CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id b378
authors Ervin, S.M.
year 1995
title New GIS Resources for Landscape Architects
source Landscape Architecture
summary This article discusses and illustrates the convergence of 'GIS' and 'CAD' technologies, especially from the point of view of landscape architecture and planning.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id a036
authors Ervin, Stephen and Westort, Caroline
year 1995
title Procedural Terrain: A Virtual Bulldozer
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 257-265
summary We describe a system for procedural landform design, which uses the simple metaphor of a two-dimensional profile or ăbladeŰ, swept along a three-dimensional trajectory, or ăpathŰ, leaving behind a modeled surface in its wake. This ăpathŰ and ăbladeŰ system can mimic a common bulldozer ˝ a simple rectangular blade moved along a path constrained to straight lined and large radius curves ˝ as well as more fanciful landform designs ˝ a blade of continually changing profile swept along an exponential spiral path, for instance. Our prototype ăbulldozerŰ (implemented in AutoLisp) operates in a field of procedurally defined landform ăprimitivesŰ to create a virtual surface, and uses a standard rectangular mesh for displaying the resultant landform.
keywords Digital Terrain Model, Procedural Model, Landscape Design, Landform
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/08/03 15:16

_id 218a
authors Ervin, Stephen M.
year 1991
title Intra-Medium and Inter-Media Constraints
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures Ĺ91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] ZŘrich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 365-380
summary Designers work with multiple representations in a variety of media to express and explore different kinds of knowledge. The advantages of multi-media in design are well- known, and exemplified by the current interest in 'hyper-media' approaches to knowledge exploration. A principal activity in working between views in one medium (e.g. plan, section and perspective drawings), or between different representations (diagrams, maps, graphs, pictures, e.g.) is extrapolating decisions made in one view or medium over to others, so that some consistency is maintained, and implications can be explored. The former kind of consistency maintenance (intra-medium) is beginning to be well understood techniques for constraint expression., satisfaction and propagation are starting to appear in 'smart CAD' systems. The latter kind of consistency maintenance inter-media.) is different, less well understood, and will require new mechanisms for constraint management and exploration. Experiments, hypotheses, and solutions in this direction will be central to any effort that seeks to explain, emulate or assist the integrative, synthetic reasoning that characterizes environmental design and planning. This paper examines some of the characteristics and advantages of intra and inter-media constraint exploration, describes a prototype "designers workstation" and some experiments in the context of landscape planning and design, and lays out some directions for development of these ideas in future computer aided design systems.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/07 10:03

_id 2bff
authors Ervin, Stephen M., Gross, Mark D. and Fleisher, Aaron
year 1988
title CM2 : A Constraint Based Design Environment
source 25 p. : ill. 1988. includes bibliography
summary This report describes CM2, a program on the Macintosh computer for constraint-based design exploration and development. The architecture of the kernel for object- oriented constraint management is described, followed by three illustrated examples of applications built around the kernel. A concluding section lists a number of questions raised to date by the development of CM2 and its applications. Appendix 1 provides a `pseudo-code' listing of the major modules of the constraint manager
keywords architecture, constraints, design, systems
series CADline
last changed 2002/09/05 13:01

_id 4086
authors Ervin, Stephen M.
year 1988
title Computer-Aided Diagramming and the `Generator-Test' Cycle
source 1988. 22 p.: ill. includes bibliography
summary Simon's `generator-test' model is both a metaphor and a literal prescription for the organization of computer systems for designing. In most approaches to computer-aided design, one side of the cycle - generating or testing - is reserved to the human designer, the other side delegated to the computer. A more comfortable and comprehensive approach is to support switching these roles between designer and computer. This approach underlies a prototype system for computer-aided diagramming, the CBD (Constraint-Based Diagrammer). Diagramming is an important design activity, especially in preliminary design, as diagrams play a pivotal role between graphic and symbolic knowledge. Diagrams as a medium of knowledge representation and as means of inference have an ambivalent status in the generator-test model; they may serve either purpose. Examination of CBD sheds some light on Simon's model and on the requirements for sharing generating and testing with computational design tools
keywords problem solving, CAD, constraints, evaluation, synthesis
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 0f73
authors Ervin, Stephen M.
year 1990
title Designing with Diagrams: A Role for Computing in Design Education and Exploration
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures Ĺ89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 107-122
summary Environmental designers, design educators and design students using computers are a constituency with a set of requirements for database structure and flexibility, for knowledge representation and inference mechanisms, and for both graphical and non-graphical operations, that are now articulatable and to-date largely unmet. This is especially so in the area called 'preliminary' or 'schematic' design, where our requirements are related to, but different from, those of our colleagues in mechanical and electrical engineering, whose needs have dominated the notable developments in this area. One manifestation of these needs is in the peculiar form of graphics called diagrams , and the ways in which environmental designers (architects, landscape architects., urban designers) use them. Our diagrams are both similar to and different from structural, circuit, or logical diagrams in important ways. These similarities and differences yield basic insights into designing and design knowledge, and provide guidance for some necessary steps in the development of the next generation of CAD systems. Diagrams as a form of knowledge representation have received little scrutiny in the literature of graphic representation and computer graphics. In the following sections I present an overview of the theoretical basis for distinguishing and using diagrams; examine some of the computational requirements for a system of computer-aided diagramming; describe a prototype implementation called CBD (Constraint Based Diagrammer) and illustrate one example of its use; and speculate on the implications and potential applications of these ideas in computer-aided design education.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 4104
authors Ervin, Stephen McTee
year 1989
title The structure and function of diagrams in environmental design :a computational inquiry
source Massachusetts Institute of Technology
summary The design process often begins with a graphical description of the proposed device or system and sketching is the physical expression of the design engineer's thinking process. Computer Aided Design is a technique in which man and machine are blended into a problem solving team, intimately coupling the best characteristics of each. Solid modelling is developed to act as the common medium between man and the computer. At present it is achieved mainly by designing with volumes and hence does not leave much room for sketching input, the traditional physical expression of the thinking process of the design engineer. This thesis describes a method of accepting isometric free hand sketching as the input to a solid model. The design engineer is allowed to make a sketch on top of a digitizer indicating (i) visible lines; (ii) hidden lines; (iii) construction lines; (iv) centre lines; (v) erased lines; and (vi) redundant lines as the input. The computer then processes this sketch by identifying the line segments, fitting the best possible lines, removing the erased lines, ignoring the redundant lines and finally merging the hidden lines and visible lines to form the lines in the solid in an interactive manner. The program then uses these lines and the information about the three dimensional origin of the object and produces three dimensional information such as the faces, loops, holes, rings, edges and vertices which are sufficient to build a solid model. This is achieved in the following manner. The points in the sketch are first written into a file. The computer than reads this file, breaks the group of points into sub-groups belonging to individual line segments, fits the best lines and identify the vertices in two dimensions. These improved lines in two dimensions are then merged to form the lines and vertices in the solid. These lines are then used together with the three dimensional origin (or any other point) to produce the wireframe model in three dimensions. The loops in the wireframe models are then identified and surface equations are fitted to these loops. Finally all the necessary inputs to build a B-rep solid model are produced.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id e60d
authors Gross, Mark D., Ervin, Stephen M. and Anderson, James (et al)
year 1987
title Designing with Constraints
source John Wiley & Sons, 1987. pp. 53-83. includes bibliography
summary The constraint model of designing provides a means of demonstrating and exploring the computability of design. Designing is understood as a process of incrementally defining an initially ill-defined question, and concurrently proposing and testing possible answers. That is, not finding THE solution to A problem, but finding A solution to THE problem. Articulating (including inventing and modifying) the question, and exploring possible alternative answers (or designs), are two fundamental activities which can be supported by computers and the constraint model. The authors discuss the use of constraints to explicate design questions, circumscribe feasible regions and specify proposed solutions, and examine the processes of search and scrutiny within a region. Naming, solving history-keeping, block-structuring, identifying and resolving conflicts are among tasks identified that can be rendered to a computer. Questions of knowledge representation and inference making with ambiguity and imprecision are discussed. Examples of the application of the constraint model to design problems in architecture and site planning are illustrated by brief scenarios
keywords constraints, design process, search, knowledge
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

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