CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id acadia17_118
id acadia17_118
authors As, Imdat; Nagakura, Takehiko
year 2017
title Crowdsourcing the Obama Presidential Center: An Alternative Design Delivery Model: Democratizing Architectural Design
source ACADIA 2017: DISCIPLINES & DISRUPTION [Proceedings of the 37th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-96506-1] Cambridge, MA 2-4 November, 2017), pp. 118-127
summary In this article, we present crowdsourcing as a design delivery method for publicly funded buildings, and compare it to the traditional Request for Proposals (RFP). We explore the potential of crowdsourcing through the use of an online design competition for the Obama Presidential Center in Chicago, IL, which the authors administered at, a crowdsourcing platform. Competition procedures have been applied in architectural practice since antiquity, from the Parthenon and the Hagia Sophia to thousands of seminal buildings around the globe. However, with the advent of digital technologies and outreach to a more interconnected world, crowdsourcing allows even the most mundane design challenges to go through the fair competition protocol. We argue that crowdsourcing can help democratize architectural design acquisition by giving a level playing field to designers, and produce a more just, competitive, and creative design product.
keywords design methods; information processing; hybrid practices; crowdsourcing
series ACADIA
last changed 2017/10/17 09:12

_id ecaade2018_261
id ecaade2018_261
authors Austern, Guy, Capeluto, Isaac Guedi and Grobman, Yasha Jacob
year 2018
title Rationalization and Optimization of Concrete Façade Panels
source Kepczynska-Walczak, A, Bialkowski, S (eds.), Computing for a better tomorrow - Proceedings of the 36th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Poland, 19-21 September 2018, pp. 727-734
summary The presented research develops methods for introducing fabrication constraints into architectural design, a process often referred to as design rationalization. In the first stage of the research, a computational method for evaluating the fabrication potential of geometries was developed. The method predicts the feasibility, material use and machining time of a geometry in relation to different fabrication techniques. It uses geometric properties to mathematically estimate these parameters without simulating the actual machining. The second stage of the research describes processes for adapting architectural designs to their fabrication technique. The evaluation method previously developed is used as a fitness criterion for a computational optimization algorithm aimed at adapting concrete façade elements to the fabrication constraints of their molds. A case study demonstrates how the optimization process succeeded in improving the feasibility of different geometries within a time-frame suitable to the architectural design process, and without significant changes to the initial design.
keywords Optimization; Digital Fabrication; Rationalization; Computational Design Process
series eCAADe
last changed 2018/07/24 10:23

_id eaea2015_t2_paper03
id eaea2015_t2_paper03
authors Bar-Eli, Amos
year 2015
title On (New) Ruins Reconciliation Capacity
source ENVISIONING ARCHITECTURE: IMAGE, PERCEPTION AND COMMUNICATION OF HERITAGE [ISBN 978-83-7283-681-6],Lodz University of Technology, 23-26 September 2015, pp.142-151
summary This paper takes a critical look at the characteristics of new-ruins and evaluates some of their contemporary usages. The paper analyses the new-ruin as a phenomenon, and evaluates its role in architectural heritage. It views the unique reconciliation characteristics of the new-ruin, and its presence as a powerful tool capable of accommodating binary opposing conditions.
keywords new-ruins; architecture heritage; architecture theory
series EAEA
last changed 2016/04/22 09:52

_id acadia19_258
id acadia19_258
authors Bar-Sinai, Karen Lee; Shaked, Tom; Sprecher, Aaron
year 2019
title Informing Grounds
source ACADIA 19:UBIQUITY AND AUTONOMY [Proceedings of the 39th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-578-59179-7] (The University of Texas at Austin School of Architecture, Austin, Texas 21-26 October, 2019) pp. 258-265
summary Advancements in robotic fabrication are enabling on-site construction in increasingly larger scales. In this paper, we argue that as autonomous tools encounter the territorial scale, they open new ways to embed information into it. To define the new practice, this paper introduces a protocol combining a theoretical framework and an iterative process titled Informing Grounds. This protocol mediates and supports the exchange of knowledge between a digital and a physical environment and is applicable to a variety of materials with uncertain characteristics in a robotic manufacturing scenario. The process is applied on soil and demonstrated through a recent design-to-fabrication workshop that focused on simulating digital groundscaping of distant lunar grounds employing robotic sand-forming. The first stage is ‘sampling’—observing the physical domain both as an initial step as well as a step between the forming cycles to update the virtual model. The second stage is ‘streaming’—the generation of information derived from the digital model and its projection onto the physical realm. The third stage is ‘transforming’—the shaping of the sand medium through a physical gesture. The workshop outcomes serve as the basis for discussion regarding the challenges posed by applying autonomous robotic tools on materials with uncertain behavior at a large-scale.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
last changed 2019/12/18 08:03

_id 58f4
authors Barequet, G. and Kumar, S.
year 1997
title Repairing CAD models
source Proceedings of IEEE Visualizationí97, pp. 363-370
summary We describe an algorithm for repairing polyhedral CAD models that have errors in their B-REP. Errors like cracks, degeneracies, duplication, holes and overlaps are usually introduced in solid models due to imprecise arithmetic, model transformations, designer's fault, programming bugs, etc. Such errors often hamper further processing like finite element analysis, radiosity computation and rapid prototyping. Our fault-repair algorithm converts an unordered collection of polygons to a shared-vertex representation to help eliminate errors. This is done by choosing, for each polygon edge, the most appropriate edge to unify it with. The two edges are then geometrically merged into one, by moving vertices. At the end of this process, each polygon edge is either coincident with another or is a boundary edge for a polygonal hole or a dangling wall and may be appropriately repaired. Finally, in order to allow user- inspection of the automatic corrections, we produce a visualization of the repair and let the user mark the corrections that conflict with the original design intent. A second iteration of the correction algorithm then produces a repair that is commensurate with the intent. Thus, by involving the users in a feedback loop, we are able to refine the correction to their satisfaction.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id cf2015_397
id cf2015_397
authors Blonder, Arielle and Grobman, Yasha Jacob
year 2015
title Alternative Fabrication Process for Free-Form FRP Architectural Elements Relying on Fabric Materiality Towards Freedom from Molds and Surface Articulation
source The next city - New technologies and the future of the built environment [16th International Conference CAAD Futures 2015. Sao Paulo, July 8-10, 2015. Electronic Proceedings/ ISBN 978-85-85783-53-2] Sao Paulo, Brazil, July 8-10, 2015, pp. 397-410.
summary FRP (fiber reinforced polymers) is a family of composite materials combining fibers and polymers to offer exceptional mechanical properties. Its unique material properties have led to its wide application across industries. Although we witness a growing interest in the material in the architectural field in recent years, a significant barrier to its application lies in the need for a mold. The paper describes a new alternative fabrication process for architectural FRP elements that relies on fabric materiality. It suggests a mold free process, combining form finding and garment making techniques, to allow for complex morphologies, surface articulation and variation. The paper describes both the fabrication process through physical experiments, as well as the design process through the use of two design software tools. It demonstrates the potential for sustainable variation of large component facade system.
keywords FRP, Fabrication, Architecture, Mold, Materiality, Variation
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2015/06/29 05:55

_id ecaade2016_151
id ecaade2016_151
authors Blonder, Arielle and Grobman, Yasha Jacob
year 2016
title Natural Complexity - Embedded Fabric Materiality in Fibre-Reinforced Polymer Fabrication
source Herneoja, Aulikki; Toni Österlund and Piia Markkanen (eds.), Complexity & Simplicity - Proceedings of the 34th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, 22-26 August 2016, pp. 581-589
summary Fibre composites are synthetic in their composition, but structured similarly to biological materials, as fibre and matrix. While the fibre constituent in Fibre-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) is mostly used under the form of fabrics, its standard fabrication processes do not rely on its inherent textile attributes. Embedding the fabric qualities in the fabrication of architectural FRP can potentially introduce concepts and properties of biological materials into engineered fibre composites; it can promote and enable the generation of an architectural complexity of a biological nature. The paper presents Fabric Materiality as a framework for a new design and fabrication process and demonstrates through a case study its integration in the fabrication of architectural FRP elements to achieve a complex structure with bio-inspired properties.
wos WOS:000402063700063
keywords Textile; Materiality; Self-organisation; Resilience; Composites; FRP
series eCAADe
last changed 2017/06/28 08:46

_id 0fc8
authors Boutros, N., Sehad, T. and Constans, A.
year 1998
title Aujourd'hui, entre l'agence et l'école, quelle utilisation des nouvelles technologies de l'information - Histoire d'une méthode
source Computerised Craftsmanship [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Paris (France) 24-26 September 1998, pp. 9-15
summary Nous proposons notre future méthodologie pédagogique de l'informatique fondée sur l'expérimentation d'un séminaire de 3ème cycle, aboutissement d'un enseignement qui commence dès la première année d'étude. Cette excursion comme dans un circuit organisé vous emmènera d'une agence d'architectes, aux cours d'informatique graphique de l'école d'architecture. Il y aura ensuite une pause « recherche » sur la méthodologie d'enseignement en exploitant de nombreux outils des nouvelles technologies de l'information - des expérimentations diverses ont eu lieu avec des équipes de recherche de la faculté polytechnique de Turin (Italie) et du centre d'études archéologiques d'Alexandrie (Egypte) - pour enfin arriver à notre destination, l'accès à l'information pour développer un projet architectural, une méthode pour une nouvelle génération.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id cf2015_331
id cf2015_331
authors Brodeschi, Michal; Pilosof, Nirit Putievsky and Kalay, Yehuda E.
year 2015
title The definition of semantic of spaces in virtual built environments oriented to BIM implementation
source The next city - New technologies and the future of the built environment [16th International Conference CAAD Futures 2015. Sao Paulo, July 8-10, 2015. Electronic Proceedings/ ISBN 978-85-85783-53-2] Sao Paulo, Brazil, July 8-10, 2015, pp. 331-346.
summary The BIM today can be a provider of inputs to performance analysis of different phenomena such as thermal comfort, energy consumption or winds. All these assessments are fundamental to the post occupation of the building. The attainment of approximate information of how the future building would behave under these conditions will reduce the waste of materials and energy resources. The same idea is used for evaluating the users occupation. Through simulation of human behavior is possible to evaluate which design elements can be improved. In complex structures such as hospital buildings or airports is quite complex for architects to determine optimal design solutions based on the tools available nowadays. These due to the fact users are not contemplated in the model. Part of the data used for the simulation can be derived from the BIM model. The three-dimensional model provides parametric information, however are not semantically enriched. They provide parameters to elements but not the connection between them, not the relationship. It means that during a simulation Virtual Users can recognize the elements represented in BIM models, but not what they mean, due to the lack of semantics. At the same time the built environment may assume different functions depending on the physical configuration or activities that are performed on it. The status of the space may reveal differences and these changes occur constantly and are dynamic. In an initial state, a room can be noisy and a moment later, quiet. This can determine what type of activities the space can support according to each change in status. In this study we demonstrate how the spaces can express different semantic information according to the activity performed on it. The aim of this paper is to simulate the activities carried out in the building and how they can generate different semantics to spaces according to the use given to it. Then we analyze the conditions to the implementation of this knowledge in the BIM model.
keywords BIM, Virtual Sensitive Environments, Building Use Simulation, Semantics.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2015/06/29 05:55

_id 629a
authors Brunetta, Vincent
year 1997
title EXPLORER A Procedural Modeler Based on Architectural Knowledge
source AVOCAAD First International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-01-09] Brussels (Belgium) 10-12 April 1997, pp. 125-133
summary Cet article est consacré à la modélisation procédurale de configurations architecturales. Les outils de CAO actuels reproduisent et figent la pratique traditionelle du projet architectural, leurs modèles de représentation sous-jacents sont considérablement éloignés de la représentation usuelle de l'objet architectural. Il nous apparaît que les modes d'accès et de constitution "alternatifs" du modèle informatique (description textuelle et modélisation procédurale) représentent un champ d'expérimentation privilégié susceptible de questionner ces problèmes de représentation du savoir architectural. Nous commencerons par l'examen de modélisations par description textuelle (notamment de façades néoclassiques et de l'architecture palladienne) pour ensuite nous intéresser à une série de modélisations procédurales à base de connaissances architecturales. Nous verrons enfin comment cette réflexion, dans un cadre pédagogique, confronte nos étudiants à la fois à l'analyse architecturale, à une approche de la programmation structurée ou orientée-objet ainsi qu'à une utilisation "critique" des outils de conception assistée.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id e885
authors Brunetta, Vincent
year 1998
title Analyse architecturale et infographie
source Computerised Craftsmanship [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Paris (France) 24-26 September 1998, pp. 239-252
summary Dans cet article, nous nous intéresserons à trois expériences pédagogiques dans le cadre de l'enseignement de l'infographie. Il s'agit de montrer que l'infographie et l'histoire de l'architecture, champs apparemment distincts, peuvent faire l'objet d'approches transversales. Nous commencerons par l?examen de la modélisation par description textuelle pour ensuite nous intéresser à la modélisation procédurale à base de connaissances architecturales. Ces modes d?accès et de constitution "alternatifs" de modèles infographiques représentent un moyen privilégié de confronter la modélisation infographique à l'analyse architecturale notamment par le biais de la modélisation du savoir architectural. Nous verrons comment ces exercices confrontent nos étudiants à la fois à l'analyse architecturale, à une approche de la programmation structurée ou orientée-objet ainsi qu'à une utilisation "critique" des outils de conception assistée. Nous terminerons par une expérience d'animation infographique qui questionne la pertinence de l'image de synthèse comme support à l'analyse architecturale et à la communication de celle-ci.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/25 17:04

_id ga0133
id ga0133
authors Comino, Angelo (Motor)
year 2001
title The Eliza’s Dream- Il sogno di Eliza
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary The Eliza’s dream (Il sogno di Eliza) is a small project about the practical use of generative or computer based methods applied on story writing. During this project the author, Motor (a.k.a Angelo Comino) explored all kind of help and interaction with the digital environment in order to write a common, but hopefully pleasant, mistery book, trough generative software,dialogues with classic artificial intelligence, with automated brainstormer or story telling expert systems.
series other
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id ecaade2018_165
id ecaade2018_165
authors Fisher-Gewirtzman, Dafna and Bruchim, Elad
year 2018
title Considering Variant Movement Velocities on the 3D Dynamic Visibility Analysis (DVA) - Simulating the perception of urban users: pedestrians, cyclists and car drivers.
source Kepczynska-Walczak, A, Bialkowski, S (eds.), Computing for a better tomorrow - Proceedings of the 36th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Poland, 19-21 September 2018, pp. 569-576
summary The objective of this research project is to simulate and evaluate the effect of movement velocity and cognitive abilities on the visual perception of three groups of urban users: pedestrians, cyclists and car drivers.The simulation and analysis is based on the 3D Dynamic Visual Analysis (DVA) (Fisher-Gewirtzman, 2017). This visibility analysis model was developed in the Rhinoceros and Grasshopper software environments and is based on the conceptual model presented in Fisher-Gewirtzman (2016): a 3D Line of Sight (LOS) visibility analysis, taking into account the integrated effect of the 3D geometry of the environment and the variant elements of the view (such as the sky, trees and vegetation, buildings and building types, roads, water etc.). In this paper, the current advancement of the existing model considers the visual perception of human users employing three types of movement in the urban environment--pedestrians, cyclists and drivers--is explored.We expect this research project to exemplify the contribution of such a quantification and evaluation model to evaluating existing urban structures, and for supporting future human perception-based urban design processes.
keywords visibility analysis and simulation; predicting perception of space; movement in the urban environment; pedestrians; cyclists; car drivers
series eCAADe
last changed 2018/08/22 13:38

_id ecaade2018_176
id ecaade2018_176
authors Fisher-Gewirtzman, Dafna and Polak, Nir
year 2018
title Integrating Crowdsourcing & Gamification in an Automatic Architectural Synthesis Process
source Kepczynska-Walczak, A, Bialkowski, S (eds.), Computing for a better tomorrow - Proceedings of the 36th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Poland, 19-21 September 2018, pp. 439-444
summary This work covers the methodological approach that is used to gather information from the wisdom of crowd, to be utilized in a machine learning process for the automatic generation of minimal apartment units. The flexibility in the synthesis process enables the generation of apartment units that seem to be random and some are unsuitable for dwelling. Thus, the synthesis process is required to classify units based on their suitability. The classification is deduced from opinions of human participants on previously generated units. As the definition of "suitability" may be subjective, this work offers a crowdsourcing method in order to reach a large number of participants, that as a whole would allow to produce an objective classification. Gaming elements have been adopted to make the crowdsourcing process more intuitive and inviting for external participants.
keywords crowdsourcing and gamification; urban density; optimization; automated architecture synthesis; minimum apartments; visual openness
series eCAADe
last changed 2018/07/24 10:23

_id ddss9432
id ddss9432
authors Goldschmidt, G.
year 1994
title Visual Reference for Design: Analogy, Transformation and the Act of Sketching
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary All designers know that it is impossible to infer a design solution from the givens of a task alone, no matter how complete and well presented they are. Therefore, designers seek to complementinformation they receive, and the material they bring into the task environment includes visual images. Images may be gathered from every imaginable source, from domain-specific images (in architecture they are usually classified and pertain to building type, location, period, technology, style or creator) through 'metaphoric' images (art, nature) to eclectic personal favourites. Inaddition, randomly encountered images may find their way into a database of references: a depository of potentially useful images. With the exception of factual information that fills in thetask givens, it is usually far from clear what purpose may be served by images in general, or to what use the specific images aligned for a particular task may be put. We propose that the singlemost significant 'on line' role of visual references during the process of designing is to suggest potential analogies to the entity that is being designed. The process of discovering and exploitingan analogy in design is complex; we shall explain it in terms of Gentner's structure mapping theory, which we adapt to visual structures. We further propose that the abstraction process thatmust take place for the successful identification and mapping from source (visual reference) onto target (designed entity) requires transformations of images, and such transformations are bestachieved through sketching. Sketching facilitates the two way process of movement from the pictorial to the diagrammatic and from the schematic to the figural. Such transformations musttake place to arrive at the match that allows conceptual transfer, mapping of structural relations and insight through analogy.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 5607
authors Goldschmidt, Gabriela
year 2001
title Is a Figure-Concept Binary Argumentation Pattern Inherent in Visual Design Reasoning?
source J. S. Gero, B. Tversky and T. Purcell (eds), 2001, Visual and Spatial Reasoning in Design, II - Key Centre of Design Computing and Cognition, University of Sydney, Australia
summary This paper is based on the assumption that because designingis aimed at specifying configurations of entities, designers mustmanipulate forms and shapes and they must resort to visual reasoning todo so. Visual reasoning in designing is seen as the interplay betweenfigural and conceptual reasoning, such that the one supports andcontinues the other in order to arrive at a configuration that is valid interms of all the requirements it is to satisfy. We use protocol analysis toexplore the bond between conceptual and figural reasoning at two levelsof cognitive operation – that of the design move and that of theargument that is its building block. We conclude that the two modes ofreasoning are equi-present in designing; they describe a binary systemcharacterized by high frequency shifts between figure and concept.
series other
last changed 2003/05/02 09:16

_id caadria2014_096
id caadria2014_096
authors Grobman, Yasha and Roy Kozlovsky
year 2014
title On the Shores of Architecture
source Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2014) / Kyoto 14-16 May 2014, pp. 853–862
summary This paper explores the implications of complex geometry enabled by computational technology to architectural theory and practice. It reviews the different design paradigms engaged breaking the horizontality of the floor and ceiling or fusing them together. It argues that current advances in fluid dynamics simulations open a new frontier in the conception of the usable architectural surface, in which the architectural product is no longer a fixed object, but the interaction between a fluid, changing environment and built form. The paper presents a case study in which computational fluid dynamics are utilized to reconvert a disused breakwater into a ‘blue garden’. The morphology of the breakwater and its texture are calculated to produce the conditions amiable for supporting a varied marine ecosystem, and to shape the waves to generate aesthetically meaningful sensations. The essay discusses the technical and conceptual challenges of controlling the nonlinear behaviour of fluids. It then speculates on the theoretical ramifications of having the surface interact with exterior forces and the subject's imagination to produce an event enfolding in time.
keywords Computational fluid dynamics; curvilinear surfaces; performance design theory; habitat engineering; coastal infrastructure
series CAADRIA
last changed 2014/04/22 08:23

_id ecaade2011_018
id ecaade2011_018
authors Grobman, Yasha J.; Ron, Ruth
year 2011
title Digital Form Finding: Generative use of simulation processes by architects in the early stages of the design process
source RESPECTING FRAGILE PLACES [29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-9-4912070-1-3], University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture (Slovenia) 21-24 September 2011, pp.107-115
summary The paper presents performance oriented approaches to digital form finding which stems from the lines of research on performance and morphogenesis in architectural design. The main contribution to the earlier research is threefold; it examines the potential of the presented design processes to integrate interdisciplinary approach based on the use of simulation tools by architects or direct data exchange between simulation tools and design. Secondly, it explores new methods to generate initial architectural form based on performance information that apply to both building scale and urban scale, and lastly, it develops the theoretical framework on the ramifications of employing simulation technology and techniques in architectural design.
wos WOS:000335665500012
keywords Form generation; performance; simulation; parametric design; form finding
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ce4a
authors Hashimshony, Rivka, Shaviv , Edna and Wachman, A.
year 1978
title A Decomposition Model as a Tool for Evaluation of Multi-Cell Solutions : A Case Study
source pp. 470-481 : ill. Haifa, Israel: Technion Research and Development Foundation Ltd., March 1978. no. 021-223. includes bibliography
summary A decomposition-recomposition model that was recently developed by the authors, is applied as a tool for evaluating the layout of an actual design problem composed of 130 activities. The evaluation is performed by comparing the suggested design solution, in terms of space allocation, with a theoretical solution obtained through the model which is set up as a norm for the evaluation
keywords architecture, evaluation, floor plans, decomposition, space allocation, synthesis
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ecaade2016_185
id ecaade2016_185
authors Ilčík, Martin and Wimmer, Michael
year 2016
title Collaborative Modeling with Symbolic Shape Grammars
source Herneoja, Aulikki; Toni Österlund and Piia Markkanen (eds.), Complexity & Simplicity - Proceedings of the 34th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, 22-26 August 2016, pp. 417-426
summary Generative design based on symbolic grammars is oriented on individual artists. Team work is not supported since single scripts produced by various artists have to be linked and maintained manually with a lot of effort. The main motivation for a collaborative modeling framework was to reduce the script management required for large projects. We achieved even more by extending the design paradigm to a cloud environment where everyone is part of a huge virtual team. The main contribution of the presented work is a web-based modeling system with a specialized variant of a symbolic shape grammar.
wos WOS:000402064400041
keywords collaboration; symbolic shape grammar; generative modeling
series eCAADe
type normal paper
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last changed 2017/06/28 08:46

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