CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 18 of 18

_id ijac20053201
id ijac20053201
authors Aitcheson, Robert; Friedman, Jonathan; Seebohm, Thomas
year 2005
title 3-Axis CNC Milling in Architectural Design
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 3 - no. 2, 161-180
summary Physical scale models still have a role in architectural design. 3-axis CNC milling provides one way of making scale models both for study purposes and for presentation in durable materials such as wood. We present some types of scale models, the methods for creating them and the place in the design process that scale models occupy. We provide an overview of CNC milling procedures and issues and we describe the process of how one can creatively develop appropriate methods for milling different types of scale models and materials. Two case studies are presented with which we hope to convey not only the range of possible models that can be machined but also the way one creatively explores to arrive at appropriate milling strategies. Where apposite, we compare 3-axis CNC milling to newer technologies used for rapid prototyping but rapid prototyping is not a primary focus.
series journal
last changed 2007/03/04 06:08

_id sigradi2013_117
id sigradi2013_117
authors Alves Veloso, Pedro L.; Anja Pratschke
year 2013
title Uma Arqueologia de Diagramas Cibernéticos [An Archaeology of Cybernetic Diagrams]
source SIGraDi 2013 [Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-956-7051-86-1] Chile - Valparaíso 20 - 22 November 2013, pp. 353 - 356
summary This paper investigates the use of explicit structures of information in architectural design. Particularly, it approaches the use of diagrams related to cybernetics and information theory in experimental practices in the 1960’s and 1970’s. It analyses the diagram of cybernetic control proposed by the cybernetician Gordon Pask for the Fun Palace, the diagrams produced by the utopian architect Yona Friedman in the conceptual description of the Flatwriter program and Christopher Alexander’s diagrams and his theories of Synthesis of Form and Pattern Language. Finally it establishes a brief parallel between current domestication and use of dataflow programming with the cybernetic diagrams, highlighting differences in their complexity approach.
keywords Dataflow diagrams; Cybernetics; Complexity
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 5094
id 5094
authors d’Estrée Sterk, Tristan
year 2006
title Responsive Architecture: User-centered Interactions within the Hybridized Model of Control
source Proceedings of the GAME, SET, MATCH II, conference at the Technical University of Delft, Netherlands, 29 March - 1 April 2006, pp. 494-501
summary In the September 1969 issue of Architectural Design, Andrew Rabeneck wrote about the use of cybernetic devices within an automated architecture. He hypothesized that the concept of ‘flexibility’ was introduced to architecture because existing building technologies were inherently inflexible. He argued that architects should use cybernetic technologies to produce completely new types of increasingly flexible, user-centred, buildings.

Three years later, Yona Friedman wrote about the changing relationship between clients and architects. He said that a new design methodology was needed because architects could not assess the future spatial needs of building users accurately enough. Proposing a new model, he split architectural design in two complementary halves, hardware design and software design, reasoning that this would give users the opportunity to adapt built spaces to suit their needs.

Both of these ideas describe approaches to the production of an architecture that can change shape and configuration in response to changing patterns of use. Rabeneck’s approach illustrates the benefit of predictive technologies and automation, while Friedman’s model illustrates the benefit of user intervention and direct manipulation. This paper discusses developments in the field of responsive architecture in relation to two opposing user-centred interaction methodologies. It proposes methods for controlling responsive buildings and suggests that human computer interaction methodologies need to be re-thought and extended when applied within intelligent, responsive, architectures.

keywords Responsive architecture, User-centred design, HCI, Intelligent buildings
series other
type normal paper
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last changed 2017/04/10 11:08

_id ddss9214
id ddss9214
authors Friedman, A.
year 1993
title A decision-making process for choice of a flexible internal partition option in multi-unit housing using decision theory techniques
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary Recent demographic changes have increased the heterogeneity of user groups in the North American housing market. Smaller households (e.g. elderly, single parent) have non-traditional spatial requirements that cannot be accommodated within the conventional house layout. This has created renewed interest in Demountable/Flexible internal partition systems. However, the process by which designers decide which project or user groups are most suited for the use of these systems is quite often complex, non-linear, uncertain and dynamic, since the decisions involve natural processes and human values that are apparently random. The anonymity of users when mass housing projects are conceptualized, and the uncertainty as to the alternative to be selected by the user, given his/her constantly changing needs, are some contributing factors to this effect. Decision Theory techniques, not commonly used by architects, can facilitate the decision-making process through a systematic evaluation of alternatives by means of quantitative methods in order to reduce uncertainty in probabilistic events or in cases when data is insufficient. The author used Decision Theory in the selection of flexible partition systems. The study involved a multi-unit, privately initiated housing project in Montreal, Canada, where real site conditions and costs were used. In this paper, the author outlines the fundamentals of Decision Theory and demonstrates the use of Expected Monetary Value and Weighted Objective Analysis methods and their outcomes in the design of a Montreal housing project. The study showed that Decision Theory can be used as an effective tool in housing design once the designer knows how to collect basic data.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 3cd1
authors Friedman, Asaf
year 2000
title Language and Movement in CAD Application
source CAADRIA 2000 [Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 981-04-2491-4] Singapore 18-19 May 2000, pp. 423-432
summary The paper attempts to explain some of the fundamental concepts as they relate to the experience of movement in space and the representation of walking-through or fly-over in architectural space. My goal is towards improving existing movement-in-architectural-space representation tolls. This study involves current research in cognitive science, in the domain of vision and spatial reasoning, in which we attempt to built a rudimentary model of the apparatus through which people experience space, and, in particular, architectural space. These conceptions necessitated the analysis of language. From the studies we can draw up a small number of critical qualities that have to be present in an improved version of a new movement-in-space representation tool. As opposed to existing computational tools representing movement in space navigation, the tool we build can offer a more immersive interactive experience for evaluating design solution alternatives and predicting moving-in-space experience.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2000/08/07 07:11

_id acadia14projects_231
id acadia14projects_231
authors Friedman, Jared; Hosny, Ahmed; Lee, Amanda
year 2014
title Robotic Bead Rolling
source ACADIA 14: Design Agency [Projects of the 34th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 9789126724478]Los Angeles 23-25 October, 2014), pp. 231-234
summary The work presented provides an overview of the design to production workflow that has been developed, as well as sample panels that have been produced using the tools developed by the researchers.
keywords Robotics, Bead Rolling, Finite Element Analysis, Metal, Tooling, Digital Workflow, Robotics and Autonomous Design Systems
series ACADIA
type Student's Research Projects
last changed 2014/09/29 05:57

_id acadia14projects_223
id acadia14projects_223
authors Friedman, Jared; Kim, Heamin; Mesa, Olga
year 2014
title Woven Clay
source ACADIA 14: Design Agency [Projects of the 34th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 9789126724478]Los Angeles 23-25 October, 2014), pp. 223-226
summary The accompanying poster outlines the research behind a robotic clay deposition technique that weaves clay coils in order to build up a surface. The façade panels produced by the research team act as a proxy for potential applications of the fabrication technique.
keywords Robotics, Ceramics, Additive Manufacturing, 3D Printing, Weaving, Craft in a Digital Age
series ACADIA
type Student's Research Projects
last changed 2014/09/29 05:57

_id d2ba
authors Friedman, S. A.
year 1995
title Urban visualization and simulation. Thesis
source M. Arch. [UCLA], 1995
summary Contributed by Susan Pietsch (
keywords 3D City Modeling, Development Control, Design Control
series other
last changed 2001/06/04 18:27

_id c844
authors Friedman, Yona
year 1971
title The Flatwriter : Choice By Computer
source Progressive Architecture. 1971. vol. 3: [4] p. : ill
summary Developing his theories of the flexible city, the author devised the Flatwriter as a way to involve future inhabitants in planning their own apartments
keywords CAD, architecture, applications, floor plans
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id ea7a
authors Gero, J.S.
year 2000
title Research methods for design science research: Computational and cognitive approaches
source D. Durling and K. Friedman (Eds.), Doctoral Education in Design, Staffordshire University Press, Stoke-on-Trent, pp.143-162
summary Reasoning by analogy, applied into designing, is investigated from the perspective of situated cognition. This cognitive paradigm emphasizes the importance of the environment in which a particular cognitive task is performed. The paper describes a computational system for situated analogy in designing
keywords Analogy, Situated Cognition
series other
last changed 2003/04/06 07:10

_id sigradi2006_e028c
id sigradi2006_e028c
authors Griffith, Kenfield; Sass, Larry and Michaud, Dennis
year 2006
title A strategy for complex-curved building design:Design structure with Bi-lateral contouring as integrally connected ribs
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 465-469
summary Shapes in designs created by architects such as Gehry Partners (Shelden, 2002), Foster and Partners, and Kohn Peterson and Fox rely on computational processes for rationalizing complex geometry for building construction. Rationalization is the reduction of a complete geometric shape into discrete components. Unfortunately, for many architects the rationalization is limited reducing solid models to surfaces or data on spread sheets for contractors to follow. Rationalized models produced by the firms listed above do not offer strategies for construction or digital fabrication. For the physical production of CAD description an alternative to the rationalized description is needed. This paper examines the coupling of digital rationalization and digital fabrication with physical mockups (Rich, 1989). Our aim is to explore complex relationships found in early and mid stage design phases when digital fabrication is used to produce design outcomes. Results of our investigation will aid architects and engineers in addressing the complications found in the translation of design models embedded with precision to constructible geometries. We present an algorithmically based approach to design rationalization that supports physical production as well as surface production of desktop models. Our approach is an alternative to conventional rapid prototyping that builds objects by assembly of laterally sliced contours from a solid model. We explored an improved product description for rapid manufacture as bilateral contouring for structure and panelling for strength (Kolarevic, 2003). Infrastructure typically found within aerospace, automotive, and shipbuilding industries, bilateral contouring is an organized matrix of horizontal and vertical interlocking ribs evenly distributed along a surface. These structures are monocoque and semi-monocoque assemblies composed of structural ribs and skinning attached by rivets and adhesives. Alternative, bi-lateral contouring discussed is an interlocking matrix of plywood strips having integral joinery for assembly. Unlike traditional methods of building representations through malleable materials for creating tangible objects (Friedman, 2002), this approach constructs with the implication for building life-size solutions. Three algorithms are presented as examples of rationalized design production with physical results. The first algorithm [Figure 1] deconstructs an initial 2D curved form into ribbed slices to be assembled through integral connections constructed as part of the rib solution. The second algorithm [Figure 2] deconstructs curved forms of greater complexity. The algorithm walks along the surface extracting surface information along horizontal and vertical axes saving surface information resulting in a ribbed structure of slight double curvature. The final algorithm [Figure 3] is expressed as plug-in software for Rhino that deconstructs a design to components for assembly as rib structures. The plug-in also translates geometries to a flatten position for 2D fabrication. The software demonstrates the full scope of the research exploration. Studies published by Dodgson argued that innovation technology (IvT) (Dodgson, Gann, Salter, 2004) helped in solving projects like the Guggenheim in Bilbao, the leaning Tower of Pisa in Italy, and the Millennium Bridge in London. Similarly, the method discussed in this paper will aid in solving physical production problems with complex building forms. References Bentley, P.J. (Ed.). Evolutionary Design by Computers. Morgan Kaufman Publishers Inc. San Francisco, CA, 1-73 Celani, G, (2004) “From simple to complex: using AutoCAD to build generative design systems” in: L. Caldas and J. Duarte (org.) Implementations issues in generative design systems. First Intl. Conference on Design Computing and Cognition, July 2004 Dodgson M, Gann D.M., Salter A, (2004), “Impact of Innovation Technology on Engineering Problem Solving: Lessons from High Profile Public Projects,” Industrial Dynamics, Innovation and Development, 2004 Dristas, (2004) “Design Operators.” Thesis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2004 Friedman, M, (2002), Gehry Talks: Architecture + Practice, Universe Publishing, New York, NY, 2002 Kolarevic, B, (2003), Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, Spon Press, London, UK, 2003 Opas J, Bochnick H, Tuomi J, (1994), “Manufacturability Analysis as a Part of CAD/CAM Integration”, Intelligent Systems in Design and Manufacturing, 261-292 Rudolph S, Alber R, (2002), “An Evolutionary Approach to the Inverse Problem in Rule-Based Design Representations”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 329-350 Rich M, (1989), Digital Mockup, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, VA, 1989 Schön, D., The Reflective Practitioner: How Professional Think in Action. Basic Books. 1983 Shelden, D, (2003), “Digital Surface Representation and the Constructability of Gehry’s Architecture.” Diss. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2003 Smithers T, Conkie A, Doheny J, Logan B, Millington K, (1989), “Design as Intelligent Behaviour: An AI in Design Thesis Programme”, Artificial Intelligence in Design, 293-334 Smithers T, (2002), “Synthesis in Designing”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 3-24 Stiny, G, (1977), “Ice-ray: a note on the generation of Chinese lattice designs” Environmental and Planning B, volume 4, pp. 89-98
keywords Digital fabrication; bilateral contouring; integral connection; complex-curve
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id e6ba
authors Jepson, W. and Friedman, S.
year 1998
title It's a Bird, It's a Plane, It's a Supersystem
source Planning v.64(no.7), pp. 4-7
summary Contributed by Susan Pietsch (
keywords 3D City Modeling, Development Control, Design Control
series other
last changed 2001/06/04 18:38

_id 5c5f
authors Jepson, W., Liggett, R. and Friedman, S.
year 1995
title An environment for real-time urban visualization
source Proceedings of the Symposium on Interactive 3D Gra hics, Monterey, CA
summary Drawing from technologies developed for military flight simulation and virtual reality, a system for efficiently modeling and simulating urban environments has been implemented at UCLA. This system combines relatively simple 3-dimensional models (from a traditional CAD standpoint) with aerial photographs and street level video to create a realistic (down to plants, street signs and the graffiti on the walls) model of an urban neighborhood which can then be used for interactive fly and walk-through demonstrations.The Urban Simulator project is more than just the simulation software. It is a methodology which integrates existing systems such as CAD and GIS with visual simulation to facilitate the modeling, display, and evaluation of alternative proposed environments. It can be used to visualize neighborhoods as they currently exist and how they might appear after built intervention occurs. Or, the system can be used to simulate entirely new development.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 55e0
authors Liggett, R, Friedman, S, and Jepson, W.
year 1995
title Interactive Design/Decision Making in a Virtual Urban World: Visual Simulation and GIS
source Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual ESRI User Conference. Palm Springs, CA, (May)
summary Researchers at UCLA have developed an Urban Simulator which links virtual reality technology with traditional two-dimensional Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and databases. This paper discusses the data structure and interface requirements necessary to integrate a real-time three-dimensional visual simulation system with a GIS system. Potential uses of the integrated system are illustrated with a set of current projects in the Los Angeles area.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id sigradi2010_427
id sigradi2010_427
authors Miyasaka, Elza Luli; Pratschke Anja
year 2010
title Yona Friedman: A produção de uma arquitetura baseada no processo de comunicação e no design de repertório [Yona Friedman: the production of an architecture based on the communication process of the design repertoire]
source SIGraDi 2010_Proceedings of the 14th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, pp. Bogotá, Colombia, November 17-19, 2010, pp. 427-429
summary This article analyzes the design process of Yona Friedman. Friedman was a conceptual creator of mega - structures that were multiplied in several layers of cities in which users were responsible for choosing designs while being informed of the consequences. They used a computer containing the design options and described their way of life, which was translated into the use of environments. According to the spaces chosen from this list, the user could reconfigure the space. Although, considering that the city was an environment, the space could be selected while watching a computer simulation. Users’ choices depended on absolutely parameterized rules.
keywords Yona Friedman, mega - structures, design process
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id ecaadesigradi2019_038
id ecaadesigradi2019_038
authors Narahara, Taro
year 2019
title Megastructures: Past, Present, and Future
source Sousa, JP, Xavier, JP and Castro Henriques, G (eds.), Architecture in the Age of the 4th Industrial Revolution - Proceedings of the 37th eCAADe and 23rd SIGraDi Conference - Volume 2, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal, 11-13 September 2019, pp. 637-644
summary During the '60s, theorists and architects such as Yona Friedman proposed visions for megastructures where residents could freely come and build their units with individual variations. However, there were no technological means to build such structures, and these visions appeared to be unrealistic at the time. This paper discusses how those visions could be re-envisioned through the use of anticipated new technologies and speculates about possible structures and their impacts on our living.
keywords Metabolism; modular systems; space elevators
series eCAADeSIGraDi
last changed 2019/08/26 20:27

_id ecaade2013_211
id ecaade2013_211
authors Vardouli, Theodora
year 2013
title Performed by and Performative for
source Stouffs, Rudi and Sariyildiz, Sevil (eds.), Computation and Performance – Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference – Volume 1, Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, 18-20 September 2013, pp. 243-252
summary In this paper I identify the “infrastructure model” as the predominant approach to computationally mediated participatory design from the 1960s until the present, and discuss its history, conceptual underpinnings, and limitations. As case studies for this analysis, I use the French-based architect Yona Friedman’s and the MIT Architecture Machine Group’s 1970s proposals for participatory design computational systems. I employ the polysemic notion of “performance” to interrogate the two systems in three levels: What rationale supports the authors’ claims that in order for design to well perform for its future users, it should be performed by them? What computational models are developed to enable users to perform their own designs? How can performance, as an intuitive, improvisational process, be used to criticize the traditional models of computation in design participation and devise new computational agendas?
wos WOS:000340635300025
keywords Participatory architecture; computer-aided participatory design; infrastructure model; improvisational performance; perceptual computation.
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ijac201412402
id ijac201412402
authors Veloso, Pedro L. A.
year 2014
title Cybernetic diagrams: design strategies for an open game
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 12 - no. 4, 379-398
summary This paper investigates the use of diagrams related to cybernetics and information theory in experimental design practices in the 1960s and 1970s.Those diagrams are investigated in light of Vile_m Flusser’s concept of game, which mediates the modus operandi of computers and possible strategies for design based on distributed cognition.The research adopts the interpretative method to analyze the diagram proposed by cyberneticist Gordon Pask for Fun Palace, the diagrams produced by utopian architect Yona Friedman in the conceptual description of the Flatwriter program and Christopher Alexander’s diagrams for his theories of Synthesis of Form and Pattern Language. In the end, it establishes a brief parallel between current debates of computational design with the cybernetic diagrams, highlighting differences in their approach to complexity and design knowledge.
series journal
last changed 2019/05/24 07:55

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