CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ascaad2014_014
id ascaad2014_014
authors Abuelmaatti, Aisha A.; Vian S. Ahmed and Heveine S. Baban
year 2014
title Collaborative Environments in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises in Architecture, Engineering and Construction
source Digital Crafting [7th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2014 / ISBN 978-603-90142-5-6], Jeddah (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia), 31 March - 3 April 2014, pp. 183-193
summary The general picture of Architecture Engineering and Construction (AEC) is of a sector that is a pyramid with control being in the hands of large players with a large base of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). It ensues naturally that SMEs are key players in supporting the large companies. This suggests that, the AEC sector has a continuous demand for collaboration. Collaborative working has been implemented in numerous companies. These efforts have resulted in the wide recognition of the opportunity that emerging technologies offer the AEC sector. It is, however, commonly observed that SMEs are likely to magnify the sector trend and to be less technically forward thinking than large companies. The main focus of this paper is, therefore, to explore the use of IT within AEC, and the barriers and different implementation factors that can influence SMEs to develop, in response to business pressures using the opportunities provided by collaborative technologies.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2016/02/15 12:09

_id ecaade03_269_43_achten
id ecaade03_269_43_achten
authors Achten, Henri and Joosen, Gijs
year 2003
title The Digital Design Process - Reflections on a Single Design Case
source Digital Design [21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-1-6] Graz (Austria) 17-20 September 2003, pp. 269-274
summary CAD tools are increasing their expressive and geometric power to enable a design process in which the computer model can be used throughout the whole design process for realizing the design. Such a process, in which other media such as physical scale models or drawings are no longer required by necessity to facilitate the design process, can be considered a digital design process. Rather than proposing that such a process is ideal – drawings and scale models should not be discarded – we feel that when taken as a starting point, the digital design process raises a number of new challenges to architectural design that deserve attention. These challenges concern the basic activities in design: exploration of the problem space, creating preliminary solutions, understanding consequences of design decisions, and so forth. In this paper we take the concrete design case of a graduation project that was developed from the start solely in CAD. We identify a number of key issues in that process such as continuous modeling, the model as design, continuous pliability, localized focus, and postponed decision. These issues not only have a technical, CAD-related aspect, but also are connected to architectural design. Most of these aspects are subject of contemporary debate in architectural design. On this basis, we can indicate where CAD is making a potential difference in architectural design.
keywords Digital design, CAAD
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/22 08:49

_id ecaade2009_123
id ecaade2009_123
authors Achten, Henri; Beetz, Jakob
year 2009
title What Happened to Collaborative Design?
source Computation: The New Realm of Architectural Design [27th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-8-9] Istanbul (Turkey) 16-19 September 2009, pp. 357-366
wos WOS:000334282200043
summary In this paper we present the results of a comprehensive literature survey on the development of collaborative design. We reviewed 324 papers on collaborative design, taken from various sources (conferences, journals, and PhD-theses). We grouped the papers based on common themes, and in that way derived a classification of themes through the last 25 years (1983-2008). Each category is described, its development, and key publications are identified.
keywords Collaborative design
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id 4b55
authors Af Klercker, J. , Ekholm, A. and Fridqvist, S. (Ed.)
year 1996
title Education for Practice [Conference Proceedings]
source 14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2 / Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, 425 p.
summary There are many of us trying to make place for CAAD in a natural way in the Curriculum of the Architect school. We would like to make CAAD useful to the students already during their studies. Even if we have the support of our collegues for running courses there is very often no space in the timetable. And even if we have all the entusiasm of our students it is hard to practice your CAAD knowledge on projects where it is not asked for.

The education of architects in the use of computers has lead me to try to find "the roots of education of architects" in general. A collegue of mine in a bookshelf of course litterature in Informatics found and put into my hands "Educating the reflective practitioner" by Donald Schön. It lead to an interesting process of personal reflection and discussion within our CAAD team.

We think by the way that the theme of the conference points to the heart of the message in Donald Schöns book and we are inviting him as a key note speaker at the Conference.

series eCAADe
type normal paper
last changed 2007/01/21 13:05

_id 730e
authors Af Klercker, Jonas
year 1997
title Implementation of IT and CAD - what can Architect schools do?
source AVOCAAD First International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-01-09] Brussels (Belgium) 10-12 April 1997, pp. 83-92
summary In Sweden representatives from the Construction industry have put forward a research and development program called: "IT-Bygg 2002 -Implementation". It aims at making IT the vehicle for decreasing the building costs and at the same time getting better quality and efficiency out of the industry. A seminar was held with some of the most experienced researchers, developers and practitioners of CAD in construction in Sweden. The activities were recorded and annotated, analysed and put together afterwards; then presented to the participants to agree on. Co-operation is the key to get to the goals - IT and CAD are just the means to improve it. Co-operation in a phase of implementation is enough problematic without the technical difficulties in using computer programs created by the computer industry primarily for commercial reasons. The suggestion is that cooperation between software companies within Sweden will make a greater market to share than the sum of all individual efforts. In the short term, 2 - 5 years, implementation of CAD and IT will demand a large amount of educational efforts from all actors in the construction process. In the process of today the architect is looked upon as a natural coordinator of the design phase. In the integrated process the architect's methods and knowledge are central and must be spread to other categories of actors - what a challenge! At least in Sweden the number of researchers and educators in CAAD is easily counted. How do we make the most of it?
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 4c79
authors Aguilar, Lorenzo
year 1986
title A Format for a Graphical Communications Protocol
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications vol. 3 (March, 1986): pp. 52-62
summary This article describes the requirements for a graphical format on which a graphical on-line communications protocol can be based. It is argued that on-line graphical communications is similar to graphical session capture, and thus the author proposes an interactive graphical communications format using the GKSM session metafile. The discussion includes items that complement the GKSM metafile such as a format for on-line interactive exchange. One key application area of such a format is multimedia on-line conferencing. Therefore, a conferencing software architecture for processing the proposed format is presented. This format specification is made available to those planning multimedia conferencing systems
keywords user interface, communication, computer graphics, multimedia, standards
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id ecaade2017_085
id ecaade2017_085
authors Agustí-Juan, Isolda, Hollberg, Alexander and Habert, Guillaume
year 2017
title Integration of environmental criteria in early stages of digital fabrication
source Fioravanti, A, Cursi, S, Elahmar, S, Gargaro, S, Loffreda, G, Novembri, G, Trento, A (eds.), ShoCK! - Sharing Computational Knowledge! - Proceedings of the 35th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy, 20-22 September 2017, pp. 185-192
summary The construction sector is responsible for a big share of the global energy, resource demand and greenhouse gas emissions. As such, buildings and their designers are key players for carbon mitigation actions. Current research in digital fabrication is beginning to reveal its potential to improve the sustainability of the construction sector. To evaluate the environmental performance of buildings, life cycle assessment (LCA) is commonly employed. Recent research developments have successfully linked LCA to CAD and BIM tools for a faster evaluation of environmental impacts. However, these are only partially applicable to digital fabrication, because of differences in the design process. In contrast to conventional construction, in digital fabrication the geometry is the consequence of the definition of functional, structural and fabrication parameters during design. Therefore, this paper presents an LCA-based method for design-integrated environmental assessment of digitally fabricated building elements. The method is divided into four levels of detail following the degree of available information during the design process. Finally, the method is applied to the case study "Mesh Mould", a digitally fabricated complex concrete wall that does not require any formwork. The results prove the applicability of the method and highlight the environmental benefits digital fabrication can provide.
keywords Digital fabrication; Parametric LCA; Early design; Sustainability
series eCAADe
last changed 2017/09/13 13:31

_id de77
authors Ahmad Rafi, M.E.
year 1998
title Computer animation for architectural visualisation
source University of Strathclyde
summary This thesis critically reviews the state of architectural animation, and relates this specific field to the more general motion-based representations, particularly traditional film-making techniques. It identifies key elements from traditional filmmaking and shows how these elements can improve computer-based architectural animation. The process of identification of the key elements from traditional film-making starts with a critical survey of the use of motion-based representation in local architectural practices and an empirical analysis of several architectural-based documentary films and past and present computer animations. All of the key ideas are illustrated on video by comparing real shooting clips to digital sequences focusing on production and post-production works. Some of these were implemented in two live projects ( Ministry of Finance, Malaysia and Damansara Parade ) for architects to understand the real problems and potentials in each process. These sets of illustrations expand the architect ideas to make full use of the motion-based process to improve the skill of combining architectural information in a good animation. The overall production process becomes more efficient when the motion-based footage is edited using a non-linear editing platform as it enhances the professional appearance as well as vastly saving most of the production time. The thesis concludes with specific recommendations relative to the stage at which the animation is produced. This technology can be best utilised with the right skills (a gained from film-making) and an understanding of each stage that requires a different level of input and gives a certain impact to the viewers.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 461b
authors Ahmad Rafi, M.E. and Karboulonis, P.
year 2002
title The Role of Advanced VR Interfaces in Knowledge Management and Their Relevance to CAD
source CAADRIA 2002 [Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 983-2473-42-X] Cyberjaya (Malaysia) 18–20 April 2002, pp. 277-284
summary This paper introduces knowledge management and computer aided visualisation as a key in establishing both valuation and value creation capabilities in the enterprise where dissemination of knowledge and effective sharing of information through collaboration spur creativity and stimulate business practices. The paper draws an original approach for the design and development of a universal information/knowledge visualisation tool and outlines the mechanics that enable the working prototype that focuses on CAD.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id bb5f
authors Ahmad Rafi, M.E. and Mohd Fazidin, J.
year 2001
title Creating a City Administration System (CAS) using Virtual Reality in an Immersive Collaborative Environment (ICE)
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 449-453
summary Current problems in administration of a city are found to be decentralized and noninteractive for an effective city management. This usually will result in inconsistencies of decision-making, inefficient services and slow response to a particular action. City administration often spends more money, time and human resource because of these problems. This research demonstrates our research and development of creating a City Administration System (CAS) to solve the problems stated above. The task of the system is to use information, multimedia and graphical technologies to form a database in which the city administrators can monitor, understand and manage an entire city from a central location. The key technology behind the success of the overall system uses virtual reality and immersive collaborative environment (ICE). This system employs emerging computer based real-time interactive technologies that are expected to ensure effective decisionmaking process, improved communication, and collaboration, error reduction, (Rafi and Karboulonis, 2000) between multi disciplinary users and approaches. This multi perspective approach allows planners, engineers, urban designers, architects, local authorities, environmentalists and general public to search, understand, process and anticipate the impact of a particular situation in the new city. It is hoped that the CAS will benefit city administrators to give them a tool that gives them the ability to understand, plan, and manage the business of running the city.
keywords City Administration System (CAS), Virtual Reality, Immersive Collaborative Environment (ICE), Database
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 9c41
authors Ahmad Rafi, M.E., Chee W.K., Mai, N., Ken, T.-K. N. and Sharifah Nur, A.S.A. (Eds.)
year 2002
title CAADRIA 2002 [Conference Proceedings]
source Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 983-2473-42-X / Cyberjaya (Malaysia) 18–20 April 2002, 370 p.
summary Evolution of trends in the realm of computer aided architectural design (CAAD) has seen the convergence of technologies – complementing traditional tools with emerging sciences like Information Technology (IT) and multimedia applications. This appliqué of technologies has not just expanded the scope and enhanced the realm of CAAD research and practice, but is also breaking new frontiers. This creative nexus will be realised at the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research In Asia (CAADRIA 2002) to be held at the Faculty of Creative Multimedia, Multimedia University, Malaysia, between 18th-20th April, 2002. CAADRIA 2002’s theme, "Redefining Content", seeks to recognise and infuse these emerging components in the field of architecture and design with a holistic approach towards online, digital and interactive systems. The 41 papers compiled were selected through a blind review process conducted by an international review panel. To reflect the multi-disciplinary nature of this year's conference, the chapters are arranged topically to facilitate the in-depth study of key components. The component sessions include: // Web Design, Database and Networks // CAD, Modelling and Tools // Collaborative Design, Creative Design and Case Reasoning // Simulation and Prototyping // Virtual Environment and Knowledge Management // Design Education, Teaching and Learning /// We believe that this specialised approach will provide a deeper and more illuminating feel of the various components and their critical convergence in the field of architecture and design.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2002/04/25 17:26

_id acadia17_52
id acadia17_52
authors Ajlouni, Rima
year 2017
title Simulation of Sound Diffusion Patterns of Fractal-Based Surface Profiles
source ACADIA 2017: DISCIPLINES & DISRUPTION [Proceedings of the 37th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-96506-1] Cambridge, MA 2-4 November, 2017), pp. 52-61
summary Acoustical design is one of the most challenging aspects of architecture. A complex system of competing influences (e.g., space geometry, size, proportion, material properties, surface detail, etc.) contribute to shaping the quality of the auditory experience. In particular, architectural surfaces affect the way that sound reflections propagate through space. By diffusing the reflected sound energy, surface designs can promote a more homogeneous auditory atmosphere by mitigating sharp and focused reflections. One of the challenges with designing an effective diffuser is the need to respond to a wide band of sound wavelengths, which requires the surface profile to precisely encode a range of detail sizes, depths and angles. Most of the available sound diffusers are designed to respond to a narrow band of frequencies. In this context, fractal-based surface designs can provide a unique opportunity for mitigating such limitations. A key principle of fractal geometry is its multilevel hierarchical order, which enables the same pattern to occur at different scales. This characteristic makes it a potential candidate for diffusing a wider band of sound wavelengths. However, predicting the reflection patterns of complicated fractal-based surface designs can be challenging using available acoustical software. These tools are often costly, complicated and are not designed for predicting early sound propagation paths. This research argues that writing customized algorithms provides a valuable, free and efficient alternative for addressing targeted acoustical design problems. The paper presents a methodology for designing and testing a customized algorithm for predicting sound diffusion patterns of fractal-based surfaces. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used to develop the code and evaluate the results.
keywords design methods; information processing; simulation & optimization; data visualization
series ACADIA
last changed 2017/10/17 09:12

_id 4bf6
authors Akin, O. and Lin, C.
year 1995
title Design Protocol data and novel design decisions
source Design Studies, 16 (#2, April), 211-236
summary This work is a part of The Delft Protocols Workshop which is an international gathering of experts on design research. The objective is to study the behaviours of designers using techniques of cognitive psychology in general and protocol analysis in particular. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between visual-graphic data processing and novel design ideas. Several analyses dealing with verbal-conceptual and visual-graphic data have been conducted; and the relationships between design activities and design decisions have been explored. The findings indicate that phases of the design process and the activities correlate with key design decisions.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 1fb3
authors Akin, O., Cumming, M., Shealey, M. and Tuncer, B.
year 1997
title An electronic design assistance tool for case-based representation of designs
source Automation in Construction 6 (4) (1997) pp. 265-274
summary In precedent based design, solutions to problems are developed by drawing from an understanding of landmark designs. Many of the key design operations in this mode are similar to the functionalities present in case-based reasoning systems: case matching, case adapting, and case representation. It is clear that a rich case-base, encoding all major product types in a design domain would be the centerpiece of such an approach. EDAT (Electronic Design Assistance Tool) is intended to assist in precedent based design in the studio with the potential of expansion into the office setting. EDAT has been designed using object oriented system development methods. EDAT was used in a design studio at Carnegie Mellon University, during Spring 1996.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 4cda
authors Akin, O., Cumming, M. , Shealey, M. and Tuncer, B.
year 1996
title An Electronic Design Assistance Tool for Case Based Representation of Designs
source Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-05-5] Tucson (Arizona / USA) October 31 - November 2, 1996, pp. 123-132
summary In precedent based design, solutions to problems are developed by drawing from an understanding of landmark designs. Many of the key design operations in this mode are similar to the functionalities present in case based reasoning systems: case matching, case adapting, and case representation. It is clear that a rich case base, encoding all major product types in a design domain would be the centerpiece of such an approach. EDAT (Electronic Design Assistance Tool) is intended to assist in precedent based design in the studio with the potential of expansion into the office setting. EDAT has been designed using object oriented system development methods. EDAT was used in a design studio at Carnegie Mellon University, during Spring 1996, and will be used in future studios, as well.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id ascaad2014_023
id ascaad2014_023
authors Al-Maiyah, Sura and Hisham Elkadi
year 2014
title Assessing the Use of Advanced Daylight Simulation Modelling Tools in Enhancing the Student Learning Experience
source Digital Crafting [7th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2014 / ISBN 978-603-90142-5-6], Jeddah (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia), 31 March - 3 April 2014, pp. 303-313
summary In architecture schools, where the ‘studio culture’ lies at the heart of students’ learning, taught courses, particularly technology ones, are often seen as secondary or supplementary units. Successful delivery of such courses, where students can act effectively, be motivated and engaged, is a rather demanding task requiring careful planning and the use of various teaching styles. A recent challenge that faces architecture education today, and subsequently influences the way technology courses are being designed, is the growing trend in practice towards environmentally responsive design and the need for graduates with new skills in sustainable construction and urban ecology (HEFCE’s consultation document, 2005). This article presents the role of innovative simulation modelling tools in the enhancement of the student learning experience and professional development. Reference is made to a teaching practice that has recently been applied at Portsmouth School of Architecture in the United Kingdom and piloted at Deakin University in Australia. The work focuses on the structure and delivery of one of the two main technology units in the second year architecture programme that underwent two main phases of revision during the academic years 2009/10 and 2010/11. The article examines the inclusion of advanced daylight simulation modelling tools in the unit programme, and measures the effectiveness of enhancing its delivery as a key component of the curriculum on the student learning experience. A main objective of the work was to explain whether or not the introduction of a simulation modelling component, and the later improvement of its integration with the course programme and assessment, has contributed to a better learning experience and level of engagement. Student feedback and the grade distribution pattern over the last three academic years were collected and analyzed. The analysis of student feedback on the revised modelling component showed a positive influence on the learning experience and level of satisfaction and engagement. An improvement in student performance was also recorded over the last two academic years and following the implementation of new assessment design.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2016/02/15 12:09

_id eb5f
authors Al-Sallal, Khaled A. and Degelman, Larry 0.
year 1994
title A Hypermedia Model for Supporting Energy Design in Buildings
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 39-49
summary Several studies have discussed the limitations of the available CAAD tools and have proposed solutions [Brown and Novitski 1987, Brown 1990, Degelman and Kim 1988, Schuman et al 1988]. The lack of integration between the different tasks that these programs address and the design process is a major problem. Schuman et al [1988] argued that in architectural design many issues must be considered simultaneously before the synthesis of a final product can take place. Studies by Brown and Novitski [1987] and Brown [1990] discussed the difficulties involved with integrating technical considerations in the creative architectural process. One aspect of the problem is the neglect of technical factors during the initial phase of the design that, as the authors argued, results from changing the work environment and the laborious nature of the design process. Many of the current programs require the user to input a great deal of numerical values that are needed for the energy analysis. Although there are some programs that attempt to assist the user by setting default values, these programs distract the user with their extensive arrays of data. The appropriate design tool is the one that helps the user to easily view the principal components of the building design and specify their behaviors and interactions. Data abstraction and information parsimony are the key concepts in developing a successful design tool. Three different approaches for developing an appropriate CAAD tool were found in the literature. Although there are several similarities among them, each is unique in solving certain aspects of the problem. Brown and Novitski [1987] emphasize the learning factor of the tool as well as its highly graphical user interface. Degelman and Kim [1988] emphasize knowledge acquisition and the provision of simulation modules. The Windows and Daylighting Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) emphasizes the dynamic structuring of information, the intelligent linking of data, the integrity of the different issues of design and the design process, and the extensive use of images [Schuman et al 19881, these attributes incidentally define the word hypermedia. The LBL model, which uses hypermedia, seems to be the more promising direction for this type of research. However, there is still a need to establish a new model that integrates all aspects of the problem. The areas in which the present research departs from the LBL model can be listed as follows: it acknowledges the necessity of regarding the user as the center of the CAAD tool design, it develops a model that is based on one of the high level theories of human-computer interaction, and it develops a prototype tool that conforms to the model.

series ACADIA
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id caadria2015_111
id caadria2015_111
authors Alani, Mostafa W. and Carlos R. Barrios
year 2015
title A Parametric Description for Metamorphosis of Islamic Geometric Patterns
source Emerging Experience in Past, Present and Future of Digital Architecture, Proceedings of the 20th International Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2015) / Daegu 20-22 May 2015, pp. 593-602
summary This paper presents a parametric approach toward studying the characteristics of the Islamic geometric patterns (IGP). The presented computational system utilizes a parametric description of the geometry to initiate the process of metamorphosis exploration and to document the generated variations. The study found that changing the parameters in the description produces new variations that have a wide range of qualitative and quantitative properties; some match exactly the properties of traditionally existed geometries.
keywords Parametric Design; Metamorphosis; shape-code; key-shape; Islamic Geometric Pattern.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2015/06/05 05:14

_id ascaad2016_011
id ascaad2016_011
authors Alani, Mostafa W.
year 2016
title Morphological Code of Historical Geometric Patterns - The Digital Age of Islamic Architecture
source Parametricism Vs. Materialism: Evolution of Digital Technologies for Development [8th ASCAAD Conference Proceedings ISBN 978-0-9955691-0-2] London (United Kingdom) 7-8 November 2016, pp. 85-94
summary This study intervenes in the long-standing paradigm that considers compositional analysis as the key to researching the Islamic Geometric Patterns (IGP). The research argues that the compositional analysis of the geometry is not solely sufficient to investigate the design characteristics of the IGP, and the better way of achieving this emerges through a consideration of the design formalism.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2017/05/25 11:13

_id sigradi2004_027
id sigradi2004_027
authors Alfredo Stipech
year 2004
title Enseñanza de la representación manual y digital, para arquitectos y diseñadores [Teaching Hand and Digital Representation to Architects and Designers]
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary The supremacy of the digital means of representation and communication and the resulting shift of the manual means in the field of design and architecture, have engendered multiple opinions and literature. They focus and analyze the virtues and risks, the losses and substitutions, and the different expressive, productive and conceptual results of their leading role in the creative process. Furthermore, if we consider both as two extremes, apparently opposed, a broad panorama of combinations and additions are produced by the emerging group of hybrid practices. This motivated the development of a research project in the Universidad Nacional del Litoral de Santa Fe, Argentina, under the Program CAI+D 2000 dealing with Design and the Analog – Digital Means. From this project emerged a collection of conceptual speculations and experimentations in the extended field of representation, extended by the incorporation of new means and hybridations, searching for new parameters and methods for professional training and practice. Key words: analog, digital, graphics, means, representation.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

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