CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id e825
authors Baybars, Ilker and Eastman, Charles M.
year 1980
title Enumerating Architectural Arrangements by Generating Their Underlying Graphs
source Environment and Planning B. 1980. vol. 7: pp. 289- 310 : ill. includes bibliography. -- See also 'Enumerating Architectural Arrangements: Comment on a Recent Paper by Baybars and Eastman' by C.F. Earl
summary One mathematical correspondence to the partitioning of the plane is a Weighted Plane Graph (WPG). This paper first focuses on the systematic generation of WPGs, in a fashion similar to crystal growth. During this process, the WPGs are represented by adjacency matrices. The authors, thus, present a method for embedding the WPG in the plane, given its adjacency matrix. These graphs can, then, be mapped into floor plans. The common practice here is the use of the `geometric dual' of a WPG. The authors propose, instead, the use of the `Pseudogeometric dual' of a WPG directly to translate (part of) a design brief into alternative spatial layouts. Also discussed is the ability to create courtyards and/or circulation spaces given a specific WPG, without increasing the size of the problem
keywords enumeration, architecture, floor plans, graphs, design process, automation, algorithms, space allocation, CAD
series CADline
last changed 2003/05/17 08:15

_id 7e01
authors Earl Mark
year 2000
title A Prospectus on Computers Throughout the Design Curriculum
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 77-83
summary Computer aided architectural design has spread throughout architecture schools in the United States as if sown upon the wind. Yet, the proliferation alone may not be a good measure of the computer’s impact on the curriculum or signify the true emergence of a digital design culture. The aura of a relatively new technology may blind us from understanding its actual place in the continuum of design education. The promise of the technology is to completely revolutionize design; however, the reality of change is perhaps rooted in an underlying connection to core design methods. This paper considers a transitional phase within a School reviewing its entire curriculum. Lessons may be found in the Bauhaus educational program at the beginning of the 20 th century and its response to the changing shape of society and industry.
keywords Pedagogy, Computer Based Visualization, Spatial and Data Analysis Methods, Interdisciplinary Computer Based Models
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/05/29 04:45

_id 659f
authors Earl, C.F.
year 1981
title Enumerating Architectural Arrangements : Comment on a Recent Paper by Baybars and Eastman
source Environment and Planning B. 1981. vol. 8: pp. 115-118 : ill. includes bibliography. -- See Baybars, I. and Eastman, Charles M. 'Enumerating Architectural Arrangements by Generating Their Underlying Graphs' (Environmental and Planning B, 1980, vol.7, pp. 289-310)
summary Comments and discussion on the method proposed for generating the graphs for enumerating architectural arrangements by Baybars and Eastman (1980)
keywords enumeration, architecture, floor plans, graphs
series CADline
last changed 2003/05/17 08:15

_id ba7b
authors Earl, Chris F.
year 2001
title Symmetry and Equality of Shapes
source J. S. Gero, B. Tversky and T. Purcell (eds), 2001, Visual and Spatial Reasoning in Design, II - Key Centre of Design Computing and Cognition, University of Sydney, Australia
summary Shapes are equal if the spatial relations between their parts areequal. But spatial relations are equal if shapes characterizing the relationare equal. This recursive nature of shape and shape relations isexamined. A repeated shape has distinct parts each equal and in one of aspecified set of spatial relations to another part. A symmetrical shapehas the same spatial relation to each part of some repeated shape.Repeated shapes are simple examples of generated shapes but can showintricate behaviour and indicate the problems of predicting spatialproperties in generative shapes.
series other
last changed 2003/05/02 09:11

_id cf2019_061
id cf2019_061
authors Harrison, Laura ; Iestyn Jowers and Chris Earl
year 2019
title Defining Rules for Kinematic Shapes with Variable Spatial Relations
source Ji-Hyun Lee (Eds.) "Hello, Culture!"  [18th International Conference, CAAD Futures 2019, Proceedings / ISBN 978-89-89453-05-5] Daejeon, Korea, p. 502
summary Designing mechanisms can be a challenging problem, because the underlying kinematics involved are typically not intuitively incorporated into common techniques for design representation. Kinematic shapes and kinematic grammars build on the shape grammar and making grammar formalisms to enable a visually intuitive approach to model and explore mechanisms. With reference to the lower kinematic pairs this paper introduces kinematic shapes. These are connected shapes with parts which have variable spatial relations that account for the relative motion of the parts. The paper considers how such shapes can be defined, the role of elements shared by connected parts, and the motions that result. It also considers how kinematic shape rules can be employed to generate and explore the motion of mechanisms.
keywords Shape grammars, kinematic design, making grammars, boundaries
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2019/07/29 12:18

_id cf2017_043
id cf2017_043
authors Jowers, Iestyn; Earl, Chris; Stiny, George
year 2017
title Shape Computations without Compositions
source Gülen Çagdas, Mine Özkar, Leman F. Gül and Ethem Gürer (Eds.) Future Trajectories of Computation in Design [17th International Conference, CAAD Futures 2017, Proceedings / ISBN 978-975-561-482-3] Istanbul, Turkey, July 12-14, 2017, p. 43.
summary Parametric CAD supports design explorations through generative methods which compose and transform geometric elements. This paper argues that elementary shape computations do not always correspond to valid compositional shape structures. In many design cases generative rules correspond to compositional structures, but for relatively simple shapes and rules it is not always possible to assign a corresponding compositional structure of parts which account for all operations of the computation. This problem is brought into strong relief when design processes generate multiple compositions according to purpose, such as product structure, assembly, manufacture, etc. Is it possible to specify shape computations which generate just these compositions of parts or are there additional emergent shapes and features? In parallel, combining two compositions would require the associated combined computations to yield a valid composition. Simple examples are presented which throw light on the issues in integrating different product descriptions (i.e. compositions) within parametric CAD.
keywords Shape Computation, Composition, Embedding, Parametric CAD
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2017/12/01 13:37

_id b784
authors Krishnamurti, R. and Earl, C.F.
year 1992
title Shape recognition in three dimensions
source Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 19 : 585-603
summary The subshape recognition problem for three-dimensional shapes under linear transformations is considered. The problem is analysed in a series of cases, some that provide a determinate number of solutions and others that have indeterminately many solutions. Procedures for its solution for general shapes are developed. Difficulties posed by strict adherence to rational transformations are examined. As a corollary, an outline of a procedure for determining the symmetries of a shape is presented. Subject
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 24ff
authors Mark, Earl and Aish, Robert
year 2002
title Exploring New Pathways Between Physical and Virtual Models - The Vaults at Fountains Abbey
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 464-470
summary The first generations of computer aided design systems were largely characterized by geometrical modeling software that could, in some applications, generate physical output in the form of computer aided manufacturing. More recently the technology has expanded to include a variety of ways to reverse direction, such that physical objects are captured and translated into computer graphics geometrical models. Laser surveying methods that produce point clouds are among the newer technologies that make this possible. The interpretation of the point clouds and translation of them into a computer graphics three-dimensional model can be subject to various mediation processes. This paper reports on a translation environment that interprets the point clouds so as to not just replicate the physical world, but rather encapsulates it towards the refinement and realization of geometry design objectives. A case study of Fountains Abbey, a Cistercian Abbey in the United Kingdom, serves as the basis for experimentation and control of surface geometry.
series eCAADe
last changed 2002/09/09 17:19

_id ecaade03_337_95_mark
id ecaade03_337_95_mark
authors Mark, Earl
year 2003
title Programming Architectural Geometry and CNC: Advancing A Design Paradigm with Mathematical Abstraction
source Digital Design [21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-1-6] Graz (Austria) 17-20 September 2003, pp. 337-342
summary Direct computer programming of architectural geometry and of CNC tool pathways can control the fabrication of form and the related treatment of material. When the entire form creation and tool path process is taken on as a design problem, there is potentially a closer link between formal design intentions and their physical realization. This paper describes several case studies that engage computer programming as a first stage in an iterative design process coupled with more explicit control over CNC tool paths. It indirectly critiques the design exploration of geometry where there is only user command control over a CAD system and where the specification of CNC pathways is also less explicit. Examples of different strategies are compared in the same educational context.
keywords CNC, geometrical modeling, design, computer programming
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/09/18 07:13

_id ecaade2011_163
id ecaade2011_163
authors Mark, Earl
year 2011
title Visualizing the Unknown in Historical Vernacular Architecture: Making Speculation from Archaeological Fragments Explicit
source RESPECTING FRAGILE PLACES [29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-9-4912070-1-3], University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture (Slovenia) 21-24 September 2011, pp.868-874
wos WOS:000335665500100
summary Computer based visualization tools have the capacity to create convincing reconstructions of historical structures that appear to be authentic and complete but where inferences have been drawn from relatively limited evidence. The challenge is how to make the exciting process of discovery, argument and reasoning more self-evident in the model and also make known the alternative constructions that were plausible but less likely. This paper refers to two computer visualizations developed by the author for world heritage building sites. In both cases, a similar geometrical modeling technique was used. However, in the second case, the 3D modeling approach is developed for juxtaposition with captured dialogs, the evidence used, and the process followed so as to make level of speculation more explicit.
keywords Authentication; Three-Dimensional Digital Reconstruction; Archaeology; Parametric Modeling; Decision Tree
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ecaade2015_172
id ecaade2015_172
authors Mark, Earl and Zita Ultmann
year 2015
title Environmental Footprint Design Tool - Exchanging GIS and CAD Data in Real Time
source Martens, B, Wurzer, G, Grasl T, Lorenz, WE and Schaffranek, R (eds.), Real Time - Proceedings of the 33rd eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 16-18 September 2015, pp. 217-223
wos WOS:000372317300023
summary The pairing of CAD and GIS data creates an opportunity to connect an architectural design process more immediately with its environmental constraints. Yet the GIS data may be too overwhelmingly complex to be fully used in CAD without computer-assisted methods of highlighting relevant information. This paper reports on the implementation of an integrated environment for three-dimensional design geometrical modeling and obtaining environmental impact feedback. The project focused on enhancements to the data exchange and on the development of a related set of tools. While the technologies of CAD and GIS may rely on separate representational models,in combination they can provide a more complete view of the built and natural environment. The challenge in integration is that of bridging analytical methods and database formats used in the two technologies. Our approach is rooted in part in constraint based design methods well established in CAD (e.g., Sketchpad, Generative Components, CATIA). Within such CAD systems geometrical transformations may be intentionally constrained to help enforce some previously made design decisions. Although this current implementation modestly relates to geometrical constraints, the use of probabilistic risk values is more central to its methodology.
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ijac201614401
id ijac201614401
authors Mark, Earl and Zita Ultmann
year 2016
title Environmental footprint design tool: Exchanging geographical information system and computer-aided design data in real time
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 14 - no. 4, 307-321
summary The pairing of computer-aided design and geographical information system data creates an opportunity to connect an architectural design process with a robust analysis of its environmental constraints. Yet, the geographical information system data may be too overwhelmingly complex to be fully used in computer-aided design without computer-assisted methods of filtering relevant information. This article reports on the implementation of an integrated environment for three-dimensional computer-aided design and environmental impact. The project focused on a two-way data exchange between geographical information system and computer-aided design in building design. While the two different technologies may rely on separate representational models, in combination they can provide a more complete view of the natural and built environment. The challenge in integration is that of bridging the differences in analytical methods and database formats. Our approach is rooted in part in constraint-based design methods, well established in computer-aided design (e.g. Sketchpad, Generative Components, and computer-aided three-dimensional interactive application). Within such computer-aided design systems, geometrical transformations may be intentionally constrained to help enforce a set of design determinants. Although this current implementation modestly relates to geometrical constraints, the use of probabilistic risk values is more central to its methodology.
keywords Boolean analysis, area overlay analysis, attribute classification, data transition using .csv, vectorization, risk analysis, site planning
series journal
last changed 2016/12/09 09:52

_id 2bcc
authors Mark, Earl
year 1989
title A Contrast in Pedagogy: The M.l.T. Versus Harvard Approach to Computer Aided Design
source CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4] Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989, pp. 5.1.1-5.1.9
summary This is a period of relative detente among academics in the field of computers and architecture, advocating the use of computers in a design studio is today received more politely than, as in the past, when it was received like a declaration of war. Among some research groups at M.I.T. and Harvard to first engage In this field, the approaches were so dissimilar to one another that they could be considered as constituting separate schools of thought. Over time, however, a number of paths have led to a similar direction, if not agreement among principal investigators. The lack of sharply competing ideologies today may be a little less exciting: however, the enormous growth of the academic discipline seems now to allow for a fruitful exchange of ideas between positions that no longer seem mutually exclusive.

Two views are important, among others, at M.I.T. and Harvard. The classic M.I.T. view looks upon the AI Lab as a microcosm for examining how architects think. Underlying this view is the position of 'lets examine the way architects think about design and build tools which can reflect that process'. Another point of view, as expressed at Harvard, is speculative on what architects seem to do in design practice and education, rather than speculative on the nature of thinking per se. Both views seem ultimately to be concerned with representing architectural design knowledge within computers. And in the rob of computers as a design medium. This paper examines how the M.I.T. view and the Harvard view have superficially been associated with separate research directions. As these contrasting points of view incorporate many common themes. The author finds that it may be possible to take an eclectic position in teaching computer aided design.

keywords Constraints, Shape Grammars, Representational World, Emergent Form. Design Thinking, Design Habit
series eCAADe
more http://palladio.arch.Virginia.EDU/~arch-con/exhibit/
last changed 1998/08/24 09:48

_id c903
authors Mark, Earl
year 1990
title Case Studies in Moviemaking and Computer-Aided Design
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 393-412
summary A movie which is developed from site location video, sync sound, and computer graphics animation can provide a highly convincing simulation of reality. A movie that conveys a sense of the space, materials and juxtaposition of objects of a proposed architectural design provides a special kind of realism, where the representation may be of a proposed building that exists only within the mind of an architect. For an experienced architect, however, the movie may not provide a good surrogate experience for what it feels like to actually be within the architectural space. In these case studies, a few projects that combine moviemaking and computer-aided design technologies are examined. These projects were completed using a combination of resources at the MIT School of Architecture and Planning and the Harvard Graduate School of Design. The integrated use of these media is presented as conceptualized with the Electronic Design Studio, a research project that has been supported over the past five years by Project Athena at MIT. The impact of movies and computer-aided design on the perception of architectural space is also reported- based on a pilot study of twenty architectural students.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 2004_480
id 2004_480
authors Mark, Earl
year 2004
title Inter-related Scaled Models of the Built and Natural Environment: Merging CAD with Satellite Image Viewing
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 480-488
summary By inter-relating CAD and satellite image earth-viewing tools at building specific, city-wide and larger global scales, a wider framework of observation yields insight into the connectedness between built environments and tracking influences between them. The technologies for visualization and analysis at distinct scales are moving towards greater integration. This project demonstrates integration through three case studies, each at a different scale of application, and considers performance issues and implications for more general use. More specifically, CAD, GIS and now Satellite Image Based Earth Viewing systems all have found separate application within Architecture, Urban Planning and Strategic Regional Analysis This paper reports on an effort to test the tighter coupling of these systems on three projects, each at a different scale: (1) urban and regional scale, (2) continental scale, and (3) hemispheric analysis scale.
keywords CAD, Earth Viewer, Digital Terrain Model, Comprehensive Plan, Architectural Review Board, Computer Animation
series eCAADe
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

_id 2006_574
id 2006_574
authors Mark, Earl
year 2006
title Animating the Design Studio
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 574-581
summary Computer animation is based on software that is optimized to show transformation or change. For the animator, such change may represent the movement of people, objects or light, or a series of events comprising a short story. Studying change is also a designer’s interest in objects made to transform or respond to varied environmental or phenomenal conditions. In addition, the study of change can be focused on the process of design itself, a series of steps taken in the making of a geometrical model for a building project. In this last sense of change, animation technology offers a means to retain and rework the distinct history of how one “upstream” or early design decision impacts the evolution of a design as it is refined “downstream”. Moreover, when customized through a macro program, animation technology can more easily allow for early “upstream” design decisions to be revisited and modified with minimal disruption to “downstream” moves that had initially followed. That is, a designer can revise a geometrical modeling decision made at an earlier moment in a design process without having to completely redo other dependent changes to the model that had previously followed that moment. This paper reports on how animation software, rather than more typical CAD software, was harnessed to facilitate a design studio Macro programming an animation system exploited its core technology to provide access to a more process based approach to modeling.
keywords Computer Animation; Design Decision Making; Key Frames; Macro Level Programming; Geometrical Modeling; Design Studio
series eCAADe
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id ecaade2007_189
id ecaade2007_189
authors Mark, Earl
year 2007
title Simulating Dynamic Forces in Design with Special Effects Tools
source Predicting the Future [25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-6-5] Frankfurt am Main (Germany) 26-29 September 2007, pp. 219-226
summary Special effects technology can facilitate dynamic sketching in the early stage of a design project without needing time-consuming effort. This form of sketching was tested in a design studio taught by the author. The study of dynamic materials and oceanfront site conditions set the stage at the beginning of a design process for a more comprehensive analysis later on. On the one hand, the risk of using special effects tools is that the visual look can seem convincing, but the apparent result is based upon an overly simplified set of assumptions. On the other hand, the use of such technology can be very stimulating to the design imagination without requiring complex analysis that may bog down the free flow of ideas. Once a greater commitment is made to a particular design proposal, more complete physical analysis and modeling can be undertaken to help avoid the risk of false first impressions. In the studio, cloth simulation was used to develop the design of tension membrane structures (tents) that retracted and unfurled in a series of complex movements. Fluid dynamics effects were used in the design and development of related boat dock facilities. A wind-tunnel simulation tool was used to explore the performance of the tension-membrane fabrics under varied wind loads. The visualization techniques were complemented by ¼ to ½ scale assembled components created by rapid prototyping. The use of an actual wind-tunnel further tested the prototypes in some cases. On the whole, quickly implemented special effects were the starting point for reacting to and developing some initial design concepts and served as the basis for more complete physical modeling of prototypes later on. Using animation as a design method is well established in other work (Hirschberg 06). Animation is also a helpful way to work out the step by step assembly of complex architectural form (Mark 95). The special effects tools permit a larger range of initial design alternatives to be initially considered that are subsequently narrowed down by physically based prototypes that are more predictive of real world performance.
keywords Cloth simulation, fluid dynamics effects, design sketching, special effects, tension membrane fabrics
series eCAADe
last changed 2007/09/16 15:55

_id ecaade2008_068
id ecaade2008_068
authors Mark, Earl
year 2008
title Animated Parametric Rapid Prototyping
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 897-904
summary This paper reports on the use of animation to enhance the observable range of choices in parametric rapid prototyping. Animation extends parametric rapid prototyping in three ways. First, it is used to reveal dynamically a set of possible forms from which to pick out one that may best serve a particular design project. That is, by animating the parameters that drive the geometrical model, we can visualize the continuum of alternatives that lie between specific key-framed settings of an architectural form. Second, animation can be used to pre-visualize a series of geometrical constructions for transforming a relatively raw three-dimensional form into one that satisfies the demands of a completed architectural project. Third, animation can be used to pre-visualize transformations of a given structure based on parameters set to adapt to varied conditions. In each case study, physical models were assembled through CNC fabrication.
keywords animation, scripting, parametric, rapid prototyping, design studio
series eCAADe
last changed 2008/09/09 13:55

_id ecaade2010_104
id ecaade2010_104
authors Mark, Earl
year 2010
title Optimizing Solar Insolation in Transformable Fabric Architecture: A parametric search design process
source FUTURE CITIES [28th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-9-6] ETH Zurich (Switzerland) 15-18 September 2010, pp.461-470
wos WOS:000340629400050
summary A design studio and a parallel research project focused on transformable fabric architecture. To facilitate a part of this work, computer based shape generation tools were used to optimize the placement of thin-film photovoltaic cells onto a transformable roof structure. In addition, the tension membrane fabric is rigged in a way that is similar to a sailing boat. The fabric is set into position by winches and cables. The winches are hand-operated so as to lower the overall energy cost. The initial computer models proceeded concurrently with the mockup of small-scale physical prototypes. In addition, the author used an open source programming language to implement a particle spring real time simulation of the fabric shapes. The simulation included a three-dimensional graphical representation of solar insolation and helped to further determine the physical geometry of the project. One of the goals was to evaluate whether larger transformations to the structure as a whole or smaller movements in the fabric would help to optimize the solar insolation benefits. As the examination of potential forms narrowed down to classical saddle shapes, the practical details of rigging the fabric imposed further limitations on its transformable nature. This paper is focused on how modeling with ad hoc tools and especially real-time computer simulation influenced the direction of the work.
keywords Transformable fabric architecture; Parametric design; Thin-film photovoltaic cells; Animation; Simulation
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ecaade2008_069
id ecaade2008_069
authors Mark, Earl; Gross, Mark; Goldschmidt , Gabriela
year 2008
title A Perspective on Computer Aided Design after Four Decades
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 169-176
summary We offer a summary view of competing theories that have guided and inspired the development of computer aided design over the past forty years with attention to how they support design processes. We identify eight distinct approaches to design. We then speculate on what a collective view of these schools posits with respect of the next generation of tools. This perspective reflects our view as teachers and researchers at institutions with different curricula, a first-hand role in the development of computer aided design technology, and specialization in design theory and methods.
keywords Design theory and methods, computer aided design software, constraints, parametric variation
series eCAADe
last changed 2008/09/09 13:55

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