CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 219

_id ascaad2012_007
id ascaad2012_007
authors Abdelsalam, Mai M.
year 2012
title The Use of Smart Geometry in Islamic Patterns - Case Study: Mamluk Mosques
source CAAD | INNOVATION | PRACTICE [6th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2012 / ISBN 978-99958-2-063-3], Manama (Kingdom of Bahrain), 21-23 February 2012, pp. 49-68
summary It is noted that architects need new and quick methods designing the historic architectural styles, as well as restoring the historical urban areas particularly the Islamic ones. These designs and restorations should adapt to the basics of the Islamic style used; general concept, module and features. Smart Geometry provides advanced design concepts and increases alternative variations. Parametric design softwares also add more rules and relations on the design process. Obviously, the Islamic module and proportions are used as design generators that result in extracting a number of alternatives easily in a little time. Generative Components (GC) is the parametric software used to achieve the desired objectives of this research.
series ASCAAD
email maiabdelsalam@gmail.com
more http://www.ascaad.org/conference/2012/papers/ascaad2012_007.pdf
last changed 2012/05/15 18:46

_id ddss9802
id ddss9802
authors Akin, O., Aygen, Z., Cumming, M., Donia, M., Sen, R. and Zhang, Y.
year 1998
title Computational Specification of Building Requirements in theEarly Stages of Design
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary We have been exploring computational techniques to help building designers to specify design requirements during the early stages of design. In the past, little has been accomplished in this area either in terms of innovative computational technologies or the improvement of design performance.The prospect of improving design productivity and creating a seamless process between requirements specification and formal design are our primary motivations. This research has been conducted as partof a larger project entitled SEED (Software Environment to Support Early Phases in Building Design). SEED features an open-ended modular architecture, where each module provides support for a design activity that takes place in early design stages. Each module is supported by a database to store and retrieve information, as well as a user interface to support the interaction with designers. The module described in this paper, SEED-Pro (the architectural programming module of SEED), is a workingprototype for building design requirements specification. It can be used by other modules in SEED or by design systems in other domains, such as mechanical engineering, civil engineering, industrial designand electrical engineering. Our approach to SEED-Pro is divided into two phases: core, and support functionalities. The core functionalities operate in an interactive mode relying on a case-based approach to retrieve and adapt complex specification records to the problem at hand. The supportfunctionalities include the case-base, the data-base, and the standards processing environment for building specification tasks. Our findings indicate that SEED-Pro: (1) is a tool that structures the unstructured domain of design requirements; (2) enables the integration of design requirements with the rest of the design process, (3) leads to the creation of complex case-bases and (4) enables the observation of their performance in the context of real world design problems.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id ddss9401
id ddss9401
authors Akin, Omer
year 1994
title Psychology of Early Design in Architecture
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Lately there has been a good deal of emphasis on the early stages of the design process, particularly by developers of computer aids and quantitative design models for both evaluation and generation of designs in a variety of domains. Yet, there is little understanding of the early design-process. While the early design process as manifested by human designers need not be the sole basis of the description of this phase, it certainly represents and important kernel of knowledge, especially for those who are interested in developing models, systems or merely interfaces for such systems. This paper focuses on the characterization of the psychology of the early design phase in architecture. It is described in terms of the general design strategies and problem solving tactics used; and is contrasted against some of the process characteristics that
series DDSS
email oaO4+@andrew.cmu.edu
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id alqawasmi
id alqawasmi
authors Al-Qawasmi, J., Clayton, M.J., Tassinary, L.G. and Johnson, R..
year 1999
title Observations on Collaborative Design and Multimedia Usage in Virtual Design Studio
source J. Woosely and T. Adair (eds.), Learning virtually: Proceedings of the 6th annual distance education conference, San Antonio, Texas, pp. 1-9
summary The virtual design studio (VDS) points to a new way of practicing and teaching architectural design. As a new phenomenon, little research has been done to evaluate design collaboration and multimedia usage in a distributed workplace like the virtual design studio. Our research provides empirical data on how students actually use multiple media during architectural collaborative design.
series other
email jamalq@kfupm.edu.sa
last changed 2003/12/06 08:55

_id sigradi2004_209
id sigradi2004_209
authors Alexandre Cantini Rezende
year 2004
title Estudo sobre o cognitivismo e o hipertexto, e a disponibilização de material didático na internet [A Study on Cognitivism and Hypertext, and Pedagogical Material delivery over the Internet]
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary Internet has made the use of computer based teaching tools more popular then ever. Little attention has been paid to methods for providing schoolbooks in hypertext environment, though. The objective of this research was to develop propositions of methods and tools specifically for presenting textbook in interactive digital environments, paying attention to the characteristics and demands of contemporary youth and the characteristics and potentialities of hypertext systems, specially its associative quality, similar to those of the human mind. The theory on which this article is based is brought by David Ausubel.s cognitive pedagogy and its similarity to web systems, especially those which are hypertext based.
keywords Hypertext; Education; Cognition; Webdesign; Textbook
series SIGRADI
email alexcantini@yahoo.com.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 86dc
authors Aouad, G., and Price, A.D.F.
year 1993
title An integrated system to aid the planning of concrete structures: introducing the system
source The Int. Journal of Construction IT1(2), pp.1-14
summary This paper reports on the development at Loughborough University of a CAD-based integrated model to aid the planning of in-situ concrete structures. The system development started after a review of the planning models currently available and after a detailed questionnaire survey undertaken amongst the top UK and US contractors on the current status of planning techniques and information technology. The main aim of this system is to automate the planning process of in-situ concrete structures using data generated by CAD systems. So far, the integration of a CAD system (AutoCAD 10) and a computerized scheduling system (Artemis 2000) has been achieved on a typical IBM-PC. This enables the generation of network plans using AutoCAD which are then automatically transferred to the Artemis system for time and cost analyses.Traditionally, construction planners are faced with many conventional drawings and documents which are used to re-extract information relevant to their planning processes. Such an approach can be very inefficient as it involves data double-handling and is often error prone. In addition, current computerized construction planning applications are little more than the automation of manual formulations of plans. For example, data are fed into the planning system and computations are performed using either CPM (Critical Path Method) or PERT (Programme Evaluation and Review Technique). However, data relating to the planning process such as activity lists, resources requirements and durations are not automatically generated within the system. It would thus seem logical to devise a CAD-based integrated planning model which accepts data in its electronic format and involves some integration of the traditional planning approach. This paper introduces the proposed CAD-based integrated planning model and describes its different components. In addition, it discusses the system functional specifications and summarizes the main benefits and limitations of such a model.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id f321
authors Ataman, Osman and Bermudez, Julio
year 2002
title ACADIA'99: media effect on architectural design
source Automation in Construction 11 (2) (2002) pp. 131-134
summary The idea of this conference arose from various discussions between us in various different places. We decided to put a proposal together for both positions—Technical Chairs and Site Organizers. This was unprecedented and we were anxious. We really wanted to run this conference and run it in Salt Lake City. Our theme AMedia and Design ProcessB was a timely topic and both of us were working on and around it. We thought it was interesting and challenging to define the terms and to establish the relationships between architecture, representation and media. In fact, all throughout the history of architecture, representation, media and design have been recognized to have a close relationship. Interpretations as to what exactly this relationship is or means have been subject to debate, disagreement and change along the ages. Whereas much has been said about the dialectics between representation and design, little has been elaborated on the relationship between media and design. Perhaps, it is not until now, surrounded by all kinds of media at the turn of the millennium, as Johnson argues, that we have enough context to be able to see and address the relationship between media and human activities with some degree of perspective.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 411c
authors Ataman, Osman and Bermúdez (Ed.)
year 1999
title Media and Design Process [Conference Proceedings]
source ACADIA ‘99 Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-08-X / Salt Lake City 29-31 October 1999, 353 p.
summary Throughout known architectural history, representation, media and design have been recognized to have a close relationship. This relationship is inseparable; representation being a means for engaging in design thinking and making and this activity requiring media. Interpretations as to what exactly this relationship is or means have been subject to debate, disagreement and change along the ages. Whereas much has been said about the interactions between representation and design, little has been elaborated on the relationship between media and design. Perhaps, it is not until now, surrounded by all kinds of media at the turn of the millennium, as Johnson argues (1997), that we have enough context to be able to see and address the relationship between media and human activities with some degree of perspective.
series ACADIA
email oataman@astro.ocis.temple.edu, bermudez@arch.utah.edu
more http://www.acadia.org
last changed 1999/12/02 07:48

_id 00ae
id 00ae
authors Ataman, Osman
year 1995
title Building A Computer Aid for Teaching Architectural Design Concepts
source Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-04-7] University of Washington (Seattle, Washington / USA) October 19-22, 1995, pp. 187-208
summary Building an aid for teaching architectural design concepts is the process of elaborating topics, defining problems and suggesting to the students strategies for solving those problems. I believe students in Environment and Behavior (E&B) courses at Georgia Tech can benefit greatly from a computer based educational tool designed to provide them with experiences they currently do not possess. In particular, little time in the course (outside lectures) is devoted to applying concepts taught in the course to the studio projects. The tool I am proposing provides students with an opportunity to critique architectural environments (both simple examples and previous projects) using a single concept, "affordances". This paper describes my current progress toward realizing the goal of designing a tool that will help the students to understand particular concepts and to integrate them into their designs. It is my claim that an integrative and interactive approach - creating a learning environment and making both the students and the environment mutually supportive- is fundamentally more powerful than traditional educational methods.

series ACADIA
email oataman@uiuc.edu
last changed 2003/12/20 04:41

_id 8171
authors Ataman, Osman
year 1999
title Facilitating Conceptual Change: Computers, Cognitive Processes and Architecture
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 275-279
summary Computers have gained universal acceptance as tools that designers use. However, computers are often not used to advance the design process but just to make drawings. Many architectural schools still focus on a production orientation which puts the highest value on information management, precise representations and drafting enhancements. Mostly, computer education is limited with button pushing and training manuals. It is the contention of the author that students in Design Studio courses can benefit greatly from computer based educational pedagogy designed to provide them with experiences they currently do not possess. In particular, little time in the computer courses (outside lectures) is spent applying concepts and features of digital tools in design studio environment. In architecture, computers cannot be simply defined as a presentation and production tools. As a cognitive tool, computers provide designers with intelligible and effective representational tools of thought and communication, changes the syntactic structure of design. Consequently, the conceptual structure of computers impacts the conceptual structure of the design project, fosters the analytical processes and facilitates conceptual changes. This paper describes the use of computers in a first year architectural design studio. It attempts to address the importance of developing a design process that is redefined by the use of computing, integrating concept and perception. Furthermore, it describes the theoretical foundations and the underlying cognitive processes that contribute designers' conceptual development.
series SIGRADI
email ataman@arch.utah.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id acadia06_104
id acadia06_104
authors Barrow, Larry R.
year 2006
title Performance House: A CADCAM Modular House System
source Synthetic Landscapes [Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture] pp. 104-121
summary Millions of persons around the globe live in low quality indigenous, or Manufactured Housing (MH) systems that often result in low “performance” undesirable living environments and, at times, life threatening habitation. Our research has explored mass production principles in product design and architecture, currently at the single family housing scale, with a focus on the recent devastation along the US Gulf Coast as a result of hurricane impact, most notably hurricane Katrina.“Modern architecture” theoreticians have conceived, written, prototyped and even launched business ventures in an attempt to bring their manufactured housing “ideas” to fruition. However, architects have generally had little “long-term” impact in the area of manufactured housing strategies and the current manufactured housing industry remains archaic and problematic. This paper includes our research of other architects attempts to leverage technology in the manufactured housing industry; additionally, we analyzed current problems in the US mass housing industry. We then derived a set of “design criterion” as a means of anchoring our design inquiry for a proposed factory-built modular house system.Our research encompasses both process and product innovation; this paper reflects on our use of technology to leverage an Industrial Design (ID) process that is inclusive of many “design” partners and team members. We are using both virtual and physical output representation and physical prototyping for a factory-built house system; our Research and Development (R&D) is on-going with our collaborating design-manufacture engineering partners from the automotive, furniture and aerospace research labs here at Mississippi State University. Our goal is to use “industrial design” principles to produce mass housing components that provide durable-sustainable housing.
series ACADIA
email lbarrow@coa.msstate.edu
last changed 2006/09/22 06:22

_id caadria2007_301
id caadria2007_301
authors Barrow, Larry; Shaima Al Arayedh
year 2007
title Emerging Technololgy – Dilemma and Opportunities in Housing
source CAADRIA 2007 [Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Nanjing (China) 19-21 April 2007
summary Digital Technology has transformed industrial manufacturing and production; and an array of Industrial Design products provide increasing comfort and benefit to millions of global citizens via ergonomic and mass production/customization strategies. Yet, housing needs of a rapidly growing global population are rarely affected by digital technology. Shifts in societal demographics, from rural to urban city centres, and concurrently Global Warming and ecological changes are exacerbating the world housing situation. Millions are homeless, live in inadequate shelter, or as in the US Manufactured Housing (MH) market, live in nondurable poor quality “manufactured” houses that are detrimental to health, at best, or during extreme weather events, suffer catastrophic damages often resulting in death to occupants. Nevertheless, housing concepts and related living units have benefited very little when compared to architecture’s related manufacturing industries counter-parts (i.e. automotive, aerospace, marine industries, etc). While Technology has vividly expanded the shape language of architecture (i.e. Free-Form-Design), some may argue that Free-Form- Design buildings generally have beauty that is only “skin deep” and typically focus on providing signature statements for both the designer and elite clientele. In this paper, we will briefly review the role of the architect in the US Manufactured Housing industry; additionally, we will identify the major problems that plaque the US Manufactured Housing Industry. Further, we will review how architects and Industrial Designers use technology in their respective fields and draw larger designmanufacture principals for issues of global housing. Our findings and analysis suggest that an Industrial Design approach, applied in architecture for mass housing, offers a means of improving the architect’s role and technology in manufactured housing for the masses.
series CAADRIA
email skumar@caad.msstate.edu
last changed 2008/06/16 08:48

_id 6d22
authors Bermudez, J., Agutter, J., Syroid, N., Lilly, B., Sharir, Y., Lopez, T., Westenskow, D. and Foresti, S.
year 2002
title Interfacing Virtual & Physical Spaces through the Body: The cyberPRINT Project
source Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice, in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual [Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-11-X] Pomona (California) 24-27 October 2002, pp. 395-400
summary The cyberPRINT is a fully immersive, interactive virtual environment that is being generated in rea-timebased on physiological data readings of a human body. In other words, the cyberPRINT is based oncreating interfaces between physical and digital spaces and between biology and informationtechnologies. The cyberPRINT is also an event, wherein a performer is connected to the cyberPRINTgenerator to create a self-sustaining feedback mechanism. Although using the body to electronicallydrive music and media events is not new, most of these works have paid little or no attention to thepotential of interactive 3D virtual environments. Nor have they been so technologically advanced,interdisciplinary intensive (involving architecture, choreography, modern dance, music, bioengineering,medicine and computer science), or architecturally focused as the cyberPRINT.This project covers a wide and fertile territory that goes from the very technical and design oriented tothe very theoretical and interdisciplinary. This paper is intended to (1) expand what has been alreadypublished about this project (Bermudez et al 2000a) and (2) establish potential areas for discussionbefore and after the performance
series ACADIA
email bermudez@arch.utah.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id a04a
authors Bhavnani, S.K. and John, B.E.
year 1996
title Exploring the Unrealized Potential of Computer-Aided Drafting
source Proceedings of CHI'96 (1996), 332-339
summary Despite huge investments by vendors and users, CAD productivity remains disappointing. Our analysis of real- world CAD usage shows that even after many years of experience, users tend to use suboptimal strategies to perform complex CAD tasks. Additionally, some of these strategies have a marked resemblance to manual drafting techniques. Although this phenomenon has been previously reported, this paper explores explanations for its causes and persistence. We argue that the strategic knowledge to use CAD effectively is neither defined nor explicitly taught. In the absence of a well-formed strategy, users often develop a synthetic mental model of CAD containing a mixture of manual and CAD methods. As these suboptimal strategies do not necessarily prevent users from producing clean, accurate drawings, the inefficiencies tend to remain unrecognized and users have little motivation to develop better strategies. To reverse this situation we recommend that the strategic knowledge to use CAD effectively should be made explicit and provided early in training. We use our analysis to begin the process of making this strategic knowledge explicit. We conclude by discussing the ramifications of this research in training as well as in the development of future computer aids for drawing and design.
keywords Task Decomposition; Learning
series other
email bhavnani@umich.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id f8f7
id f8f7
authors Bhzad Sidawi
year 2003
title The pattern of Internet use for information management by architectural practices in the UK
source Cardiff University, Welsh School of Architecture Cardiff, UK
summary In recent history, architects have experienced problems related to the use and management of new innovations. The Internet presents one such challenge. It offers considerable expansion in types of communication and sources of business information and connects people and businesses around the globe. As is argued in this research, these services could play a positive role in architectural practice. This research examines the use of the Internet by architectural practices in UK in order to reveal how aware they are of the opportunities it presents, the extent to which they are taking advantage of them, and the problems they are experiencing. A field study was conducted of two types of practices: RIBA private practices and local authority practices. A number of research tools were used to inspect how these practices are using the Internet to manage various types of information that used and produced in the practice, namely: the acquisition of web information, the exchange of the practice’s information through the web and the presentation of the practice’s information on the web. Explanations for the results were sought by correlating variables from the questionnaire study, using simple statistical tests. The field study shows that many Internet services are unpopular among architects, and that practices have problems in adopting and using the technology. The pace at which the Internet is being absorbed and accepted by practices is slow. The study suggests that possible causes are: the little knowledge of users’ about IT, the poor resources of the practice, and old or imperfect Internet installations and the absence of the Internet support to the architect’s activities. The research argues that there are a number of links between these negative factors which make the practice unable to utilize the Internet and to manage the practice’s information through the Internet. To break these links, the research suggests that practices should adopt a specific management strategy to promote more utilization of Internet services in the office and to manage information. Practices need to make certain changes to the way they manage the Internet and work with it, if they plan to integrate the Internet more successfully into their practice. The research discusses techniques for improving practice management which would help practices to digest Internet technology and to use it more effectively in the practice.
keywords Internet, Architectural practices, Information management, Communications
series thesis:PhD
type normal paper
email sidawib@yahoo.com
last changed 2006/11/03 22:29

_id ecaade2008_051
id ecaade2008_051
authors Biao, Li; Rong, Li
year 2008
title Teaching of Generative Design and Its Profound Influence
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 77-84
summary The paper presents the teaching process inducting students who knew little about computer programming and concept of generative design originally into theoretically comprehend and ability of computer programming researcher of generative design. Meanwhile, some tools based on principle of ‘Complex Adaptive Systems’ are introduced in the paper.
keywords Complex Adaptive System, generative design
series eCAADe
email jz_studio@126.com, lr19710114@126.com
last changed 2008/09/09 13:55

_id 4687
authors Boekholt, J.T.
year 1993
title Evaluation First Year Design Projects
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary During the first year students are taught that it is important to learn to evaluate their projects themselves. Therefore a checklist is introduced and explained over the year which can be used by the students to formulate their criteria, evaluation scales and weighting factors. The main aspects that are evaluated are utility, structural and manufacturing aspects. Only little attention during the first year is given to legal and economical aspects. Main goal is to develop a systematic and integrated approach towards the evaluation of design projects. The evaluation of the student is compared with the judgement of the teacher. Final marks are given by the teacher.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id sigradi2012_88
id sigradi2012_88
authors Borda, Adriane; Pires, Janice; de Vasconselos, Tássia Borges
year 2012
title O Desenho (didático) para o Insight [Drawing didactic for Insight]
source SIGraDi 2012 [Proceedings of the 16th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Brasil - Fortaleza 13-16 November 2012, pp. 277-280
summary Knowledge of geometric drawing, hitherto considered previous in the training context in architecture, has little emphasis in the school curriculum. In the context this work, were recognized approaches such as shape grammar, which explain design practices, unveiling relationships of the geometric form. It was also identified practices of the Gestalt, established under the modern architecture, which sought to stimulate the student to have insights to think about geometric structures implicit in the form. From these references and digital tools, it is demonstrated the types of concepts and some of the exercises that are being used for the configuration of an learning for the insight.
keywords Geometric drawing, insight, architectural design.
series SIGRADI
email tassiav.arq@gmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 2873
authors Brin, S. and Page, L.
year 1998
title The Anatomy of a Large-Scale Hypertextual Web Search Engine
source Computer Science Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA
summary In this paper, we present Google, a prototype of a large-scale search engine which makes heavy use of the structure present in hypertext. Google is designed to crawl and index the Web efficiently and produce much more satisfying search results than existing systems. The prototype with a full text and hyperlink database of at least 24 million pages is available at http://google.stanford.edu/ To engineer a search engine is a challenging task. Search engines index tens to hundreds of millions of web pages involving a comparable number of distinct terms. They answer tens of millions of queries every day. Despite the importance of large-scale search engines on the web, very little academic research has been done on them. Furthermore, due to rapid advance in technology and web proliferation, creating a web search engine today is very different from three years ago. This paper provides an in-depth description of our large-scale web search engine -- the first such detailed public description we know of to date. Apart from the problems of scaling traditional search techniques to data of this magnitude, there are new technical challenges involved with using the additional information present in hypertext to produce better search results. This paper addresses this question of how to build a practical large-scale system which can exploit the additional information present in hypertext. Also we look at the problem of how to effectively deal with uncontrolled hypertext collections where anyone can publish anything they want.
series other
email page@cs.stanford.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id b13d
authors Broek, J.J., Horváth, I., Smit, B. de, Lennings, A.F., Rusák, Z. and Vergeest, J.S.M.
year 2002
title Free-form thick layer object manufacturing technology for large-sized physical models
source Automation in Construction 11 (3) (2002) pp. 335-347
summary Large-sized free-form objects of different materials are widely used in various industrial applications. Currently, layered rapid prototyping technologies are not suitable for the fabrication of this kind of objects, due to the necessity of a large number of layers and the limitations in size. This paper reports a novel approach of layered manufacturing that is more appropriate for the fabrication of these large objects. A method of thick-layered object manufacturing is presented, which is based on a higher order approximation of the shape and application of a flexible curved cutting tool. The method allows the production of physical prototypes, which need little or no finishing. In order to meet the designer's intend, as closely as possible, some feasible system characteristics are introduced. The process is ordered in a sequential way and provides a highly automated process. A hierarchical decomposition of the CAD geometry takes place into components, segments, layers and sectors, based on morphological analysis. This method enables the manufacturing and the re-assembly of the parts to produce the physical prototypes without affecting the requested functionality. Due to the possibility of obtaining multiple solutions in the physical model, much attention must be paid to the efficiency of the process.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

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