444
summary This paper examines the theoretical and conceptual underpinnings of digital architectural representation. Emerging digital tools, processes, and methods are sponsoring new conventions for the communication of architectural ideas and motives. New conventions yielded through digital media offer fresh and currently uncodified ways to communicate. These new conventions attempt to communicate the same ideas as the old, sometimes subverting the imperative for drawing as the representation does not refer to information in the abstract, but literally is the information. This research explores the use of architectural conventions, such as plan, section, and perspective, to examine re-presentation—not only a way to convey form and content, but to also to be used as a form of communication. The emerging digital conventions are forms of communication situated between representation and re-presentation.
keywords Education, design theory, digital design representation
series CAADRIA
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id acadia03_037
id acadia03_037
authors Anders, Peter
year 2003
title Cynergies: Technologies that Hybridize Physical and Cyberspaces
source Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse [Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-12-8] Indianapolis (Indiana) 24-27 October 2003, pp. 289-297
summary This paper presents ways in which cybrids depend for their technology upon three existing models of architectural hybrid: display space, environmental computing, and augmented/mixed reality. Cybrids bring these techniques together into a synergistic whole that depends as much on the observer for its consistency as it does on its comprising technologies. This synergy is a product of corroborative behavior between different modes, which provide cybrid users with a coherent social/spatial experience. The paper notes cybrids’ similarity to theater, not only for their technological dependency, but also for the tacit yet vital role of the observer in their effect.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/11/27 14:20

_id sigradi2010_47
id sigradi2010_47
authors Angulo, Antonieta; Mounayar Michel
year 2010
title Virtual Sets: A Mixed Reality Application for an Old Practice
source SIGraDi 2010_Proceedings of the 14th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, pp. Bogotá, Colombia, November 17-19, 2010, pp. 47-50
summary This paper chronicles the implementation of state - of - the - art virtual set technology through the teaching of an independent study course at Ball State University. The paper describes the use of independent study formats as a means to initiate teaching of emergent media that does not fit neatly into specific academic silos. In addition to its learning potential this technology offers a new practice area for architects and designers that have an understanding of communication studies and space design at the crossroads of imagination. The creative realm for new emergent media and markets requires new teaching formats, opportunities and challenges for future implementation.
keywords virtual sets, design communications, 3D modeling, design, mixed reality
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 0f4c
authors Asanowicz, Aleksander
year 1998
title From Real to Cyber Reality
source Cyber-Real Design [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 83-905377-2-9] Bialystock (Poland), 23-25 April 1998, pp. 11-19
summary Human activity takes place in two planes, at two levels. Practical activity is present in one of the planes, the other level is occupied by purely cognitive activity. When observing sufficiently long sequences of practical and cognitive activities, one notices transitions between them, which prove true the suspicions of their functional relationship. Because on both of these planes of human activity there is always one and the same element present - an informative element - which on the first plane functions as subordinate, and in the other as an independent one, one can search for a common characteristic for both planes. Such common characteristic for both levels of human activity can be perceived in the fact that in both situations the activity of a human is based on CREATION. Human thinking is based on transitions between what is accessible through experience and what is referred to conceptually. The human thought exists only and exclusively in the vertical motion: from the phenomenal level to the structural level direction of abstraction) and from the conceptual level to the empirical level direction of concretisation). All human activity is multilayered or, more precisely, it is an activity within many layers: the sensual one as well as the structural one. The appearance of conceptual thinking has created a qualitatively new type of a situation. This novelty can be easily seen both in the sphere of the practical cognitive activity as well as in the sphere of the pure cognitive activity. In both cases, the cognitive activity of a human is of a "double-decker" character: image and concept. It is necessary to note here that the "image" does not only mean structural, concrete, but also one which is purely visual, abstract, of no physical form. Therefore, the human experience, being the result of the cognitive activity, is being expressed, becoming objective, materialising in two different but compatible ways. Firstly, in the material structures of practical significance - this way the material culture is created. Secondly - in material structures which have no practical meaning but are solely used for expressing the spiritual contents - thus creating the spiritual culture. Humans have developed an extraordinarily strong need for spiritual activity, which is manifested by the material activity, redundant from the point of view of the material needs.
series plCAD
last changed 2003/05/17 08:01

_id 4894
authors Asanowicz, Aleksander
year 1998
title Approach to Computer Implementation in Architectural Curriculum
source Computerised Craftsmanship [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Paris (France) 24-26 September 1998, pp. 4-8
summary This paper examines traditional teaching methods in architecture and identifies opportunities which are offered by computers for changing the teaching process. Introduction of CAAD to the teaching schedules unquestionably and explicity uncovered a need of changes within the whole schedule of study. In this paper we will submit the thesis that the problem does not lay in how will CAAD be incorporated into the architectural curriculum, because it is the CAAD that has the potential to become an integrating factor of architectural curriculum.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 66f8
authors Asanowicz, Alexander
year 2001
title Information at Early Design Stages
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 105-110
summary This paper concentrates on information at the early stages of the design process. However those do not concern all the information regarding the task available to the designer or the already existing solutions, but the information generated by the designer during the process of problem solving. The creative nature of architectural design and the lack of complete information during the process determine the role and the place of the information system in the design. It is necessary that the information system correspond to the raw form of expression of the designer as it appears at the early design stages. In the traditional creative activity, an image of the architectural form is developed through graphic expression such as sketches, words and sentences. Changing the design environment from analog to digital does not solve the design problems at all. IT creates new possibilities for generating design information thanks to new tools as well as new software. The multiplicity of methods only makes the problem of the amount and accessibility of information more complicated.
keywords Early Design Stages, Hybrid Design Environment
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 2ff9
id 2ff9
authors Ataman, Osman
year 1993
title Knowledge-based Stair Design
source Education and Practice: The Critical Interface [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-02-0] Texas (Texas / USA) 1993, pp. 163-171
summary The application of computer--based technique to support architectural design has often concentrated on matters of representation. Typically, this means computer-aided drafting, and less frequently, computer-aided modeling and visualization. The promise of new computer-based tools to support the process of design has thus far failed to produce any significant tool that has had a widespread impact on the architectural profession. Most developments remain in university based research labs where they are used as teaching instruments in CAD courses or less often in design studios. While there are many reasons for this lack of dissemination, including a reluctance on the part of the architectural profession itself, the primary obstacles deal with difficulties in explicating design knowledge, representing this knowledge in a manner that can be used for design, and providing an intuitive and effective user interface, allowing the designer to easily use the tool for its intended purpose.

This study describes a system that has been developed to address a number of these issues. Based on research findings from the field of Artificial Intelligence which expounds on the need for multiple techniques to represent any complex area of knowledge, we have selected a particular approach that focuses on multiple techniques for design representation. We review this approach in depth by considering its many facets necessary when implementing a knowledge-based system. We then partially test the viability of this approach through a small case study, implementing a knowledge-based system for designing stairs. While this effort only deals with a small part of the total design process, it does explore a number of significant issues facing the development of computer-based design assistants, and suggests several techniques for addressing these concerns.

series ACADIA
last changed 2003/12/20 04:40

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