CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id sigradi2003_088
id sigradi2003_088
authors Carrara, Gianfranco and Fioravanti, Antonio
year 2003
title Needs Requirements Performances Vs Goals Constraints Values in Collaborative Architectural Design
source SIGraDi 2003 - [Proceedings of the 7th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Rosario Argentina 5-7 november 2003
summary The following is a report on an on-going research study aimed at defining a support system for Collaborative Design in architecture. This paper concisely shows the latest results. In the present report the emphasis is laid on the relations among the operators and their different goals. We studied the preliminary phase of the architectural design, for which we defined a model and implemented a software system. The validity of the software system does not decrease when it is extended to the remaining design phases. The goal of the research is to improve collaboration among operators.
keywords Collaborative Architectural Design, Knowledge Engineering, Design Goals, Constraints, Conflicts Reduction
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:48

_id 2004_426
id 2004_426
authors Carrara, Gianfranco and Fioravanti, Antonio
year 2004
title How to Construct an Audience in Collaborative Design - The Relationship Among which Actors in the Design Process
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 426-434
summary The features of complexity in architectural design have now been clarified. Complexity, intrinsic in architectural work, has increased in recent years as in all other fields of human endeavour – social, economic and cultural. In the specific case of architectural design, the most significant factors in this regard consist of the large number of actors, the numerous disciplines involved, technological innovation, regulations and rules governing the design process and the various different design aims. In order to address this complex of problems, long-term research based on the Collaborative Design paradigm, CD, is now being carried out. In it, thanks to the reciprocal exchange of information, the complementary nature of the knowledge possessed by the various actors, and the contemporary nature of the design action by the various actors on the same components, positive effects are exerted on the design as a whole. The latter thus gains in coherence and in improved integration among the design solutions proposed by the various actors. In CD all the actors are involved from the outset of the design work and are helped by distributed Knowledge Bases (KBs) and Intelligent Assistants (IAs). In this case it may happen that information and knowledge automatically exchanged among KBs (through the IAs) are excessive and/or not addressed to the right actors. How can information redundancy be avoided, and how can the flow of information sent over the network be controlled? The present paper introduces and defines the concept of „Audience“, that is, the group of actors to which it is permitted to send information concerning non respected requirements and the „reduced Audience“ to which to send the knowledge needed to overcome the difficulties encountered.
keywords Collaborative Architectural Design, Complexity, Intelligent Assistant, Context, Audience
series eCAADe
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

_id 2005_211
id 2005_211
authors Carrara, Gianfranco and Fioravanti, Antonio
year 2005
title The Quest for the Holy Grail – Holistic Collaborative Design
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 211-218
summary Architectural design, due to phenomena such as globalisation of the construction process, delocalisation of professional and industrial activities, spread of new construction materials and components, and the challenges of environmental sustainability, has become so comlex that traditional ways of managing the process are no longer sufficient. What is more, architectural works are required to be ever more performing and integrated - holistic. The paradigm of collaborative design is gaining ground as a way of dealing with these problems. Various process/ product models have been proposed over the years, making more or less use of advanced tools. In this field this study proposes a model in which operators from various cultural contexts are each supported by Intelligent Assistants (agents). The model simulates the design of works of architecture to the best professional practice. Exchange of information and knowledge between the operators is essential to enhance the design process. From this follows the need to interface not just data, but also meanings. This article shows how to improve communications between different applications, used by different operators, so as to integrate information and knowledge, whether formalised or not, in a project managed collaboratively by means of XML.
keywords Collaborative Design; Design Process Model; Distributed Knowledge Bases; Semantic Interfaces; aecXML
series eCAADe
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id 6ef4
authors Carrara, Gianfranco and Kalay, Yehuda E.
year 1992
title Multi-Model Representation of Design Knowledge
source Mission - Method - Madness [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2] 1992, pp. 77-88
summary Explicit representation of design knowledge is needed if scientific methods are to be applied in design research, and if comPuters are to be used in the aid of design education and practice. The representation of knowledge in general, and design knowledge in particular, have been the subject matter of computer science, design methods, and computer- aided design research for quite some time. Several models of design knowledge representation have been developed over the last 30 years, addressing specific aspects of the problem. This paper describes a different approach to design knowledge representation that recognizes the Multi-modal nature of design knowledge. It uses a variety of computational tools to encode different kinds of design knowledge, including the descriptive (objects), the prescriptive (goals) and the operational (methods) kinds. The representation is intended to form a parsimonious, communicable and presentable knowledge-base that can be used as a tool for design research and education as well as for CAAD.
keywords Design Methods, Design Process, Goals, Knowledge Representation, Semantic Networks
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/15 19:17

_id 6643
authors Carrara, Gianfranco and Novembri, Gabriele
year 1986
title Expert System for Building Design
source Congress of the International Council for Building Research, Studies and Documentation (10th : 1986 : Washington). vol. 2: pp. 651-658. includes bibliography. -- abstract also in French
summary At the CABD LAB at the University of Rome, an interactive expert system for architecture is being implemented to supervise building design at every stage of development. The system operates by checking the consistency of design choices against given sets of constraints, and by automatically checking the design process. It is therefore an innovation with respect to current architectural software developed as specific design aids. The system is based on a general representation of building objects (from components to the whole building) by means of semantic nets and a set of inferential procedures. The general representation is developed by making explicit the relational structures according to which architects organize their knowledge about building objects. To do this, the `Frame' formalism is used: this is a knowledge representation technique used in the field of artificial intelligence. It is then shown that such an expert CAAD system is a general purpose tool for architectural design, enabling architects to assess any constraint and/or building attribute by means of a declarative method, which in no way affects their own specific design methodologies
keywords semantic networks, representation, constraints, expert systems, CAD, building, design process, knowledge, frames
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 48fc
authors Carrara, Gianfranco and Novembri, Gabriele
year 1990
title Knowledge Assistant in the Process of Architectural Design
source Building and Environment. 1990. 39 p. includes bibliography
summary The article illustrates a methodological approach for the realization of a knowledge-based assistant for building and architectural design. The system is based on the concepts of constraint propagation, and uses the formal method of frames. The aim of the system is to cooperate 'interactively' with the designer in the various phases of this work
keywords knowledge base, architecture, CAD, building, design, frames
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 63d0
authors Carrara, Gianfranco and Novembri, Gabriele
year 1986
title Constraint-bounded design search
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 146-157
summary The design process requires continual checking of the consistency of design choices against given sets of goals that have been fulfilled. Such a check is generally performed by comparing abstract representations of design goals with these of the sought real building objects (RBO) resulting from complex intellectual activities closely related to the designer's culture and to the environment in which he operates. In this chapter we define a possible formalization of such representations concerning the goals and the RBO that are usually considered in the architectural design process by our culture in our environment. The representation of design goals is performed by expressing their objective aspects (requirements) and by defining their allowable values (performance specifications). The resulting system of requirements defines the set of allowable solutions and infers an abstract representation of the sought building objects (BO) that consists of the set of characteristics (attributes and relations) which are considered relevant to represent the particular kind of RBO with respect to the consistency check with design goals. The values related to such characteristics define the performances of the RBO while their set establishes its behaviour. Generally speaking, there is no single real object corresponding to an abstract representation but the whole class of the RBO that are equivalent with respect to the values assumed by the considered characteristics. The more we increase the number of these, as well as their specifications, the smaller the class becomes until it coincides with a single real object - given that the assessed specifications be fully consistent. On the other hand, the corresponding representation evolves to the total prefiguration of the RBO. It is not therefore possible to completely define a BO representation in advance since this is inferred by the considered goals and is itself a result of the design process. What can only be established in advance is that any set of characteristics assumed to represent any RBO consists of hierarchic, topological, geometrical and functional relations among the parts of the object at any level of aggregation (from components to space units, to building units, to the whole building) that we define representation structure (RS). Consequently the RS may be thought as the elementary structures that, by superposition and interaction, set up the abstract representation that best fit with design goals.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id e952
authors Carrara, Gianfranco and Paoluzzi, Alberto
year 1980
title A Systems Approach to Building Program Planning
source computer Aided Building Design Laboratory Research Report. 80 p. : ill. Rome, Italy: December, 1980. CABD LAB RR. 80-02. includes bibliography
summary In this paper problems of design performance and of building program planning are considered from the view point of the general system theory. After having formalized the concept of requirement, performance and performance specification, it is shown that a set of building objects (spaces and constructive elements) foreseeable within a program is a semilattice, and that therefore the ordering of constructive elements and spaces corresponds to an ordering of relations among feasible 'behaviors.' A set of feasible behaviors is then presented as an abstract system, eventually discussing some assumptions on which to base an input-state-output representation of it
keywords theory, methods, problem solving, architecture, design, knowledge
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 0aba
authors Carrara, Gianfranco, Kalay, Yehuda E. and Novembri, Gabriele
year 1991
title Intelligent Systems for Supporting Architectural Design
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 191-202
summary Design can be considered a process leading to the definition of a physical form that achieves a certain predefined set of objectives. The process comprises three distinct operations: (1) definition of the desired set of performance criteria (design goals); (2) production of alternative design solutions; (3) evaluation of the expected performances of alternative design solutions, and comparing them to predefined criteria. Difficulties arise in performing each one of the three operations, as well as in combining them into a purposeful, unified process. First, it is difficult to define the desired performance criteria prior to and independently of, the search for an acceptable solution that achieves them, since many aspects of the desired criteria can only be discovered through the search for an acceptable solution. Furthermore, the search for such a solution may well alter the definition of these criteria, as new criteria and incompatibilities between existing criteria are discovered. Second the generation of a design solution is a task demanding creativity, judgement, and experience, all three of which are difficult to define, teach, and otherwise capture in some explicit manner. Third, it is difficult to evaluate the expected performances of alternative design solutions and to compare them to the predefined criteria. Design parameters interact with each other in complex ways, which cause effects and side effects. Predicting the expected performances of even primary effects involves extrapolating non-physical characteristics from the proposed solution's physical organization, a process which relies on a host of assumptions (physical, sociological, psychological, etc.) and hence is seldom a reliable measure. A fourth problem arises from the need to coordinate the three operations in an iterative process that will converge on an acceptable design solution in reasonable time. Computational techniques that were developed in the past to assist designers in performing the above mentioned activities have shown limitations and proved inadequate to a large degree. In this paper we discuss the work in progress aimed at developing an intelligent support system for building and architectural design, which will be able to play a decisive role in the definition, evaluation and putting into effect of the design choices.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 28f1
authors Carrara, Gianfranco, Kalay, Yehuda E. and Novembri, Gabriele
year 1994
title Knowledge-Based Computational Support for Architectural Design
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 5-12
summary The process of architectural design aims to define a physical form that will achieve certain functional and behavioral objectives in a particular context. It comprises three distinct, but highly interrelated, operations: (1) Definition of the desired objectives; (2) production of alternative design solutions; (3) evaluation of the expected performances of the solutions and their comparison to the predefined objectives. Design can be viewed as a process of search for a solution that satisfies stated needs, while at the same time adapting the needs to the opportunities and limitations inherent in the emerging solution. // Computational techniques were developed to assist each one of the three operations, with varying degrees of success. We propose to integrate all three operations into one whole, by developing a computational model that will facilitate smooth transition from one operation to another. The role of computers in supporting this model will include providing a knowledge base of prototypical design objectives and solutions, storing project-specific design goals and solutions, and predicting their expected performances. This paper discusses the rationale and background for developing such a knowledge-based design system, and presents the parameters for implementing it as a computational tool to support architectural design. Examples from a prototype implementation serve to illustrate the discussion.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/15 19:17

_id ecaade2007_174
id ecaade2007_174
authors Carrara, Gianfranco; Fioravanti, Antonio
year 2007
title X-House – A Game to Improve Collaboration in Architectural Design
source Predicting the Future [25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-6-5] Frankfurt am Main (Germany) 26-29 September 2007, pp. 141-149
summary The current research we are conducting refers to a general model of architectural design. The complexity of the present-day design process is such that new ICT tools are required to consciously and appropriately govern the design choices. In particular, the tools that involve the early phases of the design process, when the choices crucial to the entire building process are made. In this perspective we are developing, together with a general model of architectural design based on Collaborative Design (CD), a simplified version of it – the _-House game – that can be used to help university students appreciate the complexity of doing architecture and building. This “simplified version” of the general model is therefore a useful ‘design training tool’ in the case of complex problems that can be solved by means of iterations, trade-offs, creativity, and group work; and at the same time makes it possible to highlight, define and link relatively little known aspects of design, such as scheduling, relations among operators, decision-making mechanisms, and process and design priorities.
keywords Collaborative design, game, research and education, web based design
series eCAADe
type normal paper
last changed 2008/06/16 08:46

_id ecaade2009_161
id ecaade2009_161
authors Carrara, Gianfranco; Fioravanti, Antonio; Loffreda, Gianluigi; Trento, Armando
year 2009
title An Ontology-based Knowledge Representation Model for Cross-Disciplinary Building Design: A General Template
source Computation: The New Realm of Architectural Design [27th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-8-9] Istanbul (Turkey) 16-19 September 2009, pp. 367-374
wos WOS:000334282200044
summary Process/product complexity is at present an unavoidable component of present building design approach that affects building product’s quality. To overcome this problem, effective collaboration is required among all the actors involved in the design process. Data and information exchange is not sufficient to guarantee mutual understanding; to support effective collaboration among actors; it is required a proper knowledge formalization and management. This paper reports on an innovative structure for knowledge modeling in cross-disciplinary building design, that has been formalized in a general template. The proposed Knowledge Model has been, at present, implemented by means of available ontology editors and is going to be used into teaching courses to check its efficiency in collaborative building design classes.
keywords Building design, collaboration, knowledge modeling, knowledge management
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ecaade2014_204
id ecaade2014_204
authors Davide Simeone, Stefano Cursi, Ilaria Toldo and Gianfranco Carrara
year 2014
title B(H)IM - Built Heritage Information Modelling - Extending BIM approach to historical and archaeological heritage representation
source Thompson, Emine Mine (ed.), Fusion - Proceedings of the 32nd eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, UK, 10-12 September 2014, pp. 613-622
wos WOS:000361384700061
summary This paper describes the context and the proposal for the extension of Building Information Modelling to built heritage in order to enhance information management during the investigation and restoration activities. The core of the presented model is the integration of a BIM-based modelling environment and a knowledge base developed by means of ontologies, in order to represent all the semantics needed for a comprehensive representation of the historical artefact.To test its features, the model has been applied to the real archaeological investigation process of the Castor and Pollux temple at Cori, Italy.
keywords Bim; built heritage; ontology-based systems; knowledge management; archaeological investigation
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id caadria2007_000
id caadria2007_000
authors Gang, Yu; Zhou Qi and Dong Wei (eds.)
year 2007
title CAADRIA 2007 - Digitization and Globalization
source Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Nanjing (China) 19-21 April 2007, 694 p.
summary Turning to 21st century, the globe has been rapidly becoming a small village as the transportation and communication tools become more efficient and more easily available to the public. So has this been happening in AEC industry (Architecture, Engineering and Construction). Digital technology has apparently changed the working process in the AEC industry, but not as efficiently as in manufacturing industry, such as automobile production. It might be mainly because of the diversified components and scattered sites with lower industry standards, especially against the background of customization and vernacular traditions of architecture. What roles can digital technology play in this development and how can we steer correctly this inevitable trend?
series CAADRIA
type normal paper
last changed 2008/06/16 08:49

_id acadia14_681
id acadia14_681
authors Simeone, Davide; Cursi, Stefano; Toldo, Ilaria; Carrara; Gianfranco
year 2014
title BIM and Knowledge Management for Archaeological Heritage
source ACADIA 14: Design Agency [Proceedings of the 34th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 9781926724478]Los Angeles 23-25 October, 2014), pp. 681-390
summary This paper investigates the introduction of BIM in built heritage field, aimed at enhancing knowledge management during investigation and restoration activities.
keywords BIM; Built Heritage; Ontology-based systems; Knowledge management; Archaeological Investigation. Category: Building Information Modeling
series ACADIA
type normal paper
last changed 2014/12/09 06:45

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