CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 32

_id caadria2020_443
id caadria2020_443
authors Abuzuraiq, Ahmed M. and Erhan, Halil
year 2020
title The Many Faces of Similarity - A Visual Analytics Approach for Design Space Simplification
source D. Holzer, W. Nakapan, A. Globa, I. Koh (eds.), RE: Anthropocene, Design in the Age of Humans - Proceedings of the 25th CAADRIA Conference - Volume 1, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, 5-6 August 2020, pp. 485-494
summary Generative design methods may involve a complex design space with an overwhelming number of alternatives with their form and design performance data. Existing research addresses this complexity by introducing various techniques for simplification through clustering and dimensionality reduction. In this study, we further analyze the relevant literature on design space simplification and exploration to identify their potentials and gaps. We find that the potentials include: alleviating the choice overload problem, opening up new venues for interrelating design forms and data, creating visual overviews of the design space and introducing ways of creating form-driven queries. Building on that, we present the first prototype of a design analytics dashboard that combines coordinated and interactive visualizations of design forms and performance data along with the result of simplifying the design space through hierarchical clustering.
keywords Visual Analytics; Design Exploration; Dimensionality Reduction; Clustering; Similarity-based Exploration
series CAADRIA
email ahmed_abu_zuraiq@sfu.ca
last changed 2020/08/14 18:39

_id ecaade2015_170
id ecaade2015_170
authors Cavusoglu, Ömer Halil
year 2015
title The Position of BIM Tools in Conceptual Design Phase: Parametric Design and Energy Modeling Capabilities
source Martens, B, Wurzer, G, Grasl T, Lorenz, WE and Schaffranek, R (eds.), Real Time - Proceedings of the 33rd eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 16-18 September 2015, pp. 607-612
wos WOS:000372317300065
summary Numerous researchers point out that, in the early stages of architectural design, many significant decisions are taken to directly affect functional qualities, the performance of the building, aesthetics, and the relationship of the building with the natural environment and climate, even if there is no certain and valid information to create and obtain adequate design.In this paper, I particularly focus on the early stages of architectural design and search for the opportunities provided by Building Information Modeling (BIM) tools, towards the concept of performance analysis and parametric form seeking. Study also includes case study implementations which visualize the early processes of architectural design with benefits of BIM under different conditions to evaluate its opportunities during these design processes.
series eCAADe
email contact@omercavusoglu.com
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ecaade2012_296
id ecaade2012_296
authors Erhan, Halil I. ; Sanchez, Rodolfo ; Woodbury, Robert F. ; Mueller, Volker
year 2012
title Visual Narratives of Parametric Design History: Aha! Now I see how you did it!
source Achten, Henri; Pavlicek, Jiri; Hulin, Jaroslav; Matejovska, Dana (eds.), Digital Physicality - Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1 / ISBN 978-9-4912070-2-0, Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture (Czech Republic) 12-14 September 2012, pp. 259-268
wos WOS:000330322400026
summary Histories are underdeveloped and underused features in parametric CAD (PCAD) systems. Designers employ backtracking and deferral strategies that both use and augment history. Using backtracking and deferral as a framework we present two classes of design process graph diagramming techniques for augmented history in PCAD. We compare the second version of these design process graphs across several designers who completed multiple tasks using two parametric systems (SolidWorks and GenerativeComponents). The two systems show similar types of action, with markedly more and deeper backtracking in GenerativeComponents. We present a third diagramming system as a design for a proof of concept prototype. This prototype aims to expand the capabilities of design histories beyond access to single prior states to visualize and enable direct interaction based on backtracking and deferral.
keywords Parametric CAD, design history, backtracking, deferral, design space
series eCAADe
email herhan@sfu.ca
last changed 2014/04/14 11:07

_id caadria2013_123
id caadria2013_123
authors Erhan, Halil I.; David Botta, Andy T. Huang and Robert F. Woodbury
year 2013
title Peripheral Tools to Support Collaboration: Probing to Design Collaboration Through Role-Playing
source Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2013) / Singapore 15-18 May 2013, pp. 241-250
wos WOS:000351496100024
summary Peripheral devices like smart phones offer an opportunity to lower the barrier to spontaneous collection and sharing of information during distributed collaboration. We have completed development of guidelines and a framework that focuses on peripheral devices in collaboration. In order to explore the design space generated by our principles, we conducted a role-playing experiment about commissioning a building, in which an “on-site” team and a “design” team were expected to find and resolve discrepancies between requirements, design documents, and the actual site. The teams were given Styrofoam panels to act as pretend smart peripherals to invoke play and help probe the design space. We found that “reflection on action” (debriefing and subsequent brainstorming) was fruitful for ideation and theorem building about interaction, but “reflection in action” failed. Yet, reflection in action, particularly with such probes, is important to capture the “mechanics of collaboration”. Therefore, we are considering adapting improvisational theatre to our study of distributed collaboration.  
keywords Collaborative design, Design support tool, Interactive media, Role-playing, Extended cognition 
series CAADRIA
email herhan@sfu.ca
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id caadria2020_272
id caadria2020_272
authors Erhan, Halil, Abuzuraiq, Ahmed M., Zarei, Maryam, AlSalman, Osama, Woodbury, Robert and Dill, John
year 2020
title What do Design Data say About Your Model? - A Case Study on Reliability and Validity
source D. Holzer, W. Nakapan, A. Globa, I. Koh (eds.), RE: Anthropocene, Design in the Age of Humans - Proceedings of the 25th CAADRIA Conference - Volume 1, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, 5-6 August 2020, pp. 557-567
summary Parametric modeling systems are widely used in architectural design. Their use for designing complex built environments raises important practical challenges when composed by multiple people with diverse interests and using mostly unverified computational modules. Through a case study, we investigate possible concerns identifiable from a real-world collaborative design setting and how such concerns can be revealed through interactive data visualizations of parametric models. We then present our approach for resolving these concerns using a design analytic workflow for examine their reliability and validity. We summarize the lessons learnt from the case study, such as the importance of an abundance of test cases, reproducible design instances, accessing and interacting with data during all phases of design, and seeking high cohesion and decoupling between design geometry and evaluation components. We suggest a systematic integration of design modeling and analytics for enhancing a reliable design decision-making.
keywords Model Reliability; Model Validity; Parametric Modeling; Design Analytics; Design Visualization
series CAADRIA
email herhan@sfu.ca
last changed 2020/08/14 18:39

_id caadria2017_074
id caadria2017_074
authors Erhan, Halil, Chan, Janelynn, Fung, Gilbert, Shireen, Naghmi and Wang, Ivy
year 2017
title Understanding Cognitive Overload in Generative Design - An Epistemic Action Analysis
source P. Janssen, P. Loh, A. Raonic, M. A. Schnabel (eds.), Protocols, Flows, and Glitches - Proceedings of the 22nd CAADRIA Conference, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou, China, 5-8 April 2017, pp. 127-136
summary Choice overload is experienced when designers use generative systems to explore a large number of alternatives. In an experiment, we studied the epistemic actions designers perform to reduce their cognitive load caused by possible choice overload during design exploration. The participants were asked to select alternatives among a large set of solutions in a simulated design environment. For data encoding, we adapted an epistemic action analysis method to understand which actions occurs in what phase of design. Most epistemic actions are observed during criteria applying phase. The most frequent actions were 'clustering and grouping' and 'talking and gestures to guide attention'. Ultimately our goal is to answer if a system can alleviate the possible cognitive overload when working with a large number of alternatives, if so how they would look when implemented.
keywords generative design; parametric modeling; cognitive overload; selection; epistemic actions
series CAADRIA
email herhan@sfu.ca
last changed 2017/05/09 08:05

_id caadria2020_423
id caadria2020_423
authors Erhan, Halil, Zarei, Maryam, Abuzuraiq, Ahmed M., Haas, Alyssa, Alsalman, Osama and Woodbury, Robert
year 2020
title FlowUI: Combining Directly-Interactive Design Modeling with Design Analytics
source D. Holzer, W. Nakapan, A. Globa, I. Koh (eds.), RE: Anthropocene, Design in the Age of Humans - Proceedings of the 25th CAADRIA Conference - Volume 1, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, 5-6 August 2020, pp. 475-484
summary In a systems building experiment, we explored how directly manipulating non-parametric geometries can be used together with a real-time parametric performance analytics for informed design decision-making in the early phases of design. This combination gives rise to a design process where considerations that would traditionally take place in the late phases of design can become part of the early phases. The paper presents FlowUI, a prototype tool for performance-driven design that is developed in a collaboration with our industry partner as part of our design analytics research program. The tool works with and responds to changes in the design modeling environment, processes the design data and presents the results in design (data) analytics interfaces. We discuss the system's design intent and its overall architecture, followed by a set of suggestions on the comparative analysis of design solutions and design reports generation as integral parts of design exploration tasks.
keywords Non-Parametric Modeling; Performance-Driven Design; Design Analytics; Information Visualization
series CAADRIA
email herhan@sfu.ca
last changed 2020/08/14 18:39

_id caadria2014_252
id caadria2014_252
authors Erhan, Halil; Andy Huang and Robert F. Woodbury
year 2014
title DiNa Framework and Prototype to Support Collaboration in the Wild
source Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2014) / Kyoto 14-16 May 2014, pp. 471–480
summary Much of the available collaboration support tools focus on sharing of documents and managing projects that require planned activities. These tools fall short in meeting principle of least effort or taking into account of the reality of complex work patterns. We propose DiNa framework and system architecture for a topic centric as opposed to document-centric collaboration system using readily available devices. DiNa aims to complement existing approaches. Our primary goal is to seek answers for how these devices can better support collaboration without overloading the workflow. After a literature review and roleplaying exercises, the prototypes we developed demonstrate new interaction techniques for defining topics and address them in collaborators’ own terms. It uses different visualizations of the artefacts and their association with the topics, among which is a scalable timeline interface accessible from different platforms, to make the artefacts collected more meaningful in a given context. In this paper we present our recent prototype as a proof-of-concept and its initial evaluations followed by the lessons learnt from our studies on supporting collaboration in the wild. The evaluation outcome is suggestions for improving DiNa-based systems for effective collaboration.
keywords Collaboration; collaboration support tools; design; mobile computing; distributed cognition
series CAADRIA
email herhan@sfu.ca
last changed 2014/04/22 08:23

_id cf2019_041
id cf2019_041
authors Erhan, Halil; Barbara Berry, John Dill and Akanksha Garg
year 2019
title Investigating the Role of Students’ Representation Use Patterns in Spatial Thinking
source Ji-Hyun Lee (Eds.) "Hello, Culture!"  [18th International Conference, CAAD Futures 2019, Proceedings / ISBN 978-89-89453-05-5] Daejeon, Korea, pp. 331-346
summary Teaching spatial thinking explicitly helps students develop spatial abilities. In this paper, we present our initial findings from an experiment that explored how first year students who successfully completed an introductory spatial thinking course, demonstrated their use of three design representations: sketching, digital and physical modeling. Students were asked to solve a design problem requiring spatial thinking at the same level of complexity as their course project. Video data from twelve participants were analyzed and results from an independent expert panel review of students’ solutions, and use of representations were compiled. Our results show high variability in both the quality of students’ solutions and their use of the three modes of representation. We discovered many students used embodied actions in solving the spatial problem and explaining solutions. These results will inform a revision of our course and curriculum supporting spatial thinking in undergraduate design students.
keywords spatial thinking, design pedagogy, design representations
series CAAD Futures
email herhan@sfu.ca
last changed 2019/07/29 12:15

_id caadria2007_399
id caadria2007_399
authors Erhan, Halil; Fatiha.D.Jebbar
year 2007
title Pair-Colloborated Usability Study of RaBBiT in Requirements Modeling and Generation
source CAADRIA 2007 [Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Nanjing (China) 19-21 April 2007
summary The traditional manual methods of programming in architectural design have definite disadvantages that could, in part at least, be overcome by computational support. We have developed RaBBiT, a support tool for programming that can be easily adapted to various programming styles end terminologies. In the present paper, we report on the evaluation of its usability in requirements modeling by expert designers. The evaluation is performed through the following steps: (a) measuring usefulness of RaBBiT and its effectiveness in requirements modeling and generation and (b) assessing the usability of RaBBiT by applying ‘pair-collaborated usability evaluation using heuristics’.
series CAADRIA
email hierhan@sfu.ca
last changed 2008/06/16 08:48

_id ijac201513206
id ijac201513206
authors Erhan, Halil; Ivy Y. Wang, and Naghmi Shireen
year 2015
title Harnessing Design Space: A Similarity-Based Exploration Method for Generative Design
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 13 - no. 2, 217-236
summary Working with multiple alternatives is a central activity in design; therefore, we expect computational systems to support such work. There is a need to find out the tool features supporting this central activity so that we can build new systems. To explore such features, we propose a method that aims to enable interaction with a large number of design alternatives by similaritybased exploration. Using existing data analysis and visualization techniques adopting similarity-based search, we formalized the method and its elements by focusing on systematic filtering, clustering, and choosing alternatives. We present a scenario on developing conceptual designs for a residential apartment to illustrate how the method can be applied, as well as to reveal the limitation of current tools and the potential interactive clustering and filtering features for the new systems coupled with parametric design.
series journal
last changed 2019/05/24 07:55

_id ijac20108404
id ijac20108404
authors Erhan, Halil; Nahal H. Salmasi, Rob Woodbury
year 2010
title ViSA: A Parametric Design Modeling Method to Enhance Visual Sensitivity Control and Analysis
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 8 - no. 4, p. 461
summary The ability of parametric computer-aided design systems to generate models rapidly enables designers to explore the downstream impacts of changes to key design parameters. However, the typical modeling functions provided in the parametric systems can become insufficient when such exploration is needed for increasingly complex parametric design models. Main challenges for exploration that we observed are control and analysis of changes on the design model and in particular, when they are introduced continuously. The system interfaces and the human-visual perception system alleviate these challenges. In this study, we demonstrate ViSA, a Visual Sensitivity Analysis method that aims to make the effects of change within a parametric model controllable, measurable and apparent for designers. The approach aims to improve visually analyzing the sensitivity of a design model to planned parametric changes. The method proposes customizable control and visualization features in the model that are decoupled from each other at the design level, while providing interfaces between them through parametric associations. We present findings from our case studies in addition to the results of a user study demonstrating the applicability and limitations of the proposed method.
series journal
last changed 2019/05/24 07:55

_id cf2017_402
id cf2017_402
authors Erhan, Halil; Shireen, Naghmi
year 2017
title Juxtaposed Designs Models: A Method for Parallel Exploration in Parametric CAD
source Gülen Çagdas, Mine Özkar, Leman F. Gül and Ethem Gürer (Eds.) Future Trajectories of Computation in Design [17th International Conference, CAAD Futures 2017, Proceedings / ISBN 978-975-561-482-3] Istanbul, Turkey, July 12-14, 2017, pp. 402-412.
summary Computational tools mainly support authoring single-state models, which fall short in enabling designers to work with multiple solutions side-byside. This is a natural design behaviour commonly observed when designers use other media or improvise digital tools to explore alternatives. In this paper we attempt to formalize a method that aims to help designers to create multiple design alternatives derived from a base parametric model and its controllers. The goal is to change alternative designs such that each alternative can respond to changes as their internal structures allow. We present five assumptions on the tools that this can be achieved and also a parametric design pattern to be used in similar situations. Despite the complexity of the models, we can demonstrate the possibility of working with multiple solutions in architectural design.
keywords -
series CAAD Futures
email herhan@sfu.ca, naghmi.shireen@sfu.ca
last changed 2017/12/01 13:38

_id acadia14_619
id acadia14_619
authors Erhan, Halil; Wang, Ivy; Shireen, Naghmi
year 2014
title Interacting with Thousands: A Parametric-Space Exploration Method in Generative Design
source ACADIA 14: Design Agency [Proceedings of the 34th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 9781926724478]Los Angeles 23-25 October, 2014), pp. 619-626
summary Although generative and parametric design methods open possibilities for working with a large number of solutions, there is almost no computational support for designers to directly manage, sort, filter, and select the generated designs. In this study, we propose an approach that presents a similarity-based design exploration relying on similarity indices that aims to reduce and collapse design space into manageable scales.
keywords parametric design, generative methods, design space reduction, similarity metrics and indices, similarity matrix; BIG DATA
series ACADIA
type Normal Paper
email herhan@sfu.ca
last changed 2014/09/29 05:51

_id cf2009_815
id cf2009_815
authors Erhan, Halil; Woodbury, Rob and Salmasi, Nahal H.
year 2009
title Visual sensitivity analysis of parametric design models: Improving agility in design
source T. Tidafi and T. Dorta (eds) Joining Languages, Cultures and Visions: CAADFutures 2009, PUM, 2009, pp. 815- 829
summary The advances of generative and parametric CAD tools have enabled designers to create designs representations that are responsive, adoptable and flexible. However, the complexity of the models and limitation of human-visual systems posed challenges in effectively utilizing them for sensitivity analysis. In this prototyping study, we propose a method that aims at reduction of these challenges. The method proposes to improve visually analysing sensitivity of a design model to changes. It adapts Model-View-Controller approach in software design to decouple control and visualization features from the design model while providing interfaces between them through parametric associations. The case studies is presented to demonstrate applicability and limitation of the method.
keywords Parametric modeling, visual analytics, sensitivity analysis, design
series CAAD Futures
email herhan@sfu.ca
last changed 2009/06/08 18:53

_id b7de
authors Flemming, Ulrich, Erhan, Halil and Ozkaya, Ipek
year 2002
title Object-Oriented Application Development in CAD: A Graduate Course
source Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice, in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual [Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-11-X] Pomona (California) 24-27 October 2002, pp. 25-36
summary The programming languages typically offered by CAD systems for third-party application developerswere procedural or functional. A major shift is currently occurring in that new versions of commercialCAD software will support object-oriented programming languages for application development.Developers who wish to take advantage of this new kind of environment must undergo a considerablecognitive “retooling” and adopt new software engineering strategies. We describe a graduate coursethat aims at introducing students to effective object-oriented development strategies, especially usecase-driven development and the tools provided by the Unified Modeling Language (UML). Studentsgained experience with these tools by forming, together with the instructors, a single development teamwriting an application on top of MicroStation/J using JMDL as programming language. The paperdescribes the instructors’ experience with this approach.
series ACADIA
email ujf@cmu.edu
last changed 2003/02/26 16:24

_id cf2019_046
id cf2019_046
authors Garg, Akanksha ;and Halil Erhan
year 2019
title Use of Data in Design Exploration: Design Analyzer
source Ji-Hyun Lee (Eds.) "Hello, Culture!"  [18th International Conference, CAAD Futures 2019, Proceedings / ISBN 978-89-89453-05-5] Daejeon, Korea, pp. 399-411
summary This paper presents a system prototype that demonstrates and tests how visual analytics of parametric design data can become an integral workflow in design exploration. Parametric design process, as a complex creative exercise, can lead to generation of a large number of alternative solutions rapidly. The designers are then tasked with effectively finding the potential solutions among a torrent of design data. This task poses challenges like choice overload, which considerably affects the designer’s performance and design output. We hypothesize that the application of visual analytics to parametric design data can help alleviate the choice overload problem. In this paper, we use the term “Design Analytics” which primarily revolves around the application of visual analytics to parametric design data and we test this approach with the help of a low-fidelity prototype called “DANZ: Design Analyzer:”.
keywords Parametric Data, Visual Analytics, Creativity Support Tool, Design Analytics, Data Visualization
series CAAD Futures
email aga76@sfu.ca
last changed 2019/07/29 12:15

_id caadria2014_000
id caadria2014_000
authors Gu, Ning; Shun Watanabe, Halil Erhan, Matthias Hank Haeusler, Weixin Huang and Ricardo Sosa (eds.)
year 2014
title Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture
source Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2014) / Kyoto 14-16 May 2014, 994 p.
summary Rethinking Comprehensive Design—the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2014)—emphasises a cross-disciplinary context to challenge the mainstream culture of computational design in architecture. It aims to (re)explore the potential of computational design methods and technologies in architecture from a holistic perspective. The conference provides an international forum where academics and practitioners share their novel research development and reflection for defining the future of computation in architectural design. Hosted by the Department of Design, Engineering and Management at the Kyoto Institute of Technology, CAADRIA 2014 presents 88 peer-reviewed full papers from all over the world. These high-quality research papers are complimented by 34 short work-in-progress papers submitted for the poster session of the conference. The conference proceedings were produced by a motivated team of volunteers from the CAADRIA community through an extensive collaboration. The 88 full papers rigorously double-blind reviewed by the dedicated International Review Committee (consisting of 74 experts), testify to CAADRIA’s highly respectable international standing. Call for abstracts sent out in July 2013 attracted 298 submissions. They were initially reviewed by the Paper Selection Committee who accepted 198 abstracts for further development. Of these, 118 full papers were eventually submitted in the final stage. Each submitted paper was then assessed by at least two members of the International Review Committee. Following the reviewers’ recommendations, 91 papers were accepted by the conference, of which 88 are included in this volume and for presentation in CAADRIA 2014. Collectively, these 88 papers define Rethinking Comprehensive Design in terms of the following research streams: Shape Studies; User Participation in Design; Human-Computer Interaction; Digital Fabrication and Construction; Computational Design Analysis; New Digital Design Concepts and Strategies; Practice-Based and Interdisciplinary Computational Design Research; Collaborative and Collective Design; Generative, Parametric and Evolutionary Design; Design Cognition and Creativity; Virtual / Augmented Reality and Interactive Environments; Computational Design Research and Education; and Theory, Philosophy and Methodology of Computational Design Research. In the following pages, you will find a wide range of scholarly papers organised under these streams that truly capture the quintessence of the research concepts. This volume will certainly inspire you and facilitate your journey in Rethinking Comprehensive Design.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2014/04/22 08:23

_id caadria2006_053
id caadria2006_053
authors HALIL ERHAN
year 2006
title LEARNING FROM MASTERS: ACADEMIC APPRENTICESHIP MODEL FOR COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN EDUCATION
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 53-61
summary Education is taking a new shape for the emerging needs of society. A considerable number of schools and disciplines are adapting active and cooperative learning to foster critical thinking and cognitive skill gaining. Design computation discipline also has to search for new models in education and experiment with these to evolve. This paper presents the current status in other disciplines. The lessons learned are used to develop the Academic Apprenticeship Model for teaching design computation courses.
series CAADRIA
email hierhan@uaeu.ac.ae
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

_id caadria2005_b_4a_c
id caadria2005_b_4a_c
authors Halil I. Erhan, Ulrich Flemming
year 2005
title User-System Interaction Design for Requirements Modeling
source CAADRIA 2005 [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] New Delhi (India) 28-30 April 2005, vol. 2, pp. 160-170
summary RaBBiT (Requirements Building for Building Types) provides computational support for architectural programming or requirements modeling in building design. A highly interactive graphical user interface (GUI) allows users to adapt RaBBiT to various programming styles and terminologies. Since users are not expected to have any prior computer programming experience, the design of RaBBiT’s GUI posed particular challenges, which we attempted to meet through a direct-manipulation interface based on the model-world metaphor.
series CAADRIA
email hierhan@uaeu.ac.ae, ujf@cmu.edu
last changed 2005/04/30 01:30

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