CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 00ae
id 00ae
authors Ataman, Osman
year 1995
title Building A Computer Aid for Teaching Architectural Design Concepts
source Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-04-7] University of Washington (Seattle, Washington / USA) October 19-22, 1995, pp. 187-208
summary Building an aid for teaching architectural design concepts is the process of elaborating topics, defining problems and suggesting to the students strategies for solving those problems. I believe students in Environment and Behavior (E&B) courses at Georgia Tech can benefit greatly from a computer based educational tool designed to provide them with experiences they currently do not possess. In particular, little time in the course (outside lectures) is devoted to applying concepts taught in the course to the studio projects. The tool I am proposing provides students with an opportunity to critique architectural environments (both simple examples and previous projects) using a single concept, "affordances". This paper describes my current progress toward realizing the goal of designing a tool that will help the students to understand particular concepts and to integrate them into their designs. It is my claim that an integrative and interactive approach - creating a learning environment and making both the students and the environment mutually supportive- is fundamentally more powerful than traditional educational methods.

series ACADIA
last changed 2003/12/20 04:41

_id ecaade2015_215
id ecaade2015_215
authors Balakrishnan, Bimal and Oprean, Danielle
year 2015
title Communication, Coordination and Collaboration: Media affordances and Team Performance in a Collaborative Design Environment
source Martens, B, Wurzer, G, Grasl T, Lorenz, WE and Schaffranek, R (eds.), Real Time - Proceedings of the 33rd eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 16-18 September 2015, pp. 225-232
summary Advances in digital media are encouraging designers to adopt digital tools during early stages of design ideation as well as to facilitate collaboration in design teams. Collaborative environments for design teams should take into consideration both the multimodal nature of design representation as well as the complexity of team cognition. Collaborative tools that take a “black-box” approach often limit affordances for design ideation and collaboration. We describe here a collaborative environment that we put together using a kit-of-parts approach and underlying theoretical considerations. We also describe systematic usability evaluation of the collaborative environment by constraining select media affordances and qualitatively examining the impact on a team's design process. Preliminary findings were used to improve the environment and lay the groundwork for developing tele-collaborative environments.
wos WOS:000372316000027
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id acadiaregional2011_023
id acadiaregional2011_023
authors Barrios, Carlos
year 2011
title Parametric Affordances: What? When? How?
source Parametricism (SPC) ACADIA Regional 2011 Conference Proceedings
summary Parametric Affordances presents a theoretical framework for development, use and implementation of parametric models in a design setting. This paper presents fundamental background theoretical concepts and proposes an approach to separate tasks and actions of the design process in different kinds of parametric models to take advantage of them.
series ACADIA
last changed 2011/07/08 09:17

_id acadia17_164
id acadia17_164
authors Brugnaro, Giulio; Hanna, Sean
year 2017
title Adaptive Robotic Training Methods for Subtractive Manufacturing
source ACADIA 2017: DISCIPLINES & DISRUPTION [Proceedings of the 37th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-96506-1] Cambridge, MA 2-4 November, 2017), pp. 164-169
summary This paper presents the initial developments of a method to train an adaptive robotic system for subtractive manufacturing with timber, based on sensor feedback, machine-learning procedures and material explorations. The methods were evaluated in a series of tests where the trained networks were successfully used to predict fabrication parameters for simple cutting operations with chisels and gouges. The results suggest potential benefits for non-standard fabrication methods and a more effective use of material affordances.
keywords design methods; information processing; construction; robotics; ai & machine learning; digital craft; manual craft
series ACADIA
last changed 2017/10/17 09:12

_id ecaade2016_118
id ecaade2016_118
authors Cannaerts, Corneel
year 2016
title Coding as Creative Practice
source Herneoja, Aulikki; Toni Österlund and Piia Markkanen (eds.), Complexity & Simplicity - Proceedings of the 34th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, 22-26 August 2016, pp. 397-404
summary This paper looks into coding as a creative practice within architecture, more specifically into textual and graphical coding as a practitioner during the design process. It argues that coding is not a mere tool for designing but a particular design medium, with its own affordances and resistances. Using code as a design medium provides a specific form of feedback, it influences the design process and its outcomes. Code is a technological and conceptual support for design thinking. In other words, code and coding can be ascribed agency in architectural design. This research is based on a number of cases from design practice and teaching, ranging from small design experiments, developing software tools for specific design projects and teaching workshops. The cases are grouped into three metaphors, each describing a particular aspect of coding as a design medium.
wos WOS:000402063700044
keywords coding; sketching; tooling; structuring
series eCAADe
last changed 2017/06/28 08:46

_id ecaade2017_061
id ecaade2017_061
authors Castellari, Dario and Erioli, Alessio
year 2017
title Hydroassemblies - Unit-based system for the symbiosis of urban spaces and greeneries through hydraulic driven tectonics
source Fioravanti, A, Cursi, S, Elahmar, S, Gargaro, S, Loffreda, G, Novembri, G, Trento, A (eds.), ShoCK! - Sharing Computational Knowledge! - Proceedings of the 35th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy, 20-22 September 2017, pp. 661-670
summary Hydroassemblies is a research thesis that investigates the architectural potential of a unit-based modular system that can recursively grow in space guided by hydrodynamic principles in order to generate intricate tectonic assemblies, integrating the roles of spatial articulator, water collector/distributor and plant cultivation substrate to foster a symbiotic relation with the urban environment. By implementing principles of circulatory systems in biology, the authors developed a system that grows through recursive formation of loops and articulates its tectonic via a continuous, interconnected branching network. The founding process improves upon a combinatorial algorithm of discrete parts, considering how iterative interactions at the local level have a feedback impact on the growth process at the whole system scale. The paper explores how features, spatial and perceptive qualities, affordances and opportunities emerge at the global scale of the formation from the interplay of local behavioral principles and environmental conditions. The provided implementation is a proof of concept of the production of complex qualities by means of massive quantities of simple elements and interactions.
keywords tectonics; combinatorics; unit-based system; branching network
series eCAADe
last changed 2017/09/13 13:21

_id caadria2013_072
id caadria2013_072
authors Christopher, Hannah; Srinivas Tadeppalli and G. Subbaiyan
year 2013
title Computer Aided Modular Geometric Modeling,to Study the Perception of Safety – Natural Surveillance for Perceived Personal Security
source Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2013) / Singapore 15-18 May 2013, pp. 761-770
summary Natural surveillance is one key factor proposed, in the approach to decrease fear of crime. Building fenestrations and outdoor spaces like terrace, balconies and verandas that extend the interior spaces and the indoor activities, beyond the closed external shell of the buildings, are proposed by CPTED, in their place specific policy guidelines, to help design out fear and crime. In this background, this study on natural surveillance opportunities, explores typological variations of these component outdoor spaces of buildings, in line with variations in size and location. The affordances considered for this study specifically focus on the ways in which these spaces structure the visual fields for the external observer. This paper thus reports the survey of visual preferences exploring the spatial affordances of building spaces and their association with fear of crime.  
wos WOS:000351496100079
keywords Natural surveillance, Typology, Fear of crime, Visibility analysis 
series CAADRIA
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id acadia13_025
id acadia13_025
authors Cordero Maisonet, Sixto; Smith, Austin
year 2013
title Responsive Expansion
source ACADIA 13: Adaptive Architecture [Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-1-926724-22-5] Cambridge 24-26 October, 2013), pp. 25-32
summary Although commonly considered problematic within the wider range of standardized isotropic construction materials, wood’s mechanical deficiencies are simultaneously an asset for the adventurous designer. These anisotropic and organic characteristics can be critically investigated, even exaggerated, with the possibility of productively yielding a complex and adaptive building material.Given wood’s fibrous make-up, as derived from its ecological function as an evaporative capillary system, wood as a material is predisposed to react to environmental and contextual fluctuations—moisture in particular. As a consequence of its cellular and chemical anatomy, wood—unlike other standard construction materials—will morphologically react to changes in moisture. This reactivity is derived from interactions such as rehydration and swelling at the cellular level which accumulate to induce formal transformations at the macro level. This responsiveness, when coupled with the affordances of industrial standardization, reframes wood within architecture as a reactive material capable of consistent transformation well-suited to parametric definition within computational modeling.
keywords Complex Systems: complex, adaptive, expansion, wood, material investigation, emergent and self-organizing systems
series ACADIA
type Normal Paper
last changed 2014/01/11 08:13

_id ecaade2017_002
id ecaade2017_002
authors Costa, Fábio, Eloy, Sara, Sales Dias, Miguel and Lopes, Mariana
year 2017
title ARch4models - A tool to augment physical scale models
source Fioravanti, A, Cursi, S, Elahmar, S, Gargaro, S, Loffreda, G, Novembri, G, Trento, A (eds.), ShoCK! - Sharing Computational Knowledge! - Proceedings of the 35th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy, 20-22 September 2017, pp. 711-718
summary This paper focus on the development and evaluation of a computer tool that enriches physical scale models of buildings, which are commonly used during architecture and civil engineering design processes. The main goal of this work is to enable designers, namely architects, to use the affordances of the physical scale models, by enhancing them with digital characteristics that can be easily changed, allowing an enriched interaction of the designer with such models. Our in-house developed Augmented Reality tool, referred to as ARch4models, augments the user experience with visual features and interactive capabilities, not possible to accomplish with physical models (see this video in The tool allows the coherent registration between the real and the digital in the same space. Satisfaction evaluation studies were conducted that have shown that ARch4models improves the building design process when compared with a traditional methodology employing solely physical scale models.
keywords augmented reality; architecture; physical scale model; 3D model; AEC design process
series eCAADe
last changed 2017/09/13 13:13

_id ecaade2014_233
id ecaade2014_233
authors Evangelos Pantazis and David Gerber
year 2014
title Material Swarm Articulations - New View Reciprocal Frame Canopy
source Thompson, Emine Mine (ed.), Fusion - Proceedings of the 32nd eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, UK, 10-12 September 2014, pp. 463-473
summary Material Swarm Articulations, is an experiment in developing a multi-objective optimization system that incorporates bottom up approaches for informing architectural design. The paper presents an initial built project that demonstrates the combination of a structural form finding method, with an agent based design system through the digital fabrication processes. The objective of this research is to develop a workflow combined with material and construction constraints that has the potential to increase performance objectives while enabling geometric complexity and design driven articulation of a traditional tectonic system. The emphasis of the research at this stage is to take advantage of material properties and assembly methods applied to a digital design and simulation workflow that enables emergent patterns to influence the performance of the space.The paper illustrates the research through a prototype of a self standing canopy structure in 1:1 scale. It presents results of the form finding, generative patterning, digital fabrication affordances and sets and agenda for next steps in the use of multi-agent systems for design purposes.
wos WOS:000361384700046
keywords Computational design; agent-based system; digital fabrication; parametric design; reciprocal frames; form finding; multi-objective optimization, multi-agent systems for design
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id acadia17_248
id acadia17_248
authors Felbrich, Benjamin; Fru?h, Nikolas; Prado, Marshall; Saffarian, Saman; Solly, James; Vasey, Lauren; Knippers, Jan; Menges, Achim
year 2017
title Multi-Machine Fabrication: An Integrative Design Process Utilising an Autonomous UAV and Industrial Robots for the Fabrication of Long-Span Composite Structures
source ACADIA 2017: DISCIPLINES & DISRUPTION [Proceedings of the 37th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-96506-1] Cambridge, MA 2-4 November, 2017), pp. 248-259
summary Fiber composite materials have tremendous potential in architectural applications due to their high strength-to-weight ratio and their ability to be formed into complex shapes. Novel fabrication processes can be based on the unique affordances and characteristics of fiber composites. Because these materials are lightweight and have high tensile strength, a radically different approach to fabrication becomes possible, which combines low-payload yet long-range machines—such as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV)—with strong, precise, yet limited-reach industrial robots. This collaborative concept enables a scalable fabrication setup for long-span fiber composite construction. This paper describes the integrated design process and design development of a large-scale cantilevering demonstrator, in which the fabrication setup, robotic constraints, material behavior, and structural performance were integrated in an iterative design process.
keywords material and construction; fabrication; construction; robotics
series ACADIA
last changed 2017/10/17 09:12

_id caadria2008_26_session3b_213
id caadria2008_26_session3b_213
authors Figen Gül, Leman
year 2008
title Affordances of Virtual environments Do design media change the interaction with the design representation?
source CAADRIA 2008 [Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Chiang Mai (Thailand) 9-12 April 2008, pp. 213-220
summary The paper focuses on characterising design environments and on identifying design behaviour in different collaborative virtual environments and discusses the behaviour change based on the affordances theory. In this paper, we present two designers collaborating over three different design environments and report a comparison of those environments with face-to-face (FTF) sketching, using protocol analysis. The analysis of the protocol shows that different virtual environments provide different affordances.
keywords Affordances, collaborative virtual environments, design collaboration, protocol analysis
series CAADRIA
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id diss_fox
id diss_fox
authors Fox, M.A.
year 1996
title Novel Affordances of Computation to the Design Process of Kinetic Structures
source Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA
summary This paper is a discourse into the relationship between the process, computational tools and the role which symbolic structure can play in both. I argue the relationship of the process and tools is dialectic, whereby the tools we utilize in design develop new heuristics, the methodologies in turn, if reflectively understood, can be more aptly facilitated through the development of novel tools. The tools and the process then evolve together. A theory is laid out exploring the human visual information processing systems pertinence to the limitations in mental three-dimensional imaging and transformation operations as relevant to the operations of drawing and mental visualization within the architectural design processes, substantiating the designers necessity to draw (by traditional means, but more importantly here, through the inclusive integration of CAD within the process). The necessity to draw is explored as a representational process to the visual system as predicated upon the existence of a structured internal library of diagram-like representations in our heads. I argue that the ways we utilize such idiosyncratic libraries is predicated upon the ways in which we go about structuring the perceived experienced world around us into symbol systems. And finally, the ways we utilize our reflective understanding of the heuristic transformations of these symbols within the design process in the context of a CAD environment are explored as a means to an enhanced understanding of that which is being designed and consequently as a vehicle for the development of future CAD systems to better facilitate such methodologies of designing. A personal design process of several kinetic structures is carried out in order to arrive at a localized process analysis within computer-aided design environment. Through an interactive, reflective process analysis, conclusions are drawn as to the affordances and limitations of such tools as suggestive of the operations a CAD environment might perform so as to better foster future methodologies of designing. The design experiments are utilized as a vehicle to understand the process. Specifically three kinetic projects are exploited for the prototypical operations they display. When difficulties or mental limitations are encountered with the operations, specific tools are developed to facilitate the limitation or to overcome the problem.
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2003/11/28 06:35

_id acadia12_67
id acadia12_67
authors Gerber, Dr. David Jason ; Lin, Shih-Hsin
year 2012
title Synthesizing Design Performance: An Evolutionary Approach to Multidisciplinary Design Search
source ACADIA 12: Synthetic Digital Ecologies [Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-1-62407-267-3] San Francisco 18-21 October, 2012), pp. 67-75
summary Design is a goal oriented decision-making activity. Design is ill defined and requiring of synthetic approaches to weighing and understanding tradeoffs amongst soft and hard objectives, and the imprecise and or computationally explicit criteria and goals. In this regard designers in contemporary practice face a crisis of sorts. How do we achieve performance under large degrees of uncertainty and limited design cycle time? How do we better design for integrating performance? Fundamentally design teams, are not typically given enough time nor the best tools to design explore, to generate design alternatives, and then evolve solution quality to search for best fit through expansive design solution spaces. Given the complex criteria for defining performance in architecture our research approach experiments upon an evolutionary and integrative computational strategy to expand the solution space of a design problem as well as pre-sort and qualify candidate designs. We present technology and methodology that supports rapid development of design problem solution spaces in which three design domains objectives have multi-directional impact on each other. The research describes the use of an evolutionary approach in which a genetic algorithm is used as a means to automate the design alternative population as well as to facilitate multidisciplinary design domain optimization. The paper provides a technical description of the prototype design, one that integrates associative parametric modeling with an energy use intensity evaluation and with a financial pro forma. The initial results of the research are presented and analyzed including impacts on design process; the impacts on design uncertainty and design cycle latency; and the affordances for ‘designing-in’ performance and managing project complexity. A summary discussion is developed which describes a future cloud implementation and the future extensions into other domains, scales, tectonic and system detail.
keywords Parametric Design , Domain Integration , Design Methods , Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) , Evolutionary Algorithms , Design Decision Support , Generative Design
series ACADIA
type normal paper
last changed 2013/01/09 10:06

_id ecaadesigradi2019_124
id ecaadesigradi2019_124
authors Ham, Jeremy, Woessner, Uwe, Kieferle, Joachim and Harvey, Lawrence
year 2019
title Exploring the Affordances and Musico-Spatial Performance Opportunities of a Virtual Drumming Environment
source Sousa, JP, Xavier, JP and Castro Henriques, G (eds.), Architecture in the Age of the 4th Industrial Revolution - Proceedings of the 37th eCAADe and 23rd SIGraDi Conference - Volume 2, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal, 11-13 September 2019, pp. 441-448
summary The intersection of music and architecture (spatial design) has remained a fascination for practitioners and researchers for many years. This paper reports on the development of a Virtual Drumming Environment (VDE) that provides a research and cross-domain performance environment for musico-spatial design research explorations.The VDE is explored as a means of revealing affordances related to the complexities of polyrhythmic drumming through cross-domain representation of MIDI data as polyrhythmic event-time-dynamics molecules (PM) within virtual space. Further to this, we explore the VDE as a cross-domain performance environment where new modes of musico-spatial improvisation are revealed that extend drumming's 'known worlds' (Bruford, 2015).
keywords Music and Architecture; Cross-Domain Representation; Virtual Reality; Musico-Spatial performance; Affordance
series eCAADeSIGraDi
last changed 2019/08/26 20:26

_id ecaade2011_052
id ecaade2011_052
authors Hamadah, Qutaibah
year 2011
title The Polymorphic Diagram
source RESPECTING FRAGILE PLACES [29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-9-4912070-1-3], University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture (Slovenia) 21-24 September 2011, pp.318-324
summary Thinking about space and its conception lies at the very essence of architectural design, yet only limited attention has been afforded towards developing and advancing its medium of conception. With the objective of better understanding and shaping spatial design workflows, the study sets its attention on what is widely embraced as the medium of thinking about space and its conception in architectural design: The diagram. The study begins with examining the cognitive affordances of the diagram in architecture design, discusses its limitation, then propose a computational-augmented concept for a new class of diagrams, the polymorphic diagram, to assist spatial thinking and cognition during the conceptual design phase.
wos WOS:000335665500036
keywords Design; Diagram; Spatial Thinking, Design Cognition; Computation
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id caadria2018_010
id caadria2018_010
authors Han, Lu and Cardoso Llach, Daniel
year 2018
title Ludi: A Concurrent Physical and Digital Modeling Environment
source T. Fukuda, W. Huang, P. Janssen, K. Crolla, S. Alhadidi (eds.), Learning, Adapting and Prototyping - Proceedings of the 23rd CAADRIA Conference - Volume 1, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, 17-19 May 2018, pp. 515-523
summary This paper explores the potential of a concurrent physical and digital modeling environment. We describe a prototype for a novel design modeling interface where users can take advantage of the affordances of both physical and digital modeling environments, and work back and forth between the two. Using Processing, along with the Kinect depth sensor, the system uses depth data read from a physical modeling space to produce an enhanced digital representation in real time. Users can design by moving and stacking wooden blocks in a physical space, which is represented (and enhanced) digitally as a "voxel space," which can in turn be edited digitally. The result is a proof-of-concept concurrent physical and digital modeling environment combining design affordances specific to each media: the physical space offers tactile and embodied forms of design inter-action, and the digital space offers parametric editing capabilities, along with the capacity to view the modeling space from different perspectives, and perform basic analyses on designs. Following a brief review of experimental computational and tangible interaction design interfaces, the paper discusses the system's implementation, its limitations, and future steps.
keywords Computational Design; Processing; Concurrent Modeling Environment; Tangible Interaction
series CAADRIA
last changed 2018/05/17 07:08

_id caadria2018_270
id caadria2018_270
authors Houda, Maryam and Reinhardt, Dagmar
year 2018
title Structural Optimisation for 3D Printing Bespoke Geometries
source T. Fukuda, W. Huang, P. Janssen, K. Crolla, S. Alhadidi (eds.), Learning, Adapting and Prototyping - Proceedings of the 23rd CAADRIA Conference - Volume 1, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, 17-19 May 2018, pp. 235-244
summary Current advances in 3D printing technology enable novel design explorations with the potential to inform printing deposition through generative scripting and structural performance analysis. This paper presents ongoing research that involves three scales of operation; a global geometry for multi-skin cellular mesh densities; localised skin-porosity detailing, and material structural optimisation. Centering on a chair as a test case scenario, the research explores the affordances of a serialised, multi-material 3D printing process in the context of digital instruction, customisation, and material efficiency. The paper discusses two case studies with consecutive optimisation, and outlines the benefits and limitations of 3D printing for structural optimisation and multi-material grading in the additive process.
keywords 3D Printing; Bespoke Complexity; Digital Instruction; Mass Customisation; Multi-Material Grading; Robotic Deposition; Structural Optimisation
series CAADRIA
last changed 2018/05/17 07:07

_id 8d90
authors Johnson, Brian R.
year 2000
title Between Friends: Support of Workgroup Communications
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 41-49
summary The web offers both business and academic users potential benefits from on-line collaboration. Online education presents universities with a means of handling the “baby boom echo” without expanding physical campuses (Carnevale 2000). Business “extranets” allow greater coordination amongst team members on projects where the cast of players involves experts in different locations. Both involve substituting computer-mediated communications (CMC) for traditionally face-to-face communications. Over the past several years, the author has deployed several of the available CMC technologies in support of small group interaction in academic and administrative settings. These technologies include email, video conferencing, web publication, web bulletin boards, web databases, mailing lists, and hybrid web BBS/email combinations. This paper reflects on aspects of embodied human interaction and the affordances of current CMC technology, identifying opportunities for both exploitation and additional development. One important but under-supported aspect of work group behavior is workspace awareness, or peripheral monitoring. The Compadres web-based system, which was developed to support workspace awareness among distributed workgroup members, is described. These findings are relevant to those seeking to create online communities: virtual design studios, community groups, distributed governance organizations, and workgroups formed as parts of virtual offices.
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/08/03 05:50

_id ecaade03_653_144_koutamanis
id ecaade03_653_144_koutamanis
authors Koutamanis, Alexander and Steijns, Yolanda
year 2003
title Types and precedents in design guidance
source Digital Design [21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-1-6] Graz (Austria) 17-20 September 2003, pp. 653-658
summary In recent years Dutch secondary education has been undergoing a fundamental change due to the introduction of new didactic approaches which relate strongly to ongoing social and technological developments. This affects existing school buildings, the majority of which is quite conventional in spatial terms and is characterized by limited flexibility and transformability. Consequently, most schools require extensive modifications in their spatial and building structure. The requirements underlying these modifications are not stable. Many schools have become interested in experimental ideas that may require inevitably further changes in the buildings. The paper considers the continuous transformation of Dutch school buildings with respect to their typology: by correlating new design briefs to building types rather than their instances we arrive at general guidelines that can be easily adapted to specific cases. To achieve this, the types are analysed with respect to geometry, topology and zoning. The results of the analysis describe the affordances of each type in terms of general flexibility, transformability and adaptability, as well as in relation to generic briefs. They also provide an explanation of the historical evolution of the types and the means for relating primary characteristics to local configurations, thereby allowing the accurate description of hybrid instances. The descriptions and analysis of buildings are organized into a polyhierarchical multilevel database that supports typological abstraction and offers several starting points (at various abstraction levels) for matching a new brief to an existing building. This enriches the development of the brief or a design solution with explicit, specific information derived from concrete precedents with known form, structure, behaviour and performance.
keywords Typology, precedence, case-based design, briefing, design information systems
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/09/18 07:13

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