CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id f9f4
authors Cook, R.L., Porter, Th. and Carpenter, L.
year 1984
title Distributed Ray Tracing
source Computer Graphics, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 137145, July 1984. SIGGRAPH '84 Proceedings
summary Ray tracing is one of the most elegant techniques in computer graphics. Many phenomena that are difficult or impossible with other techniques are simple with ray tracing, including shadows, reflections, and refracted light. Ray directions, however, have been determined precisely, and this has limited the capabilities of ray tracing. By distributing the directions of the rays according to the analytic function they sample, ray tracing can incorporate fuzzy phenomena. This provides correct and easy solutions to some previously unsolved or partially solved problems, including motion blur, depth of field, penumbras, translucency, and fuzzy reflections. Motion blur and depth of field calculations can be integrated with the visible surface calculations, avoiding the problems found in previous methods.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id cf2009_poster_09
id cf2009_poster_09
authors Hsu, Yin-Cheng
year 2009
title Lego Free-Form? Towards a Modularized Free-Form Construction
source T. Tidafi and T. Dorta (eds) Joining Languages Cultures and Visions: CAADFutures 2009 CD-Rom
summary Design Media is the tool designers use for concept realization (Schon and Wiggins, 1992; Liu, 1996). Design thinking of designers is deeply effected by the media they tend to use (Zevi, 1981; Liu, 1996; Lim, 2003). Historically, architecture is influenced by the design media that were available within that era (Liu, 1996; Porter and Neale, 2000; Smith, 2004). From the 2D plans first used in ancient egypt, to the 3D physical models that came about during the Renaissance period, architecture reflects the media used for design. When breakthroughs in CAD/CAM technologies were brought to the world in the twentieth century, new possibilities opened up for architects.
keywords CAD/CAM free-form construction, modularization
series CAAD Futures
type poster
last changed 2009/07/08 20:12

_id 2ccd
authors Kalisperis, Loukas N.
year 1994
title 3D Visualization in Design Education
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 177-184
summary It has been said that "The beginning of architecture is empty space." (Mitchell 1990) This statement typifies a design education philosophy in which the concepts of space and form are separated and defined respectively as the negative and positive of the physical world, a world where solid objects exist and void-the mere absence of substance-is a surrounding atmospheric emptiness. Since the beginning of the nineteenth century, however, there has been an alternative concept of space as a continuum: that there is a continuously modified surface between the pressures of form and space in which the shape of the space in our lungs is directly connected to the shape of the space within which we exist. (Porter 1979). The nature of the task of representing architecture alters to reflect the state of architectural understanding at each period of time. The construction of architectural space and form represents a fundamental achievement of humans in their environment and has always involved effort and materials requiring careful planning, preparation, and forethought. In architecture there is a necessary conversion to that which is habitable, experiential, and functional from an abstraction in an entirely different medium. It is often an imperfect procedure that centers on the translation rather than the actual design. Design of the built environment is an art of distinctions within the continuum of space, for example: between solid and void, interior and exterior, light and dark, or warm and cold. It is concerned with the physical organization and articulation of space. The amount and shape of the void contained and generated by the building create the fabric and substance of the built environment. Architecture as a design discipline, therefore, can be considered as a creative expression of the coexistence of form and space on a human scale. As Frank Ching writes in Architecture: Form, Space, and Order, "These elements of form and space are the critical means of architecture. While the utilitarian concerns of function and use can be relatively short lived, and symbolic interpretations can vary from age to age, these primary elements of form and space comprise timeless and fundamental vocabulary of the architectural designer." (1979)

series ACADIA
last changed 2000/03/13 19:27

_id 0d7d
authors Lefebvre, Olivier
year 2003
title The glocal as a challenge for local actors having plans for the future
source CORP 2003, Vienna University of Technology, 25.2.-28.2.2003 [Proceedings on CD-Rom]
summary About the glocal very much has been said by Michael Porter . According to this author, in some countries there is a competitive advantage, in some industry . It is explained by a « diamond » with four facets : competition and rivalry inside the country, factors endowment, demand, related industries (providers, firms selling components etc … ) . The competitive advantage appears when the facets are efficient, and stimulating one another, in a country. Then the firms of this country invest abroad, to benefit from thecompetitive advantage, grabing market shares and making profits . The country itself is the place of the competitive advantage . Theinternational market is the place of the challenge, where the result of the competition appears .
series other
last changed 2003/03/11 19:39

_id caadria2007_519
id caadria2007_519
authors Porter, David; Raid Hanna
year 2007
title An Empirical Investigation into the Influence of Media Types on Design Cognition and Methodologies
source CAADRIA 2007 [Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Nanjing (China) 19-21 April 2007
summary This paper reports on the findings of an empirical investigation into the impact of different media on design methodology. The statistical sample included 49 fourth year architecture students, divided into three groups: the drawing group, the physical model group and the computer group. They were given a problem of designing a façade in an urban context in Glasgow over a two week period. The design process of each group was monitored over that period through observations, recordings and attitude measurement via a questionnaire survey. The results were analysed using the Statistical Programme for Social Sciences (SPSS). The dendrograms from cluster analysis revealed that there were well established perceptual dimensions, or clusters, for the façade’s design variables within the three groups because of using different media. The impact of media on design creativity, both as a process and a product, was investigated. All three media types yielded a positive correlation between ‘media made design decisions more creative’ and ‘media made design scheme more creative’- with a correlation coefficient of 0.708 which was significant at the 0.01 level, p<0.05.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2008/06/16 08:48

_id 1f66
authors Porter, T. and Duff, T.
year 1984
title Compositing digital images
source Computer Graphics (USA), vol. 18, pp. 253-259, July 1984
summary This class is designed to provide digital imaging instruction covering normalization and other basics of digital image compositing.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 5a62
authors Porter, T.
year 1997
title The Architect's Eye: Visualisation and depiction of space in arc_itecture
source London, E & FN Spon
summary Contributed by Susan Pietsch (
keywords 3D City Modeling, Development Control, Design Control
series other
last changed 2001/06/04 18:41

_id 1d60
authors Porter, William L. and Goldschmidt, Gabriela
year 2001
title Design representation
source Automation in Construction 10 (6) (2001) pp. 659-661
summary This issue of AIC contains a different subset of articles from DTRS ’99 than those contained in Design Studies. These are more oriented to the AIC readership and are directly concerned with the relationship between representation and formalization to harness the computer for the purposes of the designer.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id a875
authors Suwa, M., Gero, J.S. and Purcell, T.
year 1999
title How an Architect Created Design Requirements
source G. Goldschmidt and W. Porter (eds), Design Thinking Research Symposium: Design Representation, MIT, Cambridge, pp. II.101-124
summary There is an anecdotal view that designers, during a conceptual design process, not just synthesise solutions that satisfy initially given requirements, but also create by themselves novel design requirements that capture important aspects of the given problem. Further, it is believed that design sketches serve as a thinking tool for designers to do this. Then, what kinds of cognitive interaction with their own sketches enable designers to create novel requirements? The purpose of this paper is to answer this question. We examined the cognitive processes of a practising architect, using a protocol analysis technique. Our examinations focused on whether particular types of cognitive actions account for the creation of novel design requirements. We found that intensive occurrences of a certain type of perceptual actions, acts of establishing new relations or visual features on the sketches, are likely to co-occur with the creation of requirements. This suggests that this type of perceptual actions are the key constituent of acts of creating novel requirements, and therefore one of the important actions in sketching activities. This presents evidence of the view that designing is a situated act, as well as has an implication for design education.
keywords Design Requirements; Sketches; Design Cognition; Protocol Analysis
series journal paper
last changed 2003/03/31 06:37

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