CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 6966
authors Chuah, M.C., Roth, S.F., Kolojejchick, J., Mattis, J. and Juarez, O.
year 1995
title SageBook: Searching data-graphics by content
source Proceedings of CHI , ACM Press
summary Currently, there are many hypertext-like tools and database retrieval systems that use keyword search as a means of navigation. While useful for certain tasks, keyword search is insufficient for browsing databases of data-graphics. SageBook is a system that searches among existing data-graphics, so that they can be reused with new data. In order to fulfill the needs of retrieval and reuse, it provides: 1) a direct manipulation, graphical query interface; 2) a content description language that can express important relationships for retrieving data-graphics; 3) automatic description of stored data-graphics based on their content; 4) search techniques sensitive to the structure and similarity among data-graphics; 5) manual and automatic adaptation tools for altering data-graphics so that they can be reused with new data.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 64bf
authors Chuah, M.C., Roth, S.F., Mattis, J., and Kolojejchick, J.A.
year 1995
title SDM: Selective Dynamic Manipulation of Visualizations
source Proceedings of UIST‘95, ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, Pittsburg. 61-70
summary In this paper we present a new set of interactive techniques for 2D and 3D visualizations. This set of techniques is called SDM (Selective Dynamic Manipulation). Selective, indicating our goal for providing a high degree of user control in selecting an object set, in selecting interactive techniques and the properties they affect, and in the degree to which a user action affects the visualization. Dynamic, indicating that the interactions all occur in real-time and that interactive animation is used to provide better contextual information to users in response to an action or operation. Manipulation, indicating the types of interactions we provide, where users can directly move objects and transform their appearance to perform different tasks. While many other approaches only provide interactive techniques in isolation, SDM supports a suite of techniques which users can combine to solve a wide variety of problems.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 78ca
authors Friedland, P. (Ed.)
year 1985
title Special Section on Architectures for Knowledge-Based Systems
source CACM (28), 9, September
summary A fundamental shift in the preferred approach to building applied artificial intelligence (AI) systems has taken place since the late 1960s. Previous work focused on the construction of general-purpose intelligent systems; the emphasis was on powerful inference methods that could function efficiently even when the available domain-specific knowledge was relatively meager. Today the emphasis is on the role of specific and detailed knowledge, rather than on reasoning methods.The first successful application of this method, which goes by the name of knowledge-based or expert-system research, was the DENDRAL program at Stanford, a long-term collaboration between chemists and computer scientists for automating the determination of molecular structure from empirical formulas and mass spectral data. The key idea is that knowledge is power, for experts, be they human or machine, are often those who know more facts and heuristics about a domain than lesser problem solvers. The task of building an expert system, therefore, is predominantly one of teaching" a system enough of these facts and heuristics to enable it to perform competently in a particular problem-solving context. Such a collection of facts and heuristics is commonly called a knowledge base. Knowledge-based systems are still dependent on inference methods that perform reasoning on the knowledge base, but experience has shown that simple inference methods like generate and test, backward-chaining, and forward-chaining are very effective in a wide variety of problem domains when they are coupled with powerful knowledge bases. If this methodology remains preeminent, then the task of constructing knowledge bases becomes the rate-limiting factor in expert-system development. Indeed, a major portion of the applied AI research in the last decade has been directed at developing techniques and tools for knowledge representation. We are now in the third generation of such efforts. The first generation was marked by the development of enhanced AI languages like Interlisp and PROLOG. The second generation saw the development of knowledge representation tools at AI research institutions; Stanford, for instance, produced EMYCIN, The Unit System, and MRS. The third generation is now producing fully supported commercial tools like KEE and S.1. Each generation has seen a substantial decrease in the amount of time needed to build significant expert systems. Ten years ago prototype systems commonly took on the order of two years to show proof of concept; today such systems are routinely built in a few months. Three basic methodologies-frames, rules, and logic-have emerged to support the complex task of storing human knowledge in an expert system. Each of the articles in this Special Section describes and illustrates one of these methodologies. "The Role of Frame-Based Representation in Reasoning," by Richard Fikes and Tom Kehler, describes an object-centered view of knowledge representation, whereby all knowldge is partitioned into discrete structures (frames) having individual properties (slots). Frames can be used to represent broad concepts, classes of objects, or individual instances or components of objects. They are joined together in an inheritance hierarchy that provides for the transmission of common properties among the frames without multiple specification of those properties. The authors use the KEE knowledge representation and manipulation tool to illustrate the characteristics of frame-based representation for a variety of domain examples. They also show how frame-based systems can be used to incorporate a range of inference methods common to both logic and rule-based systems.""Rule-Based Systems," by Frederick Hayes-Roth, chronicles the history and describes the implementation of production rules as a framework for knowledge representation. In essence, production rules use IF conditions THEN conclusions and IF conditions THEN actions structures to construct a knowledge base. The autor catalogs a wide range of applications for which this methodology has proved natural and (at least partially) successful for replicating intelligent behavior. The article also surveys some already-available computational tools for facilitating the construction of rule-based knowledge bases and discusses the inference methods (particularly backward- and forward-chaining) that are provided as part of these tools. The article concludes with a consideration of the future improvement and expansion of such tools.The third article, "Logic Programming, " by Michael Genesereth and Matthew Ginsberg, provides a tutorial introduction to the formal method of programming by description in the predicate calculus. Unlike traditional programming, which emphasizes how computations are to be performed, logic programming focuses on the what of objects and their behavior. The article illustrates the ease with which incremental additions can be made to a logic-oriented knowledge base, as well as the automatic facilities for inference (through theorem proving) and explanation that result from such formal descriptions. A practical example of diagnosis of digital device malfunctions is used to show how significantand complex problems can be represented in the formalism.A note to the reader who may infer that the AI community is being split into competing camps by these three methodologies: Although each provides advantages in certain specific domains (logic where the domain can be readily axiomatized and where complete causal models are available, rules where most of the knowledge can be conveniently expressed as experiential heuristics, and frames where complex structural descriptions are necessary to adequately describe the domain), the current view is one of synthesis rather than exclusivity. Both logic and rule-based systems commonly incorporate frame-like structures to facilitate the representation of large amounts of factual information, and frame-based systems like KEE allow both production rules and predicate calculus statements to be stored within and activated from frames to do inference. The next generation of knowledge representation tools may even help users to select appropriate methodologies for each particular class of knowledge, and then automatically integrate the various methodologies so selected into a consistent framework for knowledge. "
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 2156
authors Hashimshony, Rivka, Roth, J. and Wachman, A.
year 1986
title A Model for Generating Floor-Plans in Multi-Story Buildings
source International Journal of Design Computing. April, 1986. vol. 1: pp. 136-157 : ill. includes bibliography
summary A graph-theoretic method for computer generation of rectangular floor plans for multi-story buildings is outlined. The problem formulation takes account of adjacency requirements of rooms, dimensional constraints, and the need for vertical alignments of elements such as stairs and elevators. The solution method is to first turn the required adjacencies graph into a layout graph by adding edges, then color and direct the layout graph, cut the colored directed graph into two subgraphs, and finally use the PERT technique to dimension the plan. An example problem of design of a medical clinic is formulated and solved using this method
keywords space allocation, architecture, CAD, floor plans, synthesis, graphs, dimensioning
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 8d5e
authors Hayes-Roth, Frederick, Waterman, Donald A. and Lenat, Douglas B. (editors)
year 1983
title Building Expert System
source vii, 444 p. : ill
summary Reading,Mass.: Addison-Wesley Pub., 1983. 1: include bibliography: p. 405-420 -- (Teknowledge Series in Knowledge Engineering. Hayes-Roth, Frederick, series editor). This book is a collaboration of 38 expert system researchers and developers. It provides a broad introduction to the concepts and methods necessary for an understanding of how these systems work
keywords AI, expert systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id c8a6
authors Hayes-Roth, Frederick
year 1985
title Rule-Based Systems
source Communications of the ACM. September, 1985. vol. 28: pp. 921-932 : ill. includes bibliography
summary An overview of rule-based systems, the best currently available means for codifying the problem-solving know-how of human experts
keywords AI, knowledge, representation, expert systems
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id a2b9
authors Helsel, S.K. and Roth, J.P.
year 1990
title Virtual Reality, theory, practice and promise
source Meckler, London
summary On the creation of highly interactive, computer-based multimedia environments in which the user becomes a participant with the computer in a "virtually real" world. Essentially, the volume is a republication of articles published in the summer 1990 issue of Multimedia review, plus an additional previously unpublished article on metaphysics, a directory of companies and individuals working with virtual reality concepts and technology, and a suggested readings list.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 6499
authors Lintl, C., Economides, D., Hesse, M., Langenbahn, V., Roth, S. and Brack, C.
year 1993
title CAD Education at Munich
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary We are stressing the idea that a combination of learning CAD and developing a design- work will hardly lead to success. It is first important to learn the principle handling of CAD - only then a reasonable application can work out. Our pupils have the chance of comparing, Iearning and working on several different CAD-systems with different philosophies and purposes, so the interested students have the opportunity to choose a tool that fits their working-habits and their designing-methods. Out of an overall number of 200 students of architecture each semester about 150 are willing to participate in the CAD- curriculum. 100 will be left after the low-level introductions and exercises, done with the standard: AutoCAD - these students than have a basic idea of construction with computers. Those students who are going into details are deepening there skills to an extent where any experiment is feasible. It is hard work to get to this perfection.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/24 08:28

_id a771
authors Roth, J., Hashimshony, R. and Ishai, E.
year 1986
title Using the Computer as a Teaching Aid for Architecture Students - Some Examples
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 127-135
summary The use of computers has become part of the regular curriculum in many schools of Architecture in the last few years. In addition to specific courses related to basic computer knowledge (e.g.: programming), the computer's main application is in the design studio for evaluating alternatives (e.g.: GOAL, GABLE), or as a drafting aid (e.g.: BIBLE AUTOCAD, ARC+). We believe that using the computer as a regular part of the teaching in all the courses is of great importance. In this paper we present three examples in which the computer was used as a teaching aid in courses not related to the design studio: "Morphology" and "Introduction to lnterior Design".

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:08

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